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Old Tuesday, September 18, 2012
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Q:1-Define Psychology and write in brief about various schools of thought in psychology? (Marsks 20)

In our daily life we do a lot of works. For instance, children go to school, teachers teach the students. Businessmen do their business. Scientists do their exclusive experiments in labs. Solders serve them for the country and so on other diverse activities. These are the activities the people do with the help of their mind and soul either consciously or unconsciously. It is the study of Psychology which explains these activities in depth about the human behavior. Moreover, Besides the human beings, animals have their own psyche according to their experience and their heredity. However, in the current days, the discipline of Psychology has an outstanding importance. No less than 52 diverse branches of Psychology have been made and it is the most essential discipline for every one for getting it studied. In the simple words Psychology’s definition can be defined as under:-

The word Psychology is derived from the Greek word ‘Psche’ that means ‘soul’ or ‘mind’ and ‘ology’ means ‘study’.

Therefore we can certainly say that it is the scientific study of human behavior and his mental processes.

School of Thought in Psychology
There are some school of thoughts who have tried their best to explain the mind and behavior according to their logic and experiments. Among them, the major school of thoughts are given bellow:-


Wundt’s approach, which focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kinds of mental states and activities. This school of thought have elaborated the mind and behavior of the human being on the basis of structuralism. It is based on idea which conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying elements. It was the German Psychologist who laid down the foundation of Psychology in 1879. Moreover he explained the psychology as a practical experience of an individual and his ideas. However, the main strategy of this school of thought was to use the structuralism to discover the units of mind in order to elaborate it further. Consequently, this school of thought had to be criticized owing to its methodology.

It is an early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does-the functions of mental activity and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments. It is the approach that how mind and soul function according to an individual. According to this school of thought, more than enough work was done by them for the sake of behavior’s dimensions in an environment. Because an environment affects and influence the individual. When an individual get connected with a certain environment, the result comes a specific.

Functionalists used introspection along with the use of survey and other experimental techniques to study functions of mind. Resultantly, some school of thoughts criticized it because of functionalists had not explained the functions of consciousness and the relationship of mind and physically. Moreover, it was not a scientific method. That was why this method had been failed.

This school of thought was concerned with the work of Watson. He did not accept that the mind as the subject of psychology and instead that psychology would be restricted to the study of behavior. According to doctrine of Behaviorism, the subject matter of psychology was behavior to the certain aspects. As according to them this disciple is the science of behavior, that is not the science of mind. Moreover, it can be defined without the study of mental events or internal psychological processes. Consequently, after the analyzing of this limited approach of the school of thought it also was criticized.

Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud (1916-1917). Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining “insight”. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious. Psychoanalysis is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders.

To the conclude various schools of thought raised their thoughts in the history of Psychology. No doubt some overlap the certain thoughts and some don’t. Every school of thought has an own view and their experiences and experiments. However, it can be noticed after the studies of these thoughts that all have their own trends of thoughts.

Dear memebrs you are requested to check my little effort in this question. If you find any mistake or error could point out. It would be highly appreciated. And give me marks what I deserve…



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