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Old Monday, November 02, 2009
amubarak amubarak is offline
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@ Nageen, thank you for uploading the notes.

For geography i prepared maps for ocean currents (drew it in the paper), and i prepared another map showing the key ports of the world (this was basically for MCQ's)

The psychology notes, I will just paste here, I didnt make any elaborate notes for psychology, these were some of my graduate assignments and class notes. For psychology, consult the recommended books.

Working Conditions

Physical Working Conditions

Our surroundings ,will affect our skill, motivation, and satisfaction
Uncongenial work conditions are related to decrease productivity, lower job satisfaction greater errors and accidents , and more absenteeism and turnover inspite of best selection and best training.
But we see peak efficiency even in intolerable conditions and poor performance in best conditions

Dimensions of Physical Work Environment

Carlopio (1996) 641 managers
Environmental design including Lighting, Air quality, and general atmosphere of the work area
Facilities including rest rooms , eating areas and recreational facilities.
Work Organization including work schedule and pace and amount of time and information provided to do the job.
Dimensions of Physical Work Environment (Cont.)

Equipment and tools , including the design and efficiency of the tools and machines provided to the job.
Health and safety including organizational procedures to deal with physical safety issues , hazards, and other factors that may affect employee health
Dimensions of Physical Work Environment ( Cont.)

We can divide working conditions in three dimensions
Physical Conditions ( Light ,Air , Temp. )
Temporal Conditions ( Shift work, working hours, rest periods )
Psychological conditions ( Monotony , Boredom and stress

Work Sites
Location of the parking lot
Size of the Parking lot
Location of the building
Location of the work site
If in remote area than number of facilities

Child care and dependent care facilities

Day care centers and on-sites schools for young children of employees Help in retaining them but no significant effect on job performance (Kossek& Nichol 1992)
Those provided with such facilities were higher in job Commitment (N=754) Grover & Crooker 1995)
Give edge in recruiting new employees, reducing absenteeism and stress.

Office and workplace design

Office design and location, its heating and air conditioning system ,Glass walls, fixed window buildings
Slow elevators in high rise buildings
Cafeteria and rest rooms
Office size and design (related to employee satisfac)
Layout of the set of offices ,( More closer more contact)
1973 Rehabilitation act & 1990 Americans with Disabilities act

Environmental Psychology and Landscaped offices
Environmental Psychologists concerned with natural and built environments and their impact on behavior eg. Effect of office design and layout on communication , flow of job, Relationship between managers and subordinates and work group cohesiveness ( Landscape offices)
Inadequate lightening a source of distress
Adequate found to affect job satisfaction
High glare, dim bulbs and a lack of natural light have negative effect on job perform.
Intensity or level of brightness varies with the nature of the task and age of the worker.
Distribution of light.(Overhead as well as desk lamp for uniform distribution of light.
Noise makes us irritable, nervous interferes and produces physiological effects such as hearing loss ,high blood pressure and muscle tension impair emotional well being and induce stress
Reduce employee Motivation to work (Evans & Johnson 2000)
Interferes with communication
Max exposure of 90 db for 8 hours day


Certain colors increase productivity reduce accidents and increase morale
But claims not supported by empirical evidence and no validity to any purported relationship between a color and productivity , fatigue and job satisfaction.
But color can provide a more pleasant working environment and can be aid in safety practices
Employees are supposed to be happier and more efficient when they listen music on work, also effect productivity and morale in simple repetitive jobs
Not in complexed and demanding job
Give emotional lift
but depends on type of people, type of work and type of music.

The primary complaint about design was they found it too cold (Napoli 1998)and second most frequent complaint that it was too hot.
Effects the quality and quantity of physical products
Temp. has elation with lower performance level on motor task (Ramsey 1995)
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