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Compulsory Question: Year 2007

Paper I

(1) The four main goals of psychological research are:
(a) Description, experimentation, prediction and control
(b) Description, explanation, assessment and manipulation
(c) Description, prediction, assessment and manipulation
(d) Description, explanation, control and validity
(e) None of these

(2) A verifiable scientific finding is one that can be:
(a) Observed in real life
(b) Proven impossible to test
(c) Proven valid, accurate and indisputable
(d) Replicated with the same result
(e) None of these

(3) An independent variable is:
(a) The only variable of interest
(b) A variable that is independently verified
(c) A variable whose value depends on that of the dependent variable
(d) The variable that is manipulated by experiment
(e) None of these

(4) The main regions of brain are the:
(a) Hind brain, forebrain, midbrain
(b) Cerebral cortex, forebrain, hind brain and midbrain
(c) Forebrain, midbrain and anterior region
(d) Central hemisphere, and left hemisphere
(e) None of these

(5) Of the three different types of the neurons, sensory neurons are unique in that day:
(a) Carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to parts of the body that then respond to the impulse.
(b) Receive information from the receptor cells and send this information to the brain or spinal cord.
(c) Reside exclusively in the peripheral nervous system has two functions, to send signals to motor neurons, and to receive signals from receptors.
(d) None of these

(6) The four parts of the neurons are:
(a) Axon, cell body, myelin sheath and dendrites
(b) Axon, dendrites, nucleus and terminal buttons
(c) Axon, cell body, dendrites and terminal buttons
(d) Axon, dendrites, myelin sheath and modes of ranvier
(e) None of these

(7) Effectors and receptor cells are different in:
(a) Their composition and speed of conduction
(b) The direction in which they carry nerve impulses
(c) The corresponding branch of the nervous system to which they belong
(d) The effectors never connect with the brain, while receptors receive information from the brain.
(e) None of these

(8) Three dimensional perception of the world is referred to as:
(a) Stereoposis
(b) Stroboscopy
(c) Multiple perspectives
(d) Normal vision
(e) None of these

(9) Perpetual constancy refers to:
(a) Perception of an object remaining the same even when our immediate sensation of the object changes.
(b) Perceptual tendency to group objects together on the basis of their similarity.
(c) Perception of an object’s changing even though the object stays the same
(d) Tendency to close up, incomplete objects into already existing perceptual shapes
(e) None of these

(10) Gestaltists refer to the fact that we perceive smooth flowing forms more readily than discrete forms as:
(a) Similarity
(b) Symmetry
(c) Holistic perception
(d) Continuity
(e) None of these

(11) Classical conditioning is a process whereby:
(a) Certain response result from certain stimulus presentations
(b) The CS is always presented before the UCS
(c) Actions that are reward tend to the strengthened
(d) Learning occurs when a stimulus is paired with a certain response
(e) None of these

(12) Edward Tolman’s experiments with rats showed that:
(a) Learning could be achieved without reinforcement
(b) Rats could learn second order conditioning in the absence of food
(c) All rats behaviour could be analyzed by stimulus – response contingencies
(d) The law of effect was not valid in all animals
(e) None of these

(13) Albert’s Bandura’s social learning theory holds that:
(a) Learning is best in group settings
(b) Learning can be achieved by observing and modeling another person’s behaviour
(c) Mere exposure to an aggressive scene always later elicits aggressive behaviour
(d) Social learning takes place at an unconscious level
(e) None of these

(14) According to Marlow’s hierarchy of needs, individuals:
(a) May bypass a level in their quest for self actualization
(b) Must satisfy self-esteem needs before achieving belongingness and love needs
(c) Always end their lives self actualized
(d) Must satisfy esteem needs before the process of self-actualization
(e) None of these

(15) Research by Edward Deci has suggested that extrinsic motivators are more effective when they are:
(a) Stated up front so that the individual knows what he or she will be receiving
(b) Tangible and easily identifiable
(c) Received immediately before the task is accomplished
(d) Intangible, such as verbal praise or smile
(e) None of these

(16) Goals can help us motivated by all the following except:
(a) Focusing our attention
(b) Encouraging alternative ways of achieving goals
(c) Allowing us the freedom to be spontaneous in our activities
(d) Mobilizing our resources
(e) None of these

(17) Psychodynamic determinism refers to:
(a) Behaviour that is rules by forces over which we have no control
(b) Behaviour that is preconscious in origin
(c) Id impulses that will forever remain unfulfilled
(d) The delimiting characteristics of the superego
(e) None of these

(18) According to Freudian, dream terminology, condensation refers to:
(a) Repressed urges that find disguised outlets for expression
(b) The bizarre, irrational quality of dreams
(c) The process whereby unacceptable thoughts or impulses are combined into a single dream image
(d) The process whereby one thing may stand for another in dream interpretation
(e) None of these

(19) Group popularization is an affect whereby:
(a) Extreme opinions in a group becomes moderate with increased group interaction
(b) Group members moderate positions become polarized with increased group interaction
(c) Group decisions represent an exaggeration of the group members initial positions
(d) The group members’ main concern is to maintain unanimity and group cohesion
(e) None of these

(20) Group think is unlikely to occur when which of the following factors is present?
(a) There is a high degree of stress in the decision-making process
(b) There are clear objective in the decision making process
(c) The group is homogeneous in composition
(d) The group is ideologically isolated
(e) None of these

Paper II

(1) The study of the hereditary transmission of attributes is:
(a) Heritability, biological traits
(b) Genetics, genes
(c) Adaptability, dominant and recessive traits
(d) Mutation, differentiation
(e) None of these

(2) A male born with an extra Y chromosome, XYY, shows some evidence of increased aggressiveness and typically scores lower than normal on intelligence tests:
(a) Turner’s syndrome
(b) Supermale Syndrome
(c) XXX syndrome
(d) Kinfefelter’s syndrome
(e) None of these

(3) The material of which chromosomes are composed is called:
(a) Deoxyribonucleic acid
(b) Genes
(c) Atoms
(d) Myelin
(e) None of these

(4) Maturation refers to:
(a) The attainment of successive stages of cognitive development.
(b) Relatively stable changes in an individual’s thought and behavior or a result of biological processor of aging.
(c) Relatively stable changes in an individual’s thought and behavior as a result of accumulating experience.
(d) The development of an individual thought and behavior due to the interactions of biological and environmental factors
(e) None of these

(5) According to one definition, behavior is abnormal if it is:
(a) Labeled as abnormal by the society in which the individual lives
(b) Not under conscious control by the individual
(c) Statistically typical
(d) Adaptive to the individual
(e) None of these

(6) Anxiety disorders may be characterized by:
(a) Psychotic symptoms
(b) Low affect
(c) Telegraphic thoughts
(d) Somatic symptoms
(e) None of these

(7) Two examples of mood disorders are:
(a) Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder
(b) Obsessive compulsive disorder and manic-depressive disorder
(c) Major depression and dipolar disorder
(d) Major depression and obsessive compulsive disorder
(e) None of these

(8) An individual cannot remember events during an immediately following a serious airplane crash:
(a) Dissociative amnesia
(b) Dissociative fugue
(c) Retrograde amnesia
(d) Fractured amnesia
(e) None of these

(9) A type of schizophrenia characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and diffuse psychological organization is referred to as:
(a) Undifferentiated
(b) Disorganized
(c) Residual
(d) Fragmented
(e) None of these

(10) An individual who is identified as having a borderline personality disorder shows:
(a) Persecutory thoughts
(b) Exhibitionistic tendencies
(c) Instability in mood and social relations
(d) Apathy and indifference to the opinions of others
(e) None of these

(11) Which symptoms is not typically characteristic of an autistic child?
(a) Impairment in communication
(b) Hyperactivity
(c) Restricted range of interest
(d) Social isolation
(e) None of these

(12) The Stanford-Binet, WAIS-R and WISC are known to have very high reliability. This means that:
(a) A pretest has been given to a representative
(b) The test yields consistent results, for example-retesting
(c) The test measures what it is supposed to measure
(d) The result of the test will be distributed on a bell shaped curve
(e) None of these

(13) The experience that has the clearest, most profound effect on intellectual development:
(a) Being enrolled in Head Start Program
(b) Growing up in an economically disadvantaged home or neighbourhood
(c) Being raised in a very neglected home
(d) Being exposed to very stimulating toys and lessons in infancy

(14) A therapist who encourages clients to relate their dreams and searches its roots is:
(a) Psychoanalysis
(b) Humanistic therapy
(c) Person-centered therapy
(d) Cognitive therapy
(e) None of these

(15) The most enthusiastic or optimistic view of Psychotherapy comes from:
(a) Outcome research
(b) Psychologist Hans Eyesenck
(c) Reports of clinicians
(d) An NIMH study of treatment for depression
(e) None of these

(16) An approach that seeks to alleviate poverty and to other stresses that put people at high risk for developing psychological disorders is:
(a) Biomedical therapy
(b) The humanistic approach
(c) Empathy and active listening
(d) Preventive mental health
(e) None of these

(17) If a person washes his hands 100 times a day, the behavior will be labeled disordered because it is:
(a) Unjustified an maladaptive
(b) An atypical behavior
(c) Not explained by the medical model
(d) Harmful and disturbing to others

(18) The DSM-111-R has improved reliability because it helps mental health workers base their diagnosis on:
(a) A few well-defined categories
(b) In-depth history of the patient
(c) The patient’s observable behaviour
(d) The theories of Pinel, Freud and others
(e) None of these

(19) An episode of intense dread, which is typically accompanied by feelings of terror and dizziness, chest pain etc. is called:
(a) Generalized or chronic anxiety
(b) A social phobia
(c) A panic attack
(d) An obsessive fear
(e) None of these

(20) Amnesia, fugue and multiple personality involve gaps in awareness, for example, sudden loss of memory or change of identity. These Psychological disorders are called:
(a) Anxiety disorders
(b) Dissociative disorders
(c) Mood disorders
(d) Memory disorders
(e) None of these
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