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Old Thursday, October 27, 2005
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1.NATURE OF SCIENCE:

Definition:
Science can be defined as study
"mainly concerned with the phenomenan of physical universe any or all of natural sciences or biological sciences."
or
Science as the "the field of study which attempts to describe and understand the nature of the universe in whole or part."

Science is the faculty to reason out the how and why of the things as they occur in the phenomenal world or the objective world..Basically science is the study of laws of nature and man has developed science by observing.Infact this subject has completely transformed our power over nature and the world outlook.Development of the modern technology is directly the outcome of the development of modern science.Without the scientific revolution the industrial revolution would not have been possible.

It has raised the human activity level by signifiacnt observations in the various fields of human existence.Whether its the exploration of human health,industrial progress,agrarian developments and modern communication technologies,the benefits gained from this major subject are enormous.Infact it would not be wrong to say that we are living in the age of science and is a dominant factor in our day to day existence.

2.CONTRIBUTIONS OF MUSLIM SCIENTISTS:

MUHAMMAD BIN MUSA AL KHWARZIMI:

Made lasting contributions in the fields of Mathematics,Astronomy,Music,Geography and History.He composed the oldest works on Arithmetic and on Algebra.The oldest Mathematic book composed by him is "Kitab ul jama wat tafriq"
He is the first person who used zero and wrote"Hisab ul jabr Wal Muqabla" which is conceived to be an outstanding work on the subject which included analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations.
In the field of Astronomy he compiled his own tables which formed the basis of later astronomical pursuits in both East and West.
He also contributed in the field of geographical science by writing a noteworthy book KItab ul surat al ard. in Arabic.
His book " kitab al Tarik" is also a memorable work regarding history.

AL BERUNI:

Born in Afghanistan Beruni made original an important contributions to science.He is conceived to be the most prominent scientists of the Islamic world who wrote around 150 books on various signifiacnt subjects concerning human existence.These subjects include Mathematics,History,Archeology,Biology,Geology,Che m istry ,Religion etc.
He discussed the behaviour of earth,moon,and planets in his book "Qanoon Almasudi" which is also considered as an outstanding astronimical encyclopedia.He also discovered seven differnt ways of finding the directions of north and south and discovered mathematical technques to determine exactly the beginnig of the seasons.
Another noteable discovery he made was that the speed of light is faster than sound .His wide range of scientific knowledge is also revealed through his books" kitab al saidana" and "kitab al jawahar" dealing with medicine and the types of gems their gravity respectively.
He was a prolific writer whose works showed his verstality as a scientist.


AL RAZI:

The famous philosopher and a noteable surgeon of the Muslim world,Zakriya Al Razi was born in Ray near modern Theran Iran.His eagerness for knowledge lead him to the study of Alchemyand Chemistry,philosophy,logic ,Mathematics and Physics.He was a pioneer in many areas of medicine and treatment of health sciences in general,and in particular he worked alot in the fields of paeditrics,obsterics and opthalmology.
Al razi was the first person to introduce the use of Alcohal for medical purposes and opium for the objective of giving anaethseia to his patients.
In the field of opthalmology too Al razi gave an account of the operation for the extraction of the catract and also the first scientist to discover the effect of the intensity of light on the eye.The modern studies confirm his understanding on the subject thus making him a great physician of all the times.

ABU ALI IBN E SINA:

Endowed with great powers of absorbing and retaning knowledge this Muslim scholar also made valuable contributions to the field of science.He is considered to be the founders of Medicine and also added his great efforts to the fields of Mathematics,Astronomy,Medicinial Chemistry,Philosophy,Palae ontology and Music.
His most famus book is "Al Qannun" which brings out the features of human physiology and medicine.
Sina is also considered as a father of the science of Geology on account of his invaluable book on mountains in which he discussed matters relating to earth's crust and gave scientific reasons for earthquakes.He is the author of 238 books which are fine instances of his thoughts regarding various subjects in diverse ways.

JABIR BIN HAYAN:

Introduced experimental research in chemical science which immensly added its rapid development and made him the Father of Chemistry.He devised methods for preparation of important chemicals like hydrochloric acid,nitric acid,and white lead.
Jabir's work also deal with the refinement of metals ,preparation of steel,dyeing of cloth and leather,use of magnese dioxide in glass making,distillation of vinegar to concentrate acetic acid.
Jabir also explained scientifically two principle functions of chemistry,i.e., calcination,and reduction and registerd a marked improvement in teh methods of evaporation,sublimation,distillation and crystillization
He wrote more than 100 books which are one of the most outstanding contributions in the field of science especially the chemical science.

ABDUL HASSAN IBN AL HAITHAM:

One of the most outstanding Mathematicians, Physiologists,and Opticians of Islam.He contributed to the relams of medicine and philosophy.He wrote more than 200 scientific works on diverse subjects.
Haitham examined the refraction of light rays through transparent objects including air and water.
Infact he was the first scientist to elaborate two laws of refelction of light
He made a number of monumental discoveries in the field of optics ,including one which locates retina as the seat of vision.His book on optics "Kitab Al Manazir" vividly shows his grip on the subject.
He constructed a pinhole camera and studied formation of images .Due to his noteworthy contributions he is regarded as one of the prolific Muslim scientists of all times.

OMAR AL KHAYAM:

He was an outstanding Mathematician and Astronomer.He was also known as a poet,philosopher and a physician.He travelled to the great centres of learning of the era i.e. Samrakund,Bukhara,and Ispahan.He classified many algebric equations based on their complexity and recognized thirteen different forms of cubic equation.He also classified algebric theories of parallel lines.On the invitation of Sultan Jalal-ud- Din ,he introduced the Jilali calender which has an error of one day in 3770 years.He also developed accurtae methods for determination of gravity
As a poet too,he is known for his Rubaiyat.He made great contributions in the development of mathematics and analytical geomatry which benefitted Europe several years later.

NASIR UD DIN TUSI:

Al tusi was one of the greatest scientists,Mathematicians,Astronomers,Philosophers ,Theologians and physicians of his time.He was a prolific writer and wrote many treatises on varied subjects like Algebra,Arithmetic,Trignometry,Geometery,Logic,Met aphy sics,medicine,ethics and Theology.
He served as a minister of Halaku Khan and persuaded him to establish an observatory and library after the destruction of baghdad.He worked at the observatory and prepared precise tables regarding the motion of teh planets.These are also known as "Tables of Khan"

ZIA UD DIN IBN BAITAR:

Was a famous botanist and pharmacopist of middle ages.Because of his intensive travels,he was able to discover many plant species.He wrote many books regarding his field of speciality and is always considered as a prominent scientist among his Muslim counterparts.
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