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Old Tuesday, December 29, 2009
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Smile Clash of Civilizations (A study of Hungtington thoery 1993)

Clash of Civilization

Clash of Civilization theory by Samuel Hungtingon
Fakayama in 1989, wrote a thesis “End of History” saying that there is no rivalry of ideology of liberal democracy.
Later on Mr. Samuel Hungtington 1993, wrote “Clash of Civilization” and further elaborated it in his book “The Clash of Civilization and The Remarking fo World Order” in 1996
According to Samual Hungtington “the fundamental clash will be between Western & Sinic-Islamic civilization”. Sinic and Islamic Civilization are great threat to Western Civilization as they oppose to west’s universal democratization. The clash between west and Islam going on from 1300 years

Journey of Civilization
He said after falling down treaty of Westphalia in 1648, conflict used to occur between princes till 1900. After French Revolution it shifted to Nations of States. After First World War and Russian revolution 1917, conflict yielded to Conflict of Ideology. He argued local politics has been changed with ethnic politics, global with Politics of Civilization and Rivalry of superpowers in to Clash of Civilization.

Different Civilizations according to Samuel
He said civilization is a way of life and Religion is the most important objective element defines civilization. He divided civilization into 7 categories; Islam, Japanese, Sinic, Hindu, African, Latin America and West. (Some don’t agree to call Japanese and African a civilization)
He argued that widespread of western ideology of “Universal Democracy” will antagonize with other civilizations. The power is shifting to other civilizations, civilizations with common culture come together and that is why Sinic-Islam civilization is a threat for west. He said that Sinic civilization is flourishing due to its economic development; Islam and Sinic have common interests in terms of “weapon proliferation, human rights and democracy”
He said Russia, Japan and India are “Swing Civilization” which can go to either side as Russia can strong its relations with Iran, while China with Pakistan and Iran.
He said Modernization is taking place at individual and society level, resurgence to religion and culture.

Major Factors of West-Islam Civilization Clash
Unemployment due to increase in population, Islamic resurgence, west’s ideology of universal democracy, demise of SU removed common enemy of West and Islam. He said West-Islam conflict will be bloodies which later on proven as 9/11, Iraq and Afghanistan War.

Flaws in the Theory in context of current situation
1. He discusses “Sinic Islam Civilization quoting example of Stallin and his allies and Hitler”, but that was ideological period which is over now.
2. Confusion about world power blocs as now Islamic world is not Islamic power in real sense
3. He says “world is becoming modernized due to relations with each other” but why this was not done in 11th century when Islam and west enjoyed a good relationship.
4. He states that “there is no core state in Islamic world”, then how come Islamic world can go against west as a whole even they do not have leadership.
5. He said “people sharing same culture will come together” but most of the Islamic countries are engaged in their internal matters and civil wars, how they can get together?
6. He says “religion as a most important factor for civilization” but this was not the case in secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan
7. Amarty Sen wrote “A world is not neatly divided” quoting example of anti-globalization protesters which are from whole world.

(Source: World Times Magazine December 2009)
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