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Default Solved Paper EDS (One liners, Short Answers and Main Points)

Federal Public Service Commission Exams 2006
General Knowledge, Paper -1
Every Day Science

Q.1. Write short notes on only TWO of the following: (5 each)

(a) Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
A technique used in medical sciences to investigate the anatomy of the body, specially the brain. It uses strong magnetic fields to form images of body. It has many uses in the field of neurology, cardio-vascular, oncology and many other fields of medical studies. The scans have been known to cause twitching, heating of the body and discomfort to the patients. Moreover the scan has side-effects and thus measures are being taken to limits it use in the health industry.

(b) Tidal Energy: It is a form of Hydel Power and also a type of renewable energy resource that has a potential for energy generation. It is more predictable the wind energy and solar power, however despite that the equipment can be very expensive and maintenance consuming due to the environment around such form. Moreover, it can be harmful to marine life and various ways are being suggested to make it environmental friendly. Tidal Steam engines and Tidal Barrage can work out in Pakistan, given the country lacks energy resources. However special care shall be taken into account for the marine life.

(c) Supersonics: Supersonic speed is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1). For objects traveling in dry air of a temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) at sea level, this speed is approximately 343 m/s
Most modern fighter aircraft are supersonic, but there have been supersonic passenger aircraft, namely Concorde and the Tupolev Tu-144 whose flights were suspended in 2003. Both these passenger aircraft and some modern fighters are also capable of super cruise, a condition of sustained supersonic flight without the use of an afterburner. Due to its ability to super cruise for several hours and the relatively high frequency of flight over several decades. Some large bombers, such as the Tupolev Tu-160 and Rockwell/Boeing B-1B are also supersonic-capable.

Q.2. What is Pollen Allergy? What preventive measures are to be taken to avoid it? (4, 6)
Allergy to Polen is called Pollinosis. These pollens are usually from animophilous plants. Although their mission is to fertilize parts of other plants, many never reach their targets. Instead, they enter human noses and throats, triggering a type of seasonal allergic rhinitis called pollen allergy, which many people know as hay fever or rose fever (depending on the season in which the symptoms occur). Of all the things that can cause an allergy, pollen is one of the most widespread. Many of the foods, drugs, or animals that cause allergies can be avoided to a great extent; even insects and household dust are escapable. Short of staying indoors when the pollen count is high--and even that may not help--there is no easy way to evade windborne pollen. Antihistamines are seen to be effective against such allergies and can be used on physician’s prescription only.

Q.3 Name. (1 each)

1) The alloy consisting of metals copper, zinc and nickel: German or Nickel Silver
2) The instrument specially designed for recording earthquake waves: Seismograph
3) The electrical device which converts sound energy into electrical energy: Microphone
4) The ore of mercury metal: Cinnabar
5) The device with which variation of blood flow can be heard: Stethoscope
6) The element, which is abundantly present in the human body: Oxygen
7) The scientist who discovered penicillin: Alexander Fleming
8) The astronaut who first landed on the surface of the moon: Neil Armstrong
9) The desert mammal, which does not drink water: Kangaroo Rat
10) The mode of heat transfer from the sun to the earth: Radiation

Q.4. Write briefly (not more than four to five sentences) about only FIVE of the following: (2 each)

(a) Plaster of Paris:
Plaster of Paris or Gypsum Plaster which is used in making statues and coating of walls. It is also used to fix the dislocated as well as fractured bones as it is dries quickly to acquire the molded shape. It is a good finishing agent rather than a load-bearer. Its chemical name is Calcium Sulfate.
(b) Theodolite: An instrument used in surveying. It measures horizontal and vertical angles with a small telescope that can move in the horizontal and vertical planes. The measurement is done by pointing it at a target object. The device has a great precision with angles to seconds of arc. Theodolites have been adapted for specialized purposes in fields like metrology and rocket launch technology.
(c) Bird Flu: Bird Flu or Avian virus refers to an influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. It seems to effect all of the birds and especially chicken, however only 2 cases were reported to have caused death in human. Moreover, there has been no case since 2003. Despite the fact that the virus has been lethal to other animals it seems that the preventive measures have been effective in curtailing the virus. It is also estimated that the virus is seasonal and may return again in extreme cold weather.
(d) Gene: It is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. All organisms have many genes corresponding to various biological traits, some of which are immediately visible, such as eye color or number of limbs or height. The field of science which explores and look into the study of genes is called genetics.
(e) Thermistor: A combination of word thermal resistor. It is useful device in identifying temperatures in digital devices and was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1833. It can achieve huge precision between the temperatures of -90 to 130 degrees Centigrade. Applications range from digital thermostats to 3D printers and self setting devices of temperatures.
(f) Thermostat: As the name indicates Thermostat aims at maintaining the temperature of a device at a certain level. Thermostat is often attached with Air-conditioners which aims at maintain the room temperature, similarly one can find them on Press Irons too. Thermostat does this by switching heating or cooling devices on or off, or regulating the flow of a heat transfer fluid as needed, to maintain the correct temperature. The name is derived from the Greek words thermos "hot" and statos "a standing".
(g) Pedometer: It counts steps of the person. Commonly used in training and exercise. It has a great utility for patients, sports players, soldiers and even common people who may use it for physical fitness purpose. The device does its function by taking into the count the motion of the person’s hips. Today, there has been programs that make your smart phones as useful pedometers since these phones have motion sensors.

Q5. Which physical quantities are measured by the following units? (1 each)
(a) Foot-Pound: Energy
(b) Torr: Pressure
(c) Slug: Mass
(d) Guass: Magnetic Flux Density
(e) Acre Foot: Volume
(f) Becquerel: Radioactivity
(g) Erg: Energy
(h) Dyne: Force
(i) Gilbert: Electric Current
(j) Dioptre: Refractive Index

Q.6. What is the difference between Dam and Barrage? What benefits are obtained by constructing a big dam? (2, 8)

Main Points Only:

Dam is bowl shaped, can be constructed at steep slopes and conserves water. It is more useful for Hydel Energy than barrage. While Barrage is aims to control the flow of water, it is constructed at much flatter slopes and does not aim at conserving the water resources.
Benefits of Huge Dam:
Conservation of Water:
Conservation of Energy:
Production of Cheap Electricty:
Environment friendly: (No air pollution)
Recreational Benefits
Better Management: Water can be released on need basis only
Debris Control:
Political Advantage:

Q.7. Which of the following statements are True and which are False: (1 each)
1) Pitch of the dog sound is greater than the pitch of the cat sound. False
2) Ultraviolet light is visible but infrared light is not visible. False
3) Earthquakes are the lamps illuminating the structure of the earth’s exterior. False (Volcanoes)
4) Electricity does not move through the wire but through a field around the wire. False
5) A guava contains more vitamin C than an orange. True
6) Sound travels faster in iron than in air. True
7) Wheat Bridge is the name of an electrical circuit. True
8) Morphine can cause constipation and lowering of blood pressure. True (Source:
9) A concave lens is used for the correction of the Hyperopia. False (Convex)
10) The nucleic acids are responsible for proteins synthesis in the human body. True

Q.8. Differentiate between the following pairs: (2 each)

(a) Telemeter and Multimeter: Telemeter is a device used to measure distances to remote objects, that is, a rangefinder. Multimeter is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter would include basic features such as the ability to measure voltage, current, and resistance
(b) Perimeter and Altimeter: Perimeter is the outer boundary of a surface while Altimeter is a device used to measure altitudes.
(c) Periscope and Microscope: Periscope is a device commonly used in submarines to sea above the sea level, however it can also be used to sea below the surface. A microscope is a lens which magnifies the image of an object and thus it is used to look at micro particles.
(d) Nucleon and Photon: a nucleon is one of the particles that makes up the atomic nucleus which can be either proton or neutron. While Photon is a smallest particle of light and has a neutral charge.
(e) Cusec and Comet: Cusec is a unit of flow of water while comet is an object of solar system which leaves a icy trail and revolves around sun.

Q.9. Fill in the blanks: (1 each)
1) The branch of zoology, which deals with the study of insects is called ____ Entomology
2) The disease Beri Beri ____is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine).
3) Oil rises in a wick of oil lamp because of a property of matter, called ____Capillarity
4) The production of generally identical reproduction is called as ____ Binar Fission
5) Mercury _______ is the fastest planet of the solar system. (47.5 km/sec)
6) Mercury metal is 11 ___ times heavier than water.
7) Relative density of milk is measured by an instrument known as __ Lactometer
8) the temperature of a human body is measured by an instrument known as ___ Thermometer
9) Gold and silver are known as Nobel ____ metals. (Did someone said coinage, no such term in science at least)
10) The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is expressed in Dobson Units.

Q.10. What is global warming? Is there a sunny side to global warming? If yes, explain. (4, 6)

Main Points:

Rise in earth‘s temperature every decade. Reasons include green house effect, Solar radiation and Sun’s age.
Sunny Side: Yes
Life become possible due to this
Helps in making the environment conducive
Enlarged shipping routes
Cheap trading
Many different opportunities
Conservation of energy resources

Q.11. Give scientific reasons of the following: (2 each)

a) Why do some people snore? This relaxation of the upper airway muscles during sleep may decrease the size of the airway space and cause airflow limitation and turbulence. It is the combination of turbulent airflow through the hypotonic airway structures that results in the harsh vibratory noise known as snoring
b) Why do we sometimes sleep walk? no one knows exactly why people sleepwalk, but sleepwalking occurs during your deepest stages of sleep, stages 3 and 4, when brainwaves are very slow. During the day, your brain is a beehive of activity -- during NREM sleep it is barely humming. Your body, however, is still active, and hasn't completely quieted down for the day. So what we have here is a body that can still move, paired with a sleepy brain. The fact that most sleepwalkers are children is significant, especially since most of them grow out of it. A child's brain develops very quickly and is primed to soak up all kinds of stimuli.
c) Climber bends forward while climbing a mountain: This is done to put forward their weight so that in case they slip then they should fall back on hands to regain the balance.
d) The manhole covers are generally round: This not only reduces surface tension but also ensures easier transportation of these manholes which are rounded on then.
e) Roads are bent inwards on curves: Since the centrifugal force of the car pushes it into the opposite direction of the turn hence road are bent inwards to cancel such effect.

Q.12. What are vitamins and minerals? Which vitamins and minerals play major role in the development of bones? (4, 6)

Vitamin means Vital Amino Acids, which are essential for body along with some minerals.
Vit A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, D, E and K play an imp role. While Ca, Na, K, Fe also play an imp role in the body.

Q.13. what do the following scientific abbreviations stand for? (1 each)

(1) CRO: Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
(2) SARS: Severe Accute Respiratory Syndrome
(3) BOT: Internet BOT or Web RoBOT
(4) AMU: Atomic Mass Unit
(5) EMF: Electro Motif Force
(6) ADH: Anti Diuretic Hormone
(7) STP: Standard Temperature pressure/ Shielded Twisted Pair
(8) GeV: Giga Electron Volts
(9) NTP : Network time protocol
(10) CRT: Cathode Ray Tube

Q.14. Compare the columns A and B and write the correct answer from the column B corresponding to the column A (serial wise) in column C. (1 each)

Column A Column B Column C

(1) Geiger Muller Counter (1) Radioactivity
(2) Newton (2) Gravitation
(3) Addison (3) EM Induction
(4) Bardeen and Brattin (4) Semi Conductor
(5) Weber Fechner’s Law (5) Non Conductor
(6) Benjamin Franklin (6) Electricity
(7) Decibel (7) Sound
(8) Dr. Gilbert (8) Magnet (Earth is a huge Magnet)
(9) Henry Cavendish (9) Water
(10) Faraday (10) Lightening Conductor

Q.15. Choose the best choice in the following statements:
1) One of the countries through which equator passes is:
(a) Kenya
(b) Malaysia
(c) Malta
(d) Pakistan

2) Copper can be converted into gold by:
(a) Artificial radioactivity (b) heating (c) Electroplating (d) Chemical reaction

3) The three elements needed for healthy growth of plants are:
(a) N, P, K
(b) N, C, P
(c) N, K,
(d) N, S, P

4) Clocks, which moves with the velocities compareable with the velocity of light, run:
(a) fast
(b) slow
(c) equal to the velocity of light
(d) with zero velocity

5) Max Planck received the noble prize in Physics in 1918 for his discovery of:
(a) electron
(b) energy quanta
(c) photon
(d) positron

6) Bronze medal is made up of metals:
(a) (copper,nickel)
(b) (copper, tin)
(c) (copper, silver)
(d) (copper, zinc)

7) Addison’s disease is caused by the excessive secretion of:
(a) Antiduretic Harmone
(b) Luteinising Harmone
(c) Melanophore stimulating Harmone
(d) Adrenocorticotrophic Harmone

8) Development of calf muscles in ladies who wear high heels is a common example of:
(a) Natural Selection
(b) inheritance of acquired character
(c) Use and disuse of organ
(d) Artificial selection

9) Margalla Hill is a branch of:
(a) Karakorum range
(b) Hindukash range
(c) Himalaya range
(d) Nanga Parbat range

10) Humming bird belongs to a category called:
(a) Ectotherm
(b) Endotherm
(c) Exotherm
(d) Heterotherm.
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