Thread: PMS Syllabus
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GEOGRAPHY
PAPER- I

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Total Marks: 100

Course Outline:


1. The Universe:-

The solar system and the Earth. Earth’s Origin, shape and size, rotation and revolution, distribution of land and water. Geological time scale.

2. Lithosphere:-

Composition and internal structure of the Earth, Rocks-origin, formation and types ( igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic), plate tectonics, mountain building geomorphic processes internal and external, earthquakes, volcanic activity, weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition, cycle of erosion; landforms produced by surface water, ground water, wind and glaciers.

3. Elements of weather and climate:-

Insolation, global radiation and heat balance, atmospheric temperature, compositon and structure of atmosphere, atomosheric pressure and winds air masses and fronts (classification, distribution and associated weather), cyclones, tornadoes, thunderstorms and weather disturbances. Hydrological cycle. Atmospheric moisture and precipitation. Climatic classification: Koppen’s classification with special reference to the following types: Af, Am, Bsh, Csa and Dfc. Atmospheric pollution global warming.

4 Hydrosphere:-

Configuration of ocean floor, ocean deposits. Composition, temperature and salinity of ocean water, movements of the ocean water, waves, currents and tides.

5 Biosphere:-

Origin and evolution of life on Earth (with reference to Geological time scale). Formation and types of soils. Eco-Systems and world major Biomes.

6. Study of Maps

Topographical Maps, Aerial Photographs and introduction to Remote Sensing, Weather maps of Pakistan. Map projection general principles, classification of network by simple graphic methods of the following projections. Cylindrical, Simple, Equal Area and MerCator’s (with table) Conical with one and two standard parallel’s and Bonne’s projections.Zenithal, Gnomonic Stereographic and orthographic (Polar Cases).

7. Scales: types and their use:-

8. Methods of representation of relief:-


Drawing of composite contour maps with the help of given data and information preparation of distribution maps with the help of symbols line-bar-shade dot and circle. Simple quantitative techniques and their use in geography. Study of frequency
distribution average’s (mean median and mode), Mean deviation, standard deviation and correlation. Index numbers and time series.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Strahler, A.N. (2004) “Modern Physical Geography” New York: John Wiley.
2. Gabbler, R.E, Sager, R.J and Wise, D.L (1997) “Essentials of Physical Geography” Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, New York.
3. Scott, R.C. (1996) “ Introduction to physical geography” West Publishing Co., New York.
4. Miller, G.T. (1996) “Living in the Environment, Principles, Connections and solutions”, Ninth Edition, Wadsworth.
5. Thurman, H.V. & Mexrill (1996) “ Essentials of Oceanography” Manson, London.
6. Diwan A.P. & D.K. Arora (1995) “ Origin of the Ocean” Anmol Publisher, Delhi.
7. Mcuveen (1992) “Fundamentals of Weather and Climate” Prentice Hall New Hrsey.
8. Kendrew (1961): “Climate of the continents” Longman, London. New York.
9. Thorn-bury, W.D. (1969) “Principles of Geomorphology” John Willy & Sons, New York.
10.Christopherson, R.W. (2000) “Geo-Systems” USA, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
11. Monkhouse, F.J. (1996) “Principles of Physical Geography” London Hodder & Stoughton.
12. De Blij, H.J. and Muller, P.O. (1996) “Principles of Physical Geography of the Global Environment” USA, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
13.Taylor, J. (1993) “ Integral Physical Geography” London Longman.
14.Small, R.J. (1989) “Geomorphology and Hydrology” London, Longman.
15.Thompson, R.D. et. Al (1986) “Process in Physical Geography” London, Longman.
16.Miller, E.W. (1985) “ Physical Geography” Columbus, Charles E. Merrill.
17.King, CAM (1980) “Physical Geography” Oxford, Basil Blackwell.
18.Srahlar, A.N. , Strahlar, A.H. (2004) “Physical Environment New York” John Wiley.
19. Christopherson, R.W. (2000) “Geo-Systems” USA, Prentice –Hall, Inc.
20.Well & Well and N. (1998) “Atmosphere and Oceans” London, Longman.
21.Taylor, J. (1993) “Integral Physical Geography” London, Longman.
22.Mcliveen, J.F.R. (1991) “Fundamentals of Weather and Climate London” Chapman & Hall.
23.Thompson, R.D. et. Al (1986) “Process in Physical Geography” London, Longman.
24.Miller, E.W. (1985) “Physical Geography” Columbus, Charles E. Merrill.
25.King CAM (1980) “ Physical Geography” Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

*********************************************



HUMAN, ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

PAPER-II

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY


Total Marks: 100

Course Outline:-


Man and his habitat: Concepts of Environmentalism and Possibilism, population growth, dynamics, (fertility, mortality, & migration), world society and culture, races, languages and religions, natural resources. World population, distribution, density and growth. Population structure, population change (Natural increase & migration) Migration factors (pull and push) types of migration Settlements: types of settlement, urbanization, rural urban characteristics urban hierarchy, Urban function and problems of urban places the Central Place theory.

BOOKS:

1. Rowntree, L. et. Al(2004) “Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World” New York; Prentice Hall.
2. Neuwirth, R. (2004) “Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World”, London Routledge.
3. Harper, H.L. (2003) “Environment and Society: Human Perspectives on Environmental Issues” (3rd Edition) New York; Prentice Hall.
4. Knox, P.L. & S.A. Marston (2003) “Places and Regions in Global Context: Human Geography” (3rd Edition) New York; Prentice Hall.
5. Becker, A.& Secker (2002) “ Human Geography: Culture, Society and Space” (7th Edition) New York; John Wiley and Sons.
6. DeBlij, H.J. (2002) “ Human Geography: Culture, Society, and Space” (7th Edition) New York; John Wiley and Sons.
7. Lewis, C.P. Mitchell-Fox & C. Dyer (2001) “ Village, Hamlet and Field: Changing Medieval Settlements in Central England” London; Windgather Press.
8. Hagget, P. (1997) “Geography: A Modern Synthesis” London. Harper International.


ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

Course Outline:-

Introduction: Definition, scope, approaches to study and relationship with other disciplines.

Economic activities: Classification and general distribution.

Production and consumption: producer and consumer, decision making, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary.

Historical Evolution of World Economics Systems: Medieval feudal economics, industrial revolution, economic benefits from colonialism. Modern world system.

Various types of agriculture and their distribution, subsistence, primitive, gathering, hunting, herding, cultivation, intensive farming, gathering commercial grain farming, fishing, dairying, mixed farming and plantation farming.

Agriculture conditions of agriculture, the physical constraints on agriculture.

Land factor in agriculture, world agricultural system, problems and policies in agriculture.

The role of selected commodities e.g., wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, etc.

Forest resources: world distribution, environmental and economic.

Mineral resources, distribution of important minerals, metalliferous minerals, the non-metalliferous minerals, economic factors in mining.

Power resources, form of power, solid fuels, oil & natural gas, non-exhaustible sources of energy.

Manufacturing: light and heavy industries, locational factors and locational theories, locational analysis of selected industries, iron and steel, textile (cotton, jute, woolen, synthetic) petro-chemical, world industrial regions.

Trade and service function, tertiary activities, distribution of services service industries.

Transport and trade: significance and characteristics of transport system, network, modes of transport, specialization and international trade.

Multilateral and bilateral trade, free trade areas and common markets, balance of trade, factors of trade, world pattern of trade.

BOOKS:-

1. Alexander, J.W., (1963) “Economic Geography” Prentice Hall New Jersey.
2. Alexanderson, G. (1947) “Geography of Manufacturing” Englewood Cliffs.
3. Alnwick, H. (1981) “Geography of Commodities” Harrp London.
4. Boesch, H. (1964) “A Geography of World Economy” Princeton: D. Van Nostrand.
5. Carlson A. S, (1956) “Economic Geography of Industrial Materials” Reinhold publishing Corporation New York.
6. Fryer, D.W. (1965) “World Economic Development” McGraw Hill New York.
7. Harthorn, T.A. and Alexander, J.W.(1988) “Economic Geography” Today. New Delhi. TTDD.
8. Hartshorne T.A. & Alexander J.W. (1988) “Economic Geography” Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New York.
9. Highsmith R.M. (1963) “Geography of Commodity Production” Philadelphia, Lippincott.
10.Hodder, B.W. & Dogar Lee (1974) “Economic Geography” Methuen London.
11. Jones. C.F. & Darken, (1965) “Economic Geography” Macmillan New York.
12.Khan F.K. (1997) “An introduction to Economic Geography” Sir, Syed Academy, Karachi.
13.London, C.E. (1939) “ Industrial Geography” John Murray (publishers) Ltd.
14. Norman P. (1981) “Success in Economic Geography” John Murray (publishers) Ltd.
15.Thoman, Conklin & Yeats (1988) “The Geography of Economic Activity” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, Inc.
16.Miller E.W. (1962) “A Geography of Manufacturing” Prentice Hall International Inc. London. 28.
17.U.N.O. Statistical Year Books. Latest Editions.29.
18. Luckas. M.R. (1991) “Economic Activity’ Longman group UK Limited. Williams. T.R. (1991)
19.Economic Geography: Longman group, New York stamp, L.D. & S Carter 31.
20.Gilmour (1960) “A Handbook of Commercial Geography” Longman London.32.
21.Howard G. Roepke (1967) “Readings in Economic Geography” John Eiley and Sons, New York. 33.
22.Rogen W.E. & N.A. Bengtson (1964) “Fundamentals of Economic Geography” Prentice Hall. 34.
23.Tomes, R.S. & R.J. Hagget (1980) “Models in Geography” Harper and Row Publishers London.


REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

Course Outline:

Scope, Status and the significance of the regional approach and concept in Geography SAARC Countries with special reference to Pakistan, Environmental setting: physical and climatic. Natural and cultural resources: Vegetation and agriculture, population, hydrology and irrigation, mineral and power resumes, industries (major industries e.g. Iron & Steel textile, cement, chemical, sugar) trade and communication.

BOOKS:-

1. Deblij, H.J.D. & Muller, Peter O-2003 “ Geography: Realms, Regions and Concepts” John Wiley and Sons.
2. Knox, P.I. & SA, Marston-2003 “Places and Regional in Global Context: Human Geography” Prentice and Hall.
3. Debliji, H.J.D2005 “Concepts and Regions in Geography” John Wiley.
4. James, Preston, E, 1974 “One World Divided” John Wiley and Sons.
5. James and Jones, 1965 “American Geography” Inventory and Prospects Association of American Geographers USA.
6. Davidson, A.P. Munir Ahmad (2003) “Privatization and Crisis of Agricultural Extension: The Case of Pakistan (King’s Soas Studies in Development Geography)”. Ashgate Publishing.
7. Abdul Hameed (1972) “Historical and Descriptive geography of Water development in West Pakistan: A case study of the Middle Indus Basin” San Francisco State College.
8. Jonson B.L.C. (1969) “South Asia: Selective Studies of the essential geography of India” Pakistan and Ceylon. Heinemann Educational.
9. Ahmad, K.S. (1964) “Geography of Pakistan” Oxford University Press.
10. Tayyeb, A. (1996) “A Political Geography of Pakistan” Oxford University Press.
11. Spate, O.H.K., (1984) “India and Pakistan” Munshiram Moharlal Publications Pvt. Ltd.
12. Khan F.K. (1991) “Geography of Pakistan” Oxford University Press, Karachi.
13. Burkey, J.S.(1991) “Pakistan the continuing search for nationhood” Western Press, Oxford, UK.
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