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Old Thursday, August 16, 2007
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Present Perfect Tense


How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?

Quote:
The structure of the present perfect tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (3rd form)


Here are some examples of the present perfect tense:



subject _________ auxiliary verb _________ main verb

+____ I_________________ have ______________ seen ET.
+____ You _______________have ______________ eaten mine.
- ____She ______________ has not _____________been to Rome.
- ____We ______________have not ____________played football.
? ____Have you _____________________________ finished?
? ____Have they _____________________________ done it?




Contractions with the present perfect tense

When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write.

I have (I've)
You have (You've)
He has
She has
It has
John has
The car has He's
She's
It's
John's
The car's
We have (We've)
They have (They've)



examples:

I've finished my work.
John's seen ET.
They've gone home.




How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?

This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with the present. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense:

1. experience
2. change
3. continuing situation



Present perfect tense for experience

We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:


I have seen ET.
He has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.



Connection with past: the event was in the past.
Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know something about the event; I have experience of it.




Present perfect tense for change

We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:

I have bought a car.
John has broken his leg.
Has the price gone up?
The police have arrested the killer.




Present perfect tense for continuing situation



We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.



I have worked here since June.
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara?

Connection with past: the situation started in the past.
Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.







to be continued (Present Perfect Continues Tense)
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