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Adjective

An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun. In this case, "modifies" means "tells more about." Adjectives are words that describe things.



I planted orange flowers in the round pot.
The long-eared rabbit nibbled the little carrots.


Adjectives can answer the question "What kind?" (orange flowers; little carrots)



Possessive Adjectives


A possessive adjective modifies a noun by telling whom it belongs to. It answers the question "Whose?" Possessive adjectives include his, her, its, my, our, their, and your.

You can share my rice.
Have you seen their house?



Demonstrative Adjectives


The demonstrative adjectives that, these, this, those, and what answer the question "Which?"

I'm going to open that present.
Those socks look warm.

A demonstrative adjective may look like a demonstrative pronoun, but it is used differently in the sentence: it is an adjective, used to modify a noun or pronoun.




Interrogative Adjectives


The interrogative adjectives what and which are used in a question. They help to ask about something.

What movie do you want to see?
Which leaves turn color first?

An interrogative adjective may look like an interrogative pronoun, but it is used differently in the sentence: it is an adjective, used to modify a noun or pronoun.




Indefinite Adjectives


An indefinite adjective gives indefinite, or general, information. Often, it answers the question "How much?" Some common indefinite adjectives are all, any, each, every, few, many, and some.

Many children like dinosaurs.
Did you want some bananas?

An indefinite adjective may look like an indefinite pronoun, but it is used differently in the sentence: it is an adjective, used to modify a noun or pronoun.













Conjunction

Conjunctions connect words or groups of words.



Coordinating Conjunctions

A coordinating conjunction is a word that connects two words or two groups of words that are used in the same way—that is, they are the same part of speech or they are grammatically alike. The coordinating conjunctions are and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet.

Do you want to play checkers or cards?

We're going to be Calvin and Hobbes this Halloween.



Correlative Conjunctions


Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. They connect two words or two groups of words that are used in the same way—that is, they are the same part of speech or they are grammatically alike. They include both . . . and; either . . . or; neither . . . nor; not only . . . but; and whether . . . or.

Both Andy and Rex are coming to dinner.
I would like either a red marker or an orange marker.






Subordinating Conjunctions


A subordinating conjunction is a word that connects two groups of words that are not used in the same way—that is, they are not the same part of speech and they are not grammatically alike. Some common subordinating conjunctions are after, because, before, how, if, since, than, though, until, when, where, and while.

Bobby played in the park until it got dark.
The movie was funnier than I had expected.

Sometimes a subordinating conjunction comes at the beginning of a sentence.

Since you are here, let's rehearse.
After Margaret had lunch, she took a nap.













Interjection


An interjection expresses an emotion. It might show excitement or surprise.


Wow! That is a giant pumpkin!
Ouch, you stepped on my toe!
Yippee! We won!
Whoa! Hold your horses!
Bravo, you did a great job!




An interjection often appears at the beginning of a sentence. It is usually followed by an exclamation point or a comma.














Prepositions


A preposition links a noun, pronoun, or phrase to another part of a sentence. Because many prepositions show direction, some say that "a preposition is anywhere a cat can go."


The cat walked across the couch.
The cat leaned against the couch.
The cat strolled along the couch.
The cat sneaked around the couch.
The cat leapt at the couch.
The cat crept behind the couch.
The cat hid below the couch.
The cat scampered beneath the couch.
The cat leaned beside the couch.
The cat tip-toed by the couch.
The cat crawled inside the couch.
The cat strutted near the couch.
The cat jumped off the couch.
The cat marched over the couch.
The cat rambled past the couch.
The cat plodded to the couch.
The cat stalked toward the couch.
The cat wiggled underneath the couch.
The cat settled upon the couch.
The cat snuggled within the couch.


A preposition leads to an object, which is the part of the sentence that receives the action of the verb. The preposition also tells how the object is related to the rest of the sentence.

The cat walked across the couch.

The couch is the object, because it receives the action of the verb—the walking. The preposition, across, tells how the couch is related to the rest of the sentence. It links the fact that the cat walked with information about where it walked: across the couch.

Prepositions can help show not just where something took place, but how and when. Besides the ones listed above, some common prepositions are about, after, among, between, beyond, but, despite, during, for, of, since, through, until, and without.











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