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Old Monday, August 19, 2013
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Default Jounalism notes 13

ETHICS IN ADVERTISING
Advertising is paid, one-way communication through a medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled by the sponsor. Variations include publicity, public relations, etc.. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including: television, radio, movies, magazines, newspapers,
video games, the Internet (see Internet advertising), and billboards.
Advertising is a paid form of communicating a message by the use of various media. It is persuasive,informative and designed to influence purchasing behaviour or thought pattern.
Advertisements can also be seen on the seats of grocery carts, on the walls of an airport walkway, on the sides of buses, heard in telephone hold messages and in-store public address systems. Advertisements are
usually placed anywhere an audience can easily and/or frequently access visuals and/or audio.
Advertising clients are predominantly, but not exclusively, profit-generating corporations seeking to increase demand for their products or services. Some organizations which frequently spend large sums of money on advertising but do not strictly sell a product or service to the general public include: political
parties, interest groups, religion-supporting organizations, and militaries looking for new recruits.
Additionally, some non-profit organizations are not typical advertising clients and rely upon free
channels, such as public service announcements.
History
Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of ancient Arabia.
Egyptians used papyrus to create sales messages and wall posters, while lost-and-found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial.
advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America.
The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock-art paintings that date back to 4000 BC.
As printing developed in the 15th and 16th century, advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote: books and newspapers, which became increasingly
affordable due to the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.
In 1841, the first advertising agency was established by Volney Palmer in Boston. It was also the first
agency to charge a commission on ads at 25% commission paid by newspaper publishers to sell space to
advertisers
At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising was
one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process.
Importance
The importance of advertising is "steadily on the increase in modern society. Just as the media of social
communication themselves have enormous influence everywhere, so advertising, using media as its
vehicle, is a pervasive, powerful force shaping attitudes and behavior in today's world.
The responsibility of media is to contribute to the authentic, integral development of persons and to foster the well being of society. "The information provided by the media is at the service of the common good.
Society has a right to information based on truth, freedom, justice and solidarity." It is in this spirit that calls attention to moral principles and norms relevant to social communications, as to other forms of human endeavor, while criticizing policies and practices that offend against these
standards.
Advertising can and does make positive contribution. In today's society, advertising has a profound impact on how people understand life, the world and themselves, especially in regard to their values and their ways of choosing and behaving. These are matters about which we must be deeply and sincerely concerned.

The field of advertising is extremely broad and diverse. In general terms, of course, an advertisement is simply a public notice meant to convey information and invite patronage or some other response. As that
suggests, advertising has two basic purposes: to inform and to persuade, and while these purposes are distinguishable both very often are simultaneously present.
Advertising is not the same as marketing (the complex of commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producers and consumers) or public relations (the systematic effort to create a favorable public impression or image of some person, group, or entity). In many cases, though, it is a technique or instrument employed by one or both of these.
Advertising can be very simple or it can be very complex, involving sophisticated research and multimedia campaigns that span the globe. It differs according to its intended audience, so that, for example, advertising aimed at children raises some technical and moral issues significantly different from those raised by advertising aimed at competent adults.
Not only are many different media and techniques employed in advertising; advertising itself is of several
different kinds: commercial advertising for products and services; public service advertising on behalf of various institutions, programs, and causes; and a phenomenon of growing importance today ,political advertising in the interests of parties and candidates. Making allowance for the differences among the different kinds and methods of advertising, we intend what follows to be applicable to them all.
Advertisers are selective about the values and attitudes to be fostered and encouraged, promoting some while ignoring others. This selectivity gives the lie to the notion that advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture
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