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Selected World Rulers by Country or Region




Ancient and Historical Empire`s Rulers


Ancient Egypt: Rulers

Amenemhet I, king of ancient Egypt, founder of the XII dynasty (2000–1970 B.C.)

Sesostris I, king of ancient Egypt, second ruler of the XII dynasty (1980–1926 B.C.)

Amasis I, king of ancient Egypt (c.1570–1545 B.C.), founder of the XVIII dynasty

Thutmose I, king of ancient Egypt (1525–1495 B.C.), third ruler of the XVIII dynasty

Hatshepsut, queen of ancient Egypt (1486–1468 B.C.), of the XVIII dynasty

Ikhnaton, king of ancient Egypt (c.1372–1354 B.C.), of the XVIII dynasty

Ramses, name of several kings of ancient Egypt of the XIX and XX dynasties

Horemheb, king of ancient Egypt (c.1342–c.1303 B.C.), founder of the XIX dynasty

Seti I, king of ancient Egypt (1302–1290 B.C.), of the XIX dynasty

Merneptah, king of ancient Egypt (1224–1215 B.C.), of the XIX dynasty

Sheshonk I, king of ancient Egypt (950–924? B.C.), founder of the XXII (Libyan) dynasty

Piankhi, king of ancient Nubia (c.741–c.715 B.C.)

Taharka, king of ancient Egypt (688–663 B.C.), last ruler of the XXV dynasty

Psamtik, king of ancient Egypt (661–609 B.C.), founder of the XXVI dynasty

Apries, king of ancient Egypt (588–569 B.C.), of the XXVI dynasty

Amasis II, king of ancient Egypt (569–525 B.C.), of the XXVI dynasty

Ptolemy I (Ptolemy Soter), king of ancient Egypt (323–284 B.C.), the first
ruler of the Macedonian dynasty (or Lagid dynasty)

Ptolemy II (Ptolemy Philadelphus), king of ancient Egypt (285–246 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Berenice, queen of ancient Cyrene and Egypt (273–221 B.C.)

Ptolemy III (Ptolemy Euergetes), king of ancient Egypt (246–221 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy IV (Ptolemy Philopator), king of ancient Egypt (221–205 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy V (Ptolemy Epiphanes), king of ancient Egypt (205–180 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy VI (Ptolemy Philometor), king of ancient Egypt (180–145 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy VII (Ptolemy Physcon), king of ancient Egypt (145–116 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy VIII (Ptolemy Lathyrus), king of ancient Egypt (116–107 B.C., 88–81 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy IX, king of ancient Egypt (107–88 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy X, king of ancient Egypt (80 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Cleopatra, queen of Egypt (69–30 B.C.)

Ptolemy XI (Ptolemy Auletes), king of ancient Egypt (80–58 B.C., 55–51 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy XII, king of ancient Egypt (51–47 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy XIII, king of ancient Egypt (47–44 B.C.), the last of the Macedonian dynasty













Ancient Persia: Kings

Cambyses, two kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia (c. 600–500 B.C.)

Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire (c. 559–529 B.C.)

Darius I (Darius the Great), king of ancient Persia (521–486 B.C.)

Xerxes I (Xerxes the Great), king of ancient Persia (486–465 B.C.)

Artaxerxes I, king of ancient Persia (464–425 B.C.), of the dynasty of the Achaemenis

Xerxes II, king of ancient Persia (424 B.C.)

Darius II, king of ancient Persia (423?–404 B.C.)
Tissaphernes, Persian satrap of coastal Asia Minor (c.413–395 B.C.)

Artaxerxes II, king of ancient Persia (404–358 B.C.)
Mausolus, Persian satrap, ruler over Caria (c.376–353 B.C.)

Artaxerxes III, king of ancient Persia (358–338 B.C.)

Darius III (Darius Codomannus), king of ancient Persia (336–330 B.C.)

Tiridates, king of Parthia (c.248–211 B.C.), second ruler of the Arsacid dynasty

Shapur I, king of Persia (241–72)

Shapur II, king of Persia (310–79), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty

Ardashir II, king of Persia (379–83), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty

Shapur III, king of Persia (383–88), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty

Khosrow I (Khosrow Anόshirvan), king of Persia (531–79)

Khosrow II (Khosrow Parviz), king of Persia of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty (590–628)











Ancient Greece and Macedon: Rulers

Draco, Athenian politician (c. 621 B.C.)

Solon, chief magistrate of Athens (594–546 B.C.)

Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens (605?–527 B.C.)

Hippias, tyrant of Athens (527–510 B.C.)

Hipparchus, tyrant of Athens (c. 555–514 B.C.)

Themistocles, Athenian statesman (c. 525–462 B.C.)

Cimon, Athenian general and statesman (d. 449 B.C.)

Cleisthenes, democratic ruler of Athens (506 B.C.)

Pericles, Athenian statesman (c. 495-429 B.C.)

Cleon, Athenian statesman (d. 422 B.C.)

Alcibiades, Athenian statesman, (c. 450–404 B.C.)

Agesilaus II, king of Sparta (c. 444–360 B.C.)

Agis, name of four Spartan kings

Philip II, king of Macedon and Greece (359–336 B.C.)

Alexander the Great, , king of Macedon and much of Asia, (356–323 B.C.)

Lysimachus, general of Alexander the Great, ruler of Thrace, west Asia Minor, and Macedonia, (c. 355–281 B.C.)

Cassander, king of Macedon (358–297 B.C.)

Demetrius I, king of Macedon (c. 337–283 B.C.)

Antigonus II, king of Macedon (c. 320-239 B.C.)

Demetrius II, king of Macedon (c. 239–229 B.C.)

Antigonus III, king of Macedon (d. 221 B.C.)

Cleomenes III, king of Sparta (235–221 B.C.)

Philip V, king of Macedon (221–179 B.C.)

Perseus, last king of Macedon (179–168 B.C.)












Roman Republic and Roman Empire: Rulers

Roman Republic

Cato the Elder, statesman (234–149 B.C.)

Gracchi, (Tiberius Sempronius Graccus [d. 133B.C.] and Caius Sempronius

Gracchus [d. 121 B.C.], statesmen and social reformers

Caius Marius, general and consul (157–86 B.C.)

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, general and consul (138–78 B.C.)

Pompey, general and member of First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and
Crassus (106–48B.C.)

Marcus Licinius Crassus, member of First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey
(d. 53 B.C.)

Cato the Younger, statesman (95–46 B.C.)

Julius Caesar, general and statesman (100?–44 B.C.)

Marc Antony, politician and soldier, member of Second Triumvirate with
Lepidus and Octavian (Augustus) (83–30 B.C.)

Lepidus, member of Second Triumvirate with Marc Antony and Octavian (d. 13 B.C.)


Roman Empire

Augustus, (Octavian) first emperor, grandnephew of Julius Caesar, (27 B.C.–A.D. 14)

Tiberius, stepson of Augustus, (14–37)

Caligula, grandnephew of Tiberius (37–41)

Claudius, uncle of Caligula (41–54)

Nero, stepson of Claudius (54–68)

Galba, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (68–69)

Otho, military commander (69)

Vitellius, military commander (69)

Vespasian, military commander (69–79)

Titus, son of Vespasian (79–81)

Domitian, son of Vespasian (81–96)

Nerva, elected interim ruler (96-98)

Trajan, adopted son of Nerva (98–117)

Hadrian, ward of Trajan (117–138)

Antoninus Pius, adopted by Hadrian (138–161)

Marcus Aurelius, adopted by Antoninus Pius (161–180)

Lucius Verus, adopted by Antoninus Pius; ruled jointly with Marcus Aurelius (
161–169)

Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius (180–192)

Pertinax, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard (193)

Didius Julianus, bought office from the Praetorian Guard (193)

Severus, proclaimed emperor (193–211)

Caracalla, son of Severus (211–217)

Geta, son of Severus, ruled jointly with Caracalla (211–212)

Macrinus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (217–18)

Heliogabalus, cousin of Caracalla (218–222)

Alexander Severus, cousin of Heliogabalus (222–235)

Maximin, proclaimed emperor by soldiers, (235–238)

Gordian I, made emperor by the senate (238)

Gordian II, son of Gordian I, ruled jointly with his father (238)

Balbinus, elected joint emperor by the senate (238)

Pupienus Maximus, elected joint emperor with Balbinus by the senate (238)

Gordian III, son of Gordian II (238–244)

Philip (the Arabian), assassin of Gordian III (244–249)

Decius, proclaimed emperor by the soldiers (249–2251)


Hostilianus, son of Decius, colleague of Gallus (251)

Gallus, military commander (251–253)

Aemilianus, military commander (253)

Valerian, military commander (253–260)

Gallienus, son of Valerian, coemperor with his father and later sole emperor (
253–268)

Claudius II, military commander (268–270)

Aurelian, chosen by Claudius II as successor (270–275)

Tacitus, chosen by the senate (275–276)

Florianus, half brother of Tacitus (276)

Probus, military commander (276–282)

Carus, proclaimed by the Praetorian Guard (282–283)

Carinus, son of Carus (283–285)

Numerianus, son of Carus, joint emperor with Carinus (283–284)

Diocletian, military commander, divided the empire; ruled jointly with Maximian
and Constantius I 284–305)

Maximian, appointed joint emperor by Diocletian (286–305)

Constantius I, joint emperor and successor of Diocletian (305–306)

Galerius, joint emperor with Constantius I (305–310)

Maximin, nephew of Galerius (308–313)

Licinius, appointed emperor in the West by Galerius; later emperor in the East (308–324)

Maxentius, son of Maximian (306–312)

Constantine I (the Great), son of Constantius I (306–337)

Constantine II, son of Constantine I (337–340)

Constans, son of Constantine I (337–350)

Constantius II, son of Constantine I (337–361)

Magnentius, usurped Constans' throne, (350–353)

Julian (the Apostate), nephew of Constantine I (361–363)

Jovian, elected by the army (363–364)

Valentinian I, proclaimed by the army; ruled in the West (364–375)

Valens, brother of Valentinian I; ruled in the East (364–378)

Gratian, son of Valentinian I; coruler in the West with Valentinian II (375–383)

Maximus, usurper in the West (383–388)

Valentinian II, son of Valentinian I, ruler of the West (375–392)

Eugenius, usurper in the West (393–394)

Theodosius I (the Great), appointed ruler of the East (379–395) by Gratian;

last ruler of united empire (394–395)



Emperors in the East

Arcadius, son of Theodosius I (395–408)

Theodosius II, son of Arcadius, (408–450)

Marcian, brother-in-law of Theodosius II (450–457)

Leo I, chosen by the senate (457–474)

Leo II, grandson of Leo I (474)

Zeno (474–475)

Basilicus (475–476)




Emperors in the West

Honorius, son of Theodosius (395–423)

Maximus, usurper in Spain (409–411)

Constantius III, named joint emperor by Honorius (421)

Valentinian III, nephew of Honorius and son of Constantius III (425–455)

Petronius Maximus, bought office by bribery (455)

Avitus, placed in office by Goths (455–456)

Majorian, puppet emperor of Ricimer (457–461)

Libius Severus, puppet emperor of Ricimer (461–465)

Anthemius, appointed by Ricimer and Leo I (467–472)

Olybrius, appointed by Ricimer (472–473)

Glycerius, appointed by Leo I (473–474)

Julius Nepos, appointed by Leo I (474–475)

Romulus Augustulus, put in office by Orestes, his father (474–476)












Byzantium: Emperors

Leo I, Byzantine or East Roman emperor (457–74)

Justin I, Byzantine emperor (518–27)

Justinian I, Byzantine emperor (527–65)

Theodora, Byzantine empress (527–48)

Justin II, Byzantine emperor (565–78)

Maurice, Byzantine emperor (582–602)

Heraclius, Byzantine emperor (610–41)

Constans II, Byzantine emperor (641–68)

Constantine IV, Byzantine emperor (668–85)

Justinian II, Byzantine emperor (685–95, 705–11)

Leo III, Byzantine emperor (717–41)

Constantine V, Byzantine emperor (741–75)

Leo IV, Byzantine emperor (775–80)

Constantine VI, Byzantine emperor (780–97)

Irene, Byzantine empress (797–802)

Nicephorus I, Byzantine emperor (802–11)

Michael I, Byzantine emperor (811–13)

Leo V, Byzantine emperor (813–20)

Michael II, Byzantine emperor (820–29)

Michael III, Byzantine emperor (842–67)

Basil I, Byzantine emperor (867–86)

Leo VI, Byzantine emperor (886–912)

Constantine VII, Byzantine emperor (913–59)

Romanus I, Byzantine emperor (usurper) (920–44)

Romanus II, Byzantine emperor (959–63)

Nicephorus II (Nicephorus Phocas), Byzantine emperor (963–69)

John I (John Tzimisces), Byzantine emperor (969–76)

Basil II, Byzantine emperor (976–1025)

Romanus III (Romanus Argyrus), Byzantine emperor (1028–34)

Zoλ, Byzantine empress (1028–50)

Comnenus, family name of several Byzantine emperors in the 11th and 12th
centuries

Isaac I (Isaac Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1057–59), first of the Comneni
dynasty

Romanus IV (Romanus Diogenes), Byzantine emperor (1068–71)

Alexius I (Alexius Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118)

John II (John Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1118–43)

Manuel I (Manuel Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1143–80)

Alexius II, Byzantine emperor (1180–83)

Andronicus I (Andronicus Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1183–85)

Isaac II (Isaac Angelus), Byzantine emperor (1185–95, 1203–04)

Alexius III (Alexius Angelus), Byzantine emperor (1195–1203)

Alexius IV, Byzantine emperor (1203–04)

Alexius V (Alexius Ducas Mourtzouphlos), Byzantine emperor (1204)

Baldwin I, first Latin emperor of Constantinople (1204–05)

Theodore I, Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1204–22)

Robert of Courtenay, Latin emperor of Constantinople (1218–28)

John III (John Ducas Vatatzes), Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1222–54)

Theodore II, Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1254–58)

Baldwin II, last Latin emperor of Constantinople (1228–61)

John IV (John Lascaris), Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1258–61)

Michael VIII, Byzantine emperor (1261–82), first of the Palaeologus dynasty

Andronicus II (Andronicus Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1282–1328)

Andronicus III, Byzantine emperor (1328–41)

John V (John Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1341–91)

John VI (John Cantacuzene), Byzantine emperor (1347–54)

John VII (John Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1390, 1399–1402)

Manuel II, Byzantine emperor (1391–1425)

John VIII, Byzantine emperor (1425–48)

Constantine XI, last Byzantine emperor (1449–53)












Holy Roman Empire: Emperors

Charlemagne (Charles I), emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814)

Charles II, emperor of the West (875–77) and king of the West Franks (843–77)

Otto I, Holy Roman emperor (962–73) and German king (936–73)

Otto II, Holy Roman emperor (973–83) and German king (961–83)

Otto III, Holy Roman emperor (996–1002) and German king (983–1002)

Henry II, Holy Roman emperor (1014–24) and German king (1002–24), last of
the Saxon line

Conrad II, Holy Roman emperor (1027–39) and German king (1024–39), first of the Salian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire

Henry III, Holy Roman emperor (1046–56) and German king (1039–56)

Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor (1084–1105) and German king (1056–1105)

Henry V, Holy Roman emperor (1111–25) and German king (1105–25)

Lothair II, also called Lothair III, Holy Roman emperor (1133–37) and German king (1125–37)

Frederick I, Holy Roman emperor (1155–90) and German king (1152–90)

Henry VI, Holy Roman emperor (1191–97) and German king (1190–97)

Constance, Holy Roman empress, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI

Otto IV, Holy Roman emperor (1209–15) and German king (1208–15)

Frederick II, Holy Roman emperor (1220–50) and German king (1212–20), king
of Sicily (1197–1250), and king of Jerusalem (1229–50)

Henry VII, Holy Roman emperor (1312–13) and German king (1308–13)

Louis IV, Holy Roman emperor (1328–47) and German king (1314–47), duke of Upper Bavaria

Charles IV, Holy Roman emperor (1355–78), German king (1347–78), and king
of Bohemia (1346–78)

Wenceslaus, Holy Roman emperor (uncrowned) and German king (1378–1400), king of Bohemia (1378–1419) as Wenceslaus IV, elector of Brandenburg (1373–76)

Sigismund, Holy Roman emperor (1433–37), German king (1410–37), king of
Hungary (1387–1437) and of Bohemia (1419–37), elector of Brandenburg (
1376–1415)

Frederick III, Holy Roman emperor (1452–93) and German king (1440–93)


Maximilian I, Holy Roman emperor and German king (1493–1519)

Charles V, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (
1516–56)

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman emperor (1558–64), king of Bohemia (1526–64) and of Hungary (1526–64)

Maximilian II, Holy Roman emperor (1564–76), king of Bohemia (1562–76) and of Hungary (1563–76)

Rudolf II, Holy Roman emperor (1576–1612), king of Bohemia (1575–1611)
and of Hungary (1572–1608)

Matthias, Holy Roman emperor (1612–19), king of Bohemia (1611–17) and of Hungary (1608–18)

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman emperor (1619–37), king of Bohemia (1617–37) and
of Hungary (1618–37)

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman emperor (1637–57), king of Hungary (1626–57) and of Bohemia (1627–57)

Leopold I, Holy Roman emperor (1658–1705), king of Bohemia (1656–1705) and of Hungary (1655–1705)

Joseph I, Holy Roman emperor (1705–11), king of Hungary (1687–1711) and
of Bohemia (1705–11)

Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor (1711–40), king of Bohemia (1711–40) and, as Charles III, king of Hungary (1712–40)

Charles VII, Holy Roman emperor (1742–45) and, as Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria (1726–45)

Francis I, Holy Roman emperor (1745–65), duke of Lorraine (1729–37) as

Francis Stephen, grand duke of Tuscany (1737–65)

Joseph II, Holy Roman emperor (1765–90), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780–90)

Leopold II, Holy Roman emperor (1790–92), king of Bohemia and Hungary (
1790–92), as Leopold I grand duke of Tuscany (1765–90)

Francis II, last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806), first emperor of Austria as

Francis I (1804–35), king of Bohemia and of Hungary (1792–1835)









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