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Old Thursday, February 23, 2012
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Default Pakistan forigen policy is the extension of its domestic policy



The topic of discussion is about the Pakistan’s foreign policy, whether it is the extension of Pakistan’s domestic policy or not. However the focal point of discussion will remain on the facet that foreign policy of Pakistan is the extension of its domestic policy. The use of the concept "foreign" is more or less restricted to geographical territory and attendant consequences. In the contrast between the "domestic" and "foreign," the self and the other, the interior and the exterior, and the movement from within as opposed to the movement from without, seems to be the main focus. We showed that there is a deliberate ambiguity in any foreign policy statement and the use of guarded ambiguity shows that a policy statement is well formulated. We concluded that a foreign policy statement is a product of conflicting demands made on the language skills of production and reception. A foreign policy statement is formulated via language, but it is to be judged or assessed via the consequences in the nonverbal mode.The main focus is on the Pakistan foreign policy. How it formulated and evolved into its domestic policy? How Pakistan domestic characteristics such as geographical, military, political, societal, and economic effect over its foreign policy? The organization of the provinces of Pakistan is according on the basis of linguistic majority. This had a very bottomless effect over the foreign policy of Pakistan. Then the discussion about the maintenance of Pakistan foreign policy is also there. How the domestic and foreign policies interrelate with each other. The foreign policy also uses to miss guide the domestic problems or you can say for the distraction.
The success of the foreign policy of Pakistan needs to be assessed not only by how it works abroad, but also by how it works within, and what it does to the mental constructs such as language and culture loyalties.


The formulation of a foreign policy should have a proper co-ordination with its interpretation. The use of guarded ambiguity helps the foreign policy to have a proper tie-up between the two. In addition, the process of implementing the foreign policies also needs a careful use of the language in which the policy has been articulated. The implementation of the foreign policy requires the help of a language or languages mutually comprehensible to the source (the nation that formulates the policy) and the target (for whom the policy is intended). Implementation becomes defective if there is no proper understanding of the intended implications of the policy.


It is important to note that the foreign policy of a nation is an extension of its domestic policy. There needs to be good co-ordination between the two. If there is no proper co-ordination between the two, the integrity, unity, and strength of a nation can be easily weakened.1 If a nation assumes that its foreign policy is simply meant for the other nations and not for its domestic constituents that kind of nation is in the great shock. Unfortunately, when it comes to the role of language in the foreign policy of a nation, there seem to be always problems of choice, prioritizing, and implementation in multilingual countries.


A foreign policy does not develop in a vacuum. Its contours are shaped, amongst other things, by the geo-political realities. The unique geography of Pakistan lends it a distinct strategic importance. Pakistan transcends South, Central Asia and West Asia. It is an ideal place to be a force for peace in these regions. Pakistan also has the potential to become the inter-regional trading hub. Pakistan has positioned itself to offer trade and energy corridors to the Central Asian states. However, at the same time, its location places rather excessive demands on it in the domain of security.
The quest for security has been the paramount objective of Pakistan external perspective. Pakistan’s regional security perspective is primarily shaped by the fundamental asymmetry that exists with India, especially in the area of defense capability. Indian conventional forces vastly outnumber Pakistan’s capabilities. In the spheres of air and naval power, the gap is even wider and growing further. India maintains the world’s fourth largest armed forces and is rapidly expanding, upgrading and modernizing them through indigenous production of military hardware and acquisition of force multipliers from outside, which is causing a serious imbalance in South Asia.
Pakistan does not wish to enter into an arms race with India, nuclear or conventional. Pakistan believes such a race is neither economically sustainable nor morally tenable and would be destructive for the entire region. Pakistan and India need to employ their precious resources to address their developmental needs. To give a hopeful tomorrow to their peoples who remain mired in poverty the two neighbors need to invest on tools of development, not tools of destruction. Pakistan will continue to pursue a policy of restraint and responsibility in nuclear matters. India continues to reject the concept of Strategic Restraint in South Asia. Pakistan hopes that they would eventually see the merit of this proposal.
Pakistan is sincere in its efforts for peace in the region and he wants peace with honor, dignity and sovereign equality, as is the right of all nations. But for durable peace and security in South Asia there has to be a balance of conventional and strategic capabilities.
“At the core of problems between Pakistan and India lies the Kashmir dispute. It has been the direct cause of several conflicts between the two countries. There can be no peace in South Asia unless this dispute is resolved, in accordance with the wishes of the people of Kashmir as prescribed in the United Nations Security Council Resolutions, which recognize the inalienable right of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to self-determination.”
Both countries hold widely divergent positions on Jammu and Kashmir. But a way forward has to be found. President Musharraf had proposed the four-step approach, which offers, the best possible formula for solution of the Kashmir issue. It includes resumption of a sustained dialogue process, acknowledgement of the centrality and the importance of the Kashmir dispute, elimination of elements unacceptable to Pakistan, India and the people of Kashmir, and finally working towards the achievement of best solution acceptable to the parties. This would be a win-win situation for all and would create the ambiance for a multidimensional movement towards normalization of relations.
India has yet to reciprocate the suggestions made by Pakistan in all sincerity to meaningfully move towards a just and final settlement of the Jammu and Kashmir dispute. While the gestures for Confidence Building made by Pakistan has improved the atmospherics in the region. Any number of Confidence Building Measures (CMBs) would turn out to be futile, as long as there is no movement on this front. In fact, resolution of the issue of Kashmir itself would be the biggest CBM of all, which can usher us into an era of peace, stability and socio-economic progress, which the teeming millions of South Asia so direly crave for.
The security situation in South Asia will remain tenuous unless Pakistan able to resolve peacefully the core dispute.
Pakistan deeply appreciates the interest that the EU has taken in core issue concerning South Asia. As a sincere friend, the EU wants to help two neighbors to resolve their disputes and Pakistan respect that. Last year the Foreign Affairs Committee of the European Parliament sent a delegation on a fact-finding mission to both sides of the Loc.

Pakistan welcomes the visit and the report subsequently submitted to the Committee. Pakistan also hopes that the interest of the Parliament would continue in the subject in the future as well.
Pakistan approach to security and development in South Asia gives much weight to fostering cooperation for economic development in the region within the framework of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). As Chairman of SAARC our contribution to this cause has been highly acclaimed.

Pakistan is also reaching out to its wider Asian neighborhood. Pakistan has joined the ASEAN Regional forum; are upgrading links with ASEAN and East Asia: seeking membership of Shanghais Cooperation Organization; and the Asia Europe Summit Meetings (ASEM).
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, so eloquently and timelessly stated as far back as 1948:

“Our foreign policy is one of friendliness and goodwill towards the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation.
We believe in the principle of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings and appeared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter.”


Pakistan foreign policy is the extension of its domestic policy. Pakistan’s geographical, military, political, societal, and economic characteristics determined Pakistan’s national security concerns at the domestic level. When we study about the impact of domestic policy over its foreign policy, it is important to study the listed material.


Total area of Pakistan: 803,940 out of which total land is 778,720 sq km and total water is 25, 220 sq km.Total population of Pakistan is 165 million. Annual growth rate is 2.09%. Pakistan literacy rate according to the record of 2005 is: 48.7%.Pakistan is divided in to the five social classes; Military, Ulema – Clergy, Land owners, Industrialist, and Small merchants. There is very low level of foreign investment in Pakistan.5GDP Growth rate of Pakistan is 7%.Inflation is the biggest problem for Pakistan according to 2005 inflation is 9%.GDP per capita: 2400 dollars. Rate of un-employment in Pakistan is 6.6%.Population below poverty line in Pakistan is 32% .Military expenditures of Pakistan; 4.26 million us dollars. Agricultural products of Pakistan are rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, milk, beaf. Industries of Pakistan are Pharmaceuticals, Textile, fertilizers, Paper material, constructional material. Total industries production rate is 10.7%.
Pakistan is an unstable country which has military rulers as leaders in 1960s as well as for most part of 1980s. The democratic experience during the 1950s and 1990s was largely UN successful and each time led to the military coup. Since 12 Oct 1999, military General pervaiz Musharraf, who came into power as a result of a coup, has led the country. At present Pakistan is experimenting with partial democracy ruled by a strong General Musharraf and a nominal priminister Shaukat Aziz.


Pakistan geography is very important for its foreign policy. Pakistan shares a 2912 kilometers long boarder with India in the east, 909 kilometers long border with Iran in the south – west, a 523 kilometers long boarder with china in the north, and 2430 kilometers long with Afghanistan in the west. There also lies an Indian ocean in its one side. Pakistan is a gateway towards the small Muslim states which have the biggest oil resources. America wanted to intervene in those states because of the great oil resources. Pakistan is the only gateway which can help him. So it need Pakistan assistance, even without the assistance of Pakistan it can not deploy its army into Afghanistan. Then Pakistan have domestic as well as external attack of India it effect over its foreign policy like that Pakistan maintain its relationship with china because it can only contend Indian hegemony.


The political stability of Pakistan further aggravated by the ethnic/linguistic heterogeneity and religious factionalism prevailing in Pakistan. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. English is the official language. There are many other languages as well. The main ethnic groups are: Pashto: 8% Punjabi: 48%Sariki: 10% Balochi: 3% Hindko: 2% Brahvi: 1%
This language difference creates domestic problems for Pakistan. To solve the problem Pakistan have to maintain its domestic policy. For the solution once Quaid-e Azam said,
“No one in Pakistan is Punjabi, pythons, Sindhi, Sariki, every one is Pakistani. Your identity lies with Pakistan. And Urdu is your language”.
Now they all are demanding their own piece of land. And this will deeply effect over the foreign policy of Pakistan. Because majority of countries tries to maintain relationship with those countries which are internally stable.
Economic Development
It has been said that the foreign policy of a state is an extension of its domestic policies. Nowhere is it truer than in the field of economic development. The quest for economic progress has been the keystone of not only our national policies, but also our external policy.
At home the focused priority, sustained efforts and sound management has brought about an astounding economic turn-around, which has been admired internationally. After restoring the macro-economic balances Pakistan have put in place structural reforms that are streamlining the economy towards achieving a self-sustainable growth. Budget deficit has been brought down from 7% to 3%; Current Account deficit of over 4 billion dollars a year has been eliminated. Foreign exchange reserves have gone up 12 fold. Foreign Direct Investment has doubled to 1 billion dollar a year. Exports have risen from 7 billion dollars to over 12 billion dollars. Imports have grown from 8 billion dollars to around 15 billion dollars.
The real economy has performed even better. In the last 4 years the real GNP growth rate has averaged 5.4 % as against 1.8 % in the years before. National savings have touched 20 % of the GDP while investments have averaged 19 % during this period. Interest rates have been brought down to less than half. Inflation, which remained in double digits for a long time, has been reduced to around 3 %. Per capita GNP growth rate has averaged over 12 % in the last four years, as against 1.4 % in the 1990’s.
This year Pakistan GDP has risen by 6.4% against a target of 5.3 %. Industrial growth targeted at 7.8 % has reached 13.1 %. Similarly, it has exceeded the targets of exports and revenue collection.
Pakistan wants to build and strengthen commercial relations with all countries. More and more, the economic dimension of relations between nations is acquiring the central role in diplomacy. It is being understood that political and economic relations augment each other. In fact one cannot truly function without the other. Pakistan feels that the rewards of globalization have so far not been shared fairly. The concept of “managed globalization” has been promoted by the developing countries for sometime now. This, in Pakistan view, is only possible if the current international trading climate that favors the developed economies is drastically overhauled.
The realization of the Doha Development Agenda is something that Pakistan is striving for. There is a hope that it helps Pakistan in alleviating the sufferings of the majority of the inhabitants of this planet.
Perspective on Regional and International Issues
Afghanistan has been in constant turmoil for almost 25 years now, and a great source of instability in Pakistan neighborhood. With the Presidential elections now completed, President Karzai’s Government is in a better position to stamp its authority on the whole country.

Pakistan has been firmly behind the Bonn Process, and would continue to support President Karzai’s Government in their quest for peace and reconstruction. A peaceful, prosperous, stable and strong Afghanistan is in Pakistan’s own interest. Pakistan is optimistic that Afghanistan will soon be firmly placed on the way to peace and development.
The Middle East peace process has run into a roadblock. It is indeed a major cause of concern for Pakistan. Pakistan has been urging its friends on both sides of the Atlantic to pursue it with a renewed vigor. There is hope that the proposed Conference, sponsored by the UK, would bring in the much-needed push and would jump-start the stalled process.
Another cause of concern is the continued instability in Iraq. Pakistan saddened by the ongoing violence and the loss of precious lives. Pakistan hope the interim government would be able to restore a semblance of normalcy and stability and Pakistan would fully support endeavors for peace and reconstruction in Iraq provided they incorporate to the will of the Iraqi people.
The EU is Pakistan’s largest trading partner. It is also the largest source of foreign investment and development cooperation. There are deep-rooted linkages based on shared values and perceptions and a desire to work together for promoting peace and prosperity in south Asian region and the world at large.


Ideology is a very important factor for Pakistan foreign policy. Islam is the ideology of Pakistan and can bring about national integration. Islam is the monotheistic whereas Hinduism is polytheistic. In Islam there is only one god while in Hinduism there are many.
According to Stephan Cohen,
“There are only two countries of the world which have their
Ideology, Pakistan and Israel”.


I. Be tough with your enemies and be kind toward your friend.
“Your dog is your best friend because it bark at every body who are stranger but never barks at the familiar faces”
This idea also based on the idea of dar ul harab and dar ul Islam. Then there is an idea of just war that is jihad Islam doesn’t teach us to be neutral towards everyone rather it teaches to maintain sides. Muslim horizon that is how we perceive world as Muslim. Muslim as a nation they are international and extroverts towards the relations with the external world.
Foreign policy of Pakistan and India also flew out from the idea of Islam. Ideology, just as the child hood of a person is very important similarly the childhood of a country is also veryimportant for the further relationships. So if we want to study the foreign policy of today’s Pakistan then it is important to study that how Muslim of united India started their movement. Khilafat movement became the corner stone of Pakistan foreign policy for maintaining soft corner for other Muslim countries. Muslim attitude toward the western colonies and communism where western countries are concerned. Muslim thought is that communism doesn’t accept the idea of god so it is not right to backup the idea of communism. Idea of Christian communism is very important in Pakistan foreign policy. Pakistan prefers it over the idea of soviet communism. Because in soviet communism there is no god and christen communism had the idea of god because it is also the revealed religion.
Pakistan Domestic level is directly related to the foreign policy. There are seven basic ways which related domestic and foreign policy. Pakistan is not the global power but it is a medium level regional power. It means that Pakistan cannot go to arms races with the major powers. It cannot afford the nuclear race with the global power.


Arms control and nuclear proliferation. This is the main focal point of Pakistan foreign policy. It is very difficult for Pakistan to cope up with the international arms race. So to avoid itself from any international threat of security it maintains the policy of nuclear non proliferation. Due to this policy different countries start developing their relations with Pakistan because their contemplation about Pakistan is that it is a peaceful country. In this way Pakistan get a hold of international cooperation. The seven ways through which Pakistan foreign policy flows out of its domestic policy they are as under,
• Pakistan is not the isonalist state. It dose not want to be alone at international level. Pakistan wants to relate it, as an International, Regional, Supra- national and national actor, level.
Why Pakistan wants to relate,
To promote Pakistan sovereignty & national interest
To cope up the problems of environment, Terrorism and many others.
To solve the issues of poverty, underemployment, and Unemployment
• Pakistan has a pro-active foreign policy for three reasons,
To get International resources for Pakistan domestic socio- economic context.
To regulate the input from external environment into internal context.
To strengthen territorial & security integrity of Pakistan.
• Pakistan wants promotion of peace & stability through international & regional co-operation. This can be seen like this,
Pakistan relations with Muslim countries.
Pakistan alignment with west in fighting back terrorism extremism because of domestic reasons. Because it may be a great threat to Pakistan peace, security, and stability.
To engage the Kashmir issue because it is also the domestic issue of Pakistan.
Regional co-operation. Pakistan likes to co-operate with other regions like SAARC, ASEAAN.Because Pakistan is afraid of the Indian hegemony in south Asia.11
• Pakistan identifies with political and economic concerns of developing countries.
• Pakistan interest in principle & UN deliberations. The given UN deliberations can help Pakistan in marinating its foreign policy.
Maintenance of the sovereignty.
Equality of nations.
Territorial integrity.
Non interference in other countries.
No use of force nations.
• Pakistan wants to remain a sovereign state. Domestically feel that UN principles are suitable for the Pakistan security Pakistan wants peaceful resolutions of disputes it is an objective of Pakistan forgiven policy..


Often the foreign policy of a nation may be used to distract the attention of its people from the pressing domestic issues. It may be used to build up an image for itself, often without substance in reality. Most people in Pakistan believe that their country is highly valued and respected all over the world and that their country occupies a pre-eminent position among the nations of the world. This feeling was continuously created in the minds of the people through reports of success achieved by the Prime Ministers during their international travels. The language and culture component of Pakistan foreign policy helped foster this notion further. Pakistan -centric worldview was assiduously cultivated in the arena of foreign affairs.12 As a result, whenever the voice of Pakistan is not heard or its position not appreciated, people get upset. Successive governments in Pakistan helped foster the notion that Pakistan is playing a very crucial role in world affairs and that its position is highly appreciated among the nations. The Patriotic newspapers carried this message too far. Self-analysis and self-criticism were not seen much in these publications.


The foreign policy of the small states is the very substantial part of international relation. It has become an important part of solving their gigantic problems involved in strengthening their independence, breaking old and establishing new relations with former parent states.
The concern of the Pakistan foreign policy it has been complex and have been passed through different stages during its development.. In 1960 Pakistan foreign policy revived. It started strengthening its independence, and extending cooperation with the socialist states and the afro Asian states. Pakistan domestic policy directly effect over its foreign policy. India poses threat to the Pakistan territorial integrity. This lead Pakistan to fear Indian hegemony in SAARC.This has an effect on the foreign policy of Pakistan. Pakistan foreign policy is the extension of foreign policy. This has already been discussed in very detail. The guiding principles of Pakistan foreign policy is to safeguard our national interests of security and development, while at the same time contributing to creating an enabling global order in which the interests of other nations are also secure.
The success of the foreign policy of Pakistan needs to be assessed not only by how it works abroad, but also by how it works within, and what it does to the mental constructs such as language and culture loyalties.
what humbugs we r,who pretend to live for beauty and never see the dawn :)
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