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Agriculture (Total Marks-100)
  1. Natural Resources (Land, Water, Biological. Environmental. Solar and energy) as bases for agricultural production. Agriculture as integrated system of components like Crops, Livestock, Fisheries, Forestry. Range Management. Socio-economics etc. Role of research and newer technologies in current and future agriculture in Pakistan.
  2. Elements of climate and their relationship with crop growth. Factors of soil, Soil formation and development of soil profile, Soil texture and structure and their management, Soil fertility and fertilizer requirement of various soils and crops, Role of organic matter in soil Water requirements' of crops and water use efficiency. Cropping pattern and crop relations. Systems and types of farming; Nature, formation and reclamation of salt affected and water-logged soil, Soil erosion and conservation
  3. Physiology of Growth and development, growth curves, growth regions, RGR, NAR and LAR in relation to biomass production. Seed growth and assimilate partitioning, Harvest index. Photoperiodic and thermoperiodic responses of crop plants, photorespiration, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle, factors affecting bioligical N fixation.
  4. The modern concept of genetics, gene and gene function, application of genetics for the improvement of crops.
  5. Modern concept of Horticultural industry, Plant propagation, Major management and breeding problems in fruits and vegetables
  6. Pests arid diseases of agricultural crops, Principles and methods of pest and diseases control, Pesticides-their application and action, Modern concept and principles of insect pest management.
  7. Role of agriculture in the national economy, Agricultural mechanization, Land tenure and Land reforms, Population problems of rural Pakistan, Major issues in agriculture and agricultural development in Pakistan.

Suggested Books on Agriculture





Agriculture in India Vol. I & II Kamar, L.S.S.


An Introduction to Tropical Agriculture Temporary H&D Grit, H.


A treatile in Horticulture Gilani, M.A.


An Introduction to Animal Husbandry King Black Well, J.O.L


Breading Field Crops Poehlman


Disease of Field Crops Dickenson, J.G.


Agricultural Insects, Pests of Tropics and their control Hill, S.D.


Forest Ecology Spurr, S.H.


Fundamentals of Soil Science Foth


Irrigation Principles and Practicals Isrealson, O.W.


Manual of Plant Production Abdul Manan


Principles of Agronomy Mudliar, W.T.S.


Principles of Field Crop Production Martin J.H. & Leonard W.H.


Principles of Genetics Gardner, E.J.


Physiology of Crop Plants Gardner, Peares and Mitchal


The Nature and Properties of Soil Buckman, H.O. & Bready N.C.


Physiology of Growth and Development Willking


Plant Pathology Agrioes, G.N.

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