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  #51  
Old Tuesday, October 13, 2009
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@amubarak
Did You prepare Maps part of geo?
and please email me the geography notes at dazzlingmaya@hotmail.com
Thanx
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  #52  
Old Wednesday, October 14, 2009
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Default I also need Geography notes

@Ammara Mubarak and All other members,

Plz send me the Geography notes, you have got form Amubarak.

My email is ealiraza@hotmail.com

Regards,
Ali Raza
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  #53  
Old Sunday, November 01, 2009
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Could you please send me psychology notes at aliz_khanz@hotmail.com

Or if any1 else has received the notes from amburk , could u please forward me !?
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  #54  
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@ Nageen, thank you for uploading the notes.

For geography i prepared maps for ocean currents (drew it in the paper), and i prepared another map showing the key ports of the world (this was basically for MCQ's)

The psychology notes, I will just paste here, I didnt make any elaborate notes for psychology, these were some of my graduate assignments and class notes. For psychology, consult the recommended books.

Working Conditions

Physical Working Conditions

Our surroundings ,will affect our skill, motivation, and satisfaction
Uncongenial work conditions are related to decrease productivity, lower job satisfaction greater errors and accidents , and more absenteeism and turnover inspite of best selection and best training.
But we see peak efficiency even in intolerable conditions and poor performance in best conditions

Dimensions of Physical Work Environment

Carlopio (1996) 641 managers
Environmental design including Lighting, Air quality, and general atmosphere of the work area
Facilities including rest rooms , eating areas and recreational facilities.
Work Organization including work schedule and pace and amount of time and information provided to do the job.
Dimensions of Physical Work Environment (Cont.)

Equipment and tools , including the design and efficiency of the tools and machines provided to the job.
Health and safety including organizational procedures to deal with physical safety issues , hazards, and other factors that may affect employee health
Dimensions of Physical Work Environment ( Cont.)

We can divide working conditions in three dimensions
Physical Conditions ( Light ,Air , Temp. )
Temporal Conditions ( Shift work, working hours, rest periods )
Psychological conditions ( Monotony , Boredom and stress

Work Sites
Location of the parking lot
Size of the Parking lot
Location of the building
Location of the work site
If in remote area than number of facilities


Child care and dependent care facilities

Day care centers and on-sites schools for young children of employees Help in retaining them but no significant effect on job performance (Kossek& Nichol 1992)
Those provided with such facilities were higher in job Commitment (N=754) Grover & Crooker 1995)
Give edge in recruiting new employees, reducing absenteeism and stress.

Office and workplace design

Office design and location, its heating and air conditioning system ,Glass walls, fixed window buildings
Slow elevators in high rise buildings
Cafeteria and rest rooms
Office size and design (related to employee satisfac)
Layout of the set of offices ,( More closer more contact)
1973 Rehabilitation act & 1990 Americans with Disabilities act

Environmental Psychology and Landscaped offices
Environmental Psychologists concerned with natural and built environments and their impact on behavior eg. Effect of office design and layout on communication , flow of job, Relationship between managers and subordinates and work group cohesiveness ( Landscape offices)
ILLUMINATION
Inadequate lightening a source of distress
Adequate found to affect job satisfaction
High glare, dim bulbs and a lack of natural light have negative effect on job perform.
Intensity or level of brightness varies with the nature of the task and age of the worker.
Distribution of light.(Overhead as well as desk lamp for uniform distribution of light.
NOISE
Noise makes us irritable, nervous interferes and produces physiological effects such as hearing loss ,high blood pressure and muscle tension impair emotional well being and induce stress
Reduce employee Motivation to work (Evans & Johnson 2000)
Interferes with communication
Max exposure of 90 db for 8 hours day


COLOR

Certain colors increase productivity reduce accidents and increase morale
But claims not supported by empirical evidence and no validity to any purported relationship between a color and productivity , fatigue and job satisfaction.
But color can provide a more pleasant working environment and can be aid in safety practices
MUSIC
Employees are supposed to be happier and more efficient when they listen music on work, also effect productivity and morale in simple repetitive jobs
Not in complexed and demanding job
Give emotional lift
but depends on type of people, type of work and type of music.
TEMPERATURE & HUMIDITY

The primary complaint about design was they found it too cold (Napoli 1998)and second most frequent complaint that it was too hot.
Effects the quality and quantity of physical products
Temp. has elation with lower performance level on motor task (Ramsey 1995)
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  #55  
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Default I/O Psychology

Importance, Scope and Applications of Industrial Psychology.



Industrial and organizational psychology involves research and application of the methods, facts and principles pf psychology to the people at work place. Psychology being a science of behavior and mental processes, Industrial/Organizational psychology aims at studying actions, behaviors, interaction among people, motivation, decision making etc.

As from the name industrial/organizational psychology caters to the requirements of industries and organizations equally. The applications of Industrial Psychology can be summarized as follows:

Job analysis
This is a process of analysis of different jobs ranging from the lowest to high ranks according to their duties, responsibilities, requirements etc.



Performance appraisal and feedback
This involves scrutinizing the performance of the employees & workers guiding them accordingly. This process enables to point out various deficiencies in the workers and their subsequent removal through proper feed back. Similarly good performers are given the due encouragement for persistency and further improvement.



Abilities and performance
This aspect of Industrial psychology caters to the inculcation, improvement and maintenance of the abilities critically important for effective management.



Workplace discrimination
Industrial psychology aims at understanding the workplace environment so as to check any discrimination among the employees on the bases of linguistic, racial, ethnic, religious background etc. The principles of Industrial psychology aim at removing discrimination among workers lowering the feeling of belongingness in industry. Hence, solid steps are taken to ensure better co ordination among employees.



Sexual harassment
The problem of sexual harassment is encountered in different organizations and industries worldwide. This problem is reported from lower to the executive level. I/O principles aim at better adapting the workers to their work environments so as to make the workers confident of their rights, properly sensitizing the fellow workers of their worth.

Recruiting, Selection&Placement
Industrial psychologists play an important role in the selection, recruitment and placement of employees. They apply the principles of I/O psychology towards the effective selection of workers ensuring that the right people get the right job. In this regard various assessment tools and techniques are employed.



Engineering psychology
Engineering psychology involves human factors and environmental designs. It is also known as ergonomics. Human characteristics and capacities are considered, along with the design of things people use and the environments in which they use them.



Working conditions
Working conditions play a very important role towards the worker’s motivation and the subsequent output. Industrial psychology can be regarded as the pioneer in establishing the role of a good and healthy working environment leading towards better production.

Contrarily organizational psychology deals with:

Organizational behavior
Organizational psychology aims towards making work teams, social behavior with in organization, ensuring smooth communication, decision-making, creativity and group dynamics.

Job satisfaction
Satisfied employees are mandatory for the efficient and smooth working of any organization. Organizational psychologist ensure that workers are paid and treated according to their input leading to feeling of fulfillment, necessary for healthy workers.

Attitudes and Job stress
Organizational psychology strives at creating positive job attitudes and minimizing the job stress by training workers to adopt healthy routines. In this context a special emphasis is laid on work family balance.

Motivation
Motivation of the workers plays a very important role in the success of any organization. In fact sometimes it is motivation alone that determines the fate of a critical project. Organizational psychologists harbor a number of measures that ensure motivated workers contributing to a successful organization.

Leadership
Effective leadership is the key to the success of any organization. Psychologists aim at training executives in a manner so as to allow healthy communication among workers and management and a democratic environment.

Individual differences
Individual differences exist among workers everywhere. Organizational psychologists aim at bridging any gaps in the performance of the workers so as to ensure the actualization of respective potentials at the fullest.

Career counseling
Organizational psychologists also provide career counseling services. They guide employees and intending workers for the sort of job best suited to their temperaments and abilities in the future.


Consumer psychology
This deals with understanding the consumer and marketing product range so as to result maximum possible sales. That is to make the consumer buy what is being marketed in such a manner that the needs of the consumer are fulfilled in a profitable manner to the industry.

Importance of I/O Psychology
The above-mentioned cases where I/O principles are applied convey the importance of I/O psychology quite well. It is seen that Industrial and organizational psychologists direct consulting and executive search firms, work for leadership centers, corporations and companies as well as universities. Hence, Industrial and Organizational psychologists are in position to play major roles in aiding corporations and companies manage their workforces.

Stigmas in organizations (weight, physical attractiveness, sexual orientation, disability, religious beliefs, race); sexual harassment; the role of personality traits in the hiring process; barriers to successful employment of workers with disabilities; workplace culture, particularly when companies merge; selection of law enforcement officers; reducing absenteeism, workplace aggression; what attracts individuals to certain organizations, and the leadership behaviors of women as managers are just a few of the studies being done by I/O psychologists. All such studies are playing a pivotal role towards determining the modern trends in industries and organizations.

All major industrial units and organizations now consider it mandatory to hire I/O psychologists for smoother and productive functioning of work places. In fact an efficient and well trained I/O psychologist can be termed as the backbone of any industry or organization.
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  #56  
Old Monday, November 02, 2009
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I just browsed through the earlier pages of this thread and realized there are more questions;

Academy/Tuition: No. I have never been to any academy, or tuition centre ever, not at any level. there was just no question about going to academy for CSS exam preparation

Time for preparation: I started preparation arounf June 2007, Exams started from 15th March. I just couldnt study during Ramazan, so that makes 8 months

English Essay and Composition: Dont ask for tips, initially i allocated a week for English prep just before exams, but due to adjustments in the time table as other subjects took more time, it came down to 3 days. One of the three days I went out for a change to freshen myself, the next day I bought stationary and stuff like that, then on the last day i practised some grammer. I have always treated English like this.

And i am not asking anyone of you to do the same.
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  #57  
Old Thursday, November 19, 2009
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Thanks for your tips

I want to ask , are we suppose to give references like we find in Zimbardo's Book ??? As you have studied zimbardo and you know that after about couple of sentences there is a bracket showing about name of psychologists who performed or have said those sentences ??? Won't that make it harder?
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  #58  
Old Thursday, November 19, 2009
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Default CSS Preparation

Hi I am zulfiqar.
I want to prepare for css exam 2010. Can u give me the list of books u studied.
Tell me with author name.
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  #59  
Old Thursday, November 19, 2009
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@ Ali: No need to give references in paper. I just gave references here because it has all the information about a book, becomes easy to track in libraries or at book stores.

@ zulfiqar: How about you go through the previous pages of this thread?
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  #60  
Old Friday, November 20, 2009
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very informative thread by Amubarak.
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