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Old Friday, September 27, 2013
sadafnoorelahi sadafnoorelahi is offline
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q discuss the importance of people's participation in the process of development and subsequent role of mass media CE-2012

mass media: diversified media technologies which are used to reach a large audience by mass communication.
development of mass media
The oldest mass medium is print media. Human history gives us a clue that posters, banners and pictures were first used to convey the messages.
• In the 10th century handmade press was first established. Book printing was started in 15th & 16th century in Europe.
• Mass Media at first faced a lot of restrictions because when mass media emerged at that time imperialism was in rule. The rulers were using Church in Europe as an authority over people to convey any message. Because Church was the only platform that was
influential and was in reach of people and government. So most of the times Church was considered the first platform of Mass Medium• The emergence of Print Media created doubts in the minds of the rulers and they took it as a threat against their rule. The rulers presumed that people would become aware of their rights and they will challenge the authority. So most of the rulers in Europe took it as a revolt and declared capital punishment for the persons involved in Mass Media. In 1663, the last capital punishment was given to a publisher because he published a book of an anonymous writer. This book contained the idea that rulers are accountable for their deeds and decisions to the masses and if any ruler does not feel himself accountable then masses have the right to overthrow his rule. This was the last capital punishment that was awarded in the history of England.
• Print media could not get its full growth till the 18th century as illiteracy was the major problem in all the societies and most of the newspapers were read by the elite class because state was not responsible for the education of the masses and elites had a privilege to get private education from the arranged tutors.

Elements of mass media


World’s first news agency was formed around 1820s in New York City under the name of Association of Morning Newspapers. It was formed to gather upcoming reports from Europe. The first international news agencies formed in Europe were: Agence Havas of Paris (1835); the Reuter Telegram Company of London (1851), known simply as Reuters; and the Continental Telegraphen Compagnie of Berlin (1849), known as the Wolff Agency. They started their work as a financial data service to bankers and businessmen but then extended their service to world news. Reuters is also considered as the oldest news agency of the world. Initially news agencies used to send news through telegraphy services now it has been replaced by internet.

Magazines,: in 1731 in the title of “Gentleman’s Magazine” which was founded in London, however, magazine in its very early form was available to general public since 1646. In 1691 The Compleat Library appeared on the scene which is taken as the first magazine that broke away from book information .The first essay-type periodical was Tattler and the first magazine published from USA was Andrew Branford’s American Magazine.

First World War, newspapers were a major medium of communication and information. After communist revolution in Russia, Russian Radio started using radio as a medium to propagate their communist ideology to other parts of the world. Radio being a medium of no physical boundary and wisely used as well, helped Russians in spreading their new ideology of communism to the rest of the world. As a result European and American leaders showed their anger towards newly formed communist government and protested against it internationally, taking its actions and broadcast as an effort to provoke their people to revolt against their governments. This is how the world realized the power of electronic media, which if used tactically, can cross any border to achieve its goals.
At that time in Europe some individuals were broadcasting different radio channels on their own.

During the decade following the advent of projected motion pictures, films were shown as part of vaudeville or variety programs, at carnivals and fairgrounds, in lecture halls and churches, and gradually in spaces converted for the exclusive exhibition of movies. Most films ran no longer than 10 to 12 minutes, which reflected the amount of film that could be wound on a standard reel for projection (hence the term one-reelers).

Television is a common telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance.

Internet :it connects the computers present all over the world. internet is used to exchange news,data and information of all kind .it is decentralized in design.

.Role of mass media today
Surveillance of the environment. This is the collection and distribution of information within and outside a particular environment. The information flow is necessary for unity and coherence if we live in the society of collectivity;

2. Correlation of parts of the society. This includes the interpretation of the information, the prescription of conduct and, the comment on social value;

3. Transmission of social heritage. By communicating information through the mass media we are transmitting social and cultural values, which aim at sustaining the society;

4. Educating the masses. Education on the policies of governments and on the rights and responsibilities could be carried out through the mass media.

5. Entertainment function. The mass media also entertain the public by providing emotional relaxation, intrinsic and cultural enjoyment (i.e. provision of momentary escape from problems) and killing boredom; and

6. Mobilization function. This function of the mass media is very important to developing communities everywhere. It seeks to bring the people together and helps to advance national development.


It could be seen from the foregoing functions that the mass media provide information and education, personal identity, entertainment and most importantly integration and social interaction by giving insight into the circumstances of others as well as by helping with the development of social empathy.
this is from various sites and virtual university notes.kindly sadia and others evaluate it and tell me how to improve it
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