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Old Monday, April 16, 2012
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CSS TIPS & TRICKS

Most of us earn our degrees without reckoning our aptitude or we go for a discipline which is in fashion. In CSS, it is quite different. Here we do not have to earn a degree rather we have to grab excellent marks.

For the preparation of CSS (Central Superior Services), certain questions crop out in one's mind. It is difficult for the students to prepare the subjects individually and they have to seek guidance from different sources. In this context, they face certain problems, when they aspire to appear in CSS exams.

These are:
1. What optional subjects should I opt for?
2. Am I competent enough to take CSS exams?
3. What is sufficient time span for preparation?
4. How much should I study?

1. What optional subjects should I choose?

There are two perspectives:

(a) Optional subjects about which we learn that they are high scoring subjects.

(b) Optional subjects about which we learn that they are not that high scoring subjects.

(i) Perspective A

Not denying the fact that there are certain subjects, which are really marks yielding. These subjects include all science subjects such as Pure Math, Applied Math, Physics, Computer Sciences… and other subjects such as Mercantile Law, Accountings etc. To analyze this perspective one should consider these points:

• One's aptitude concerning the subject.
• One's skill concerning the subject.
• One's capacity concerning enhance-ment.
• One's capability in the subject.

Who should opt these subjects?

Anybody who says 'YES' to all above questions should go for these subjects.

Neither underestimate nor overestimate your competence. In case of overestimation none would endure loss but only you. Underestimation is somewhat good because it would work as impetus for hardwork. Most important thing in opting for these subjects is your aptitude. Higher the aptitude, higher would be the rate of success.

It is reality that there is no surety that one earns a bachelor's or master degree in any of these disciplines with enthusiasm or keen interest. Most of us earn our degrees without reckoning our aptitude or we go for a discipline, which is in “fashion,” or sometimes we are left with no choice-a Hobson's choice. In CSS, it is quite different. Here we do not have to earn a degree rather we have to grab excellent marks. If these subjects are marks yielding; it is reality too that these are one of those subjects, which can't be solved with general knowledge. General knowledge is a tool for success in subjects falling in category of humanities. One of the best ways to analyze one's capabilities in natural sciences subjects is to review past papers. In this way one can easily understand the prospective problems and rate of success. By reviewing past 10 years papers one can easily calculate how much diligent efforts are required to get excellent marks in the subject.

Neither underestimate nor overesti-mate your competence. In case of overestimation none would endure loss but only you. Underestimation is somewhat good because it would work as impetus for hardwork. Most important thing in opting for these subjects is your aptitude. Higher the aptitude, higher would be the rate of success.

(ii) Perspective B

This perspective does not hold water because of the following facts:
No subject is low scoring if one is well prepared.
Only requirement to get high score is to know how to deal that subject.
Your aptitude is your strength; higher
the aptitude, higher would be success rate.

For instance, it is said that constitu- tional law is too easy subject but as low score as what has been recorded in this subject. Intriguingly in the same subject numbers of aspirant have scored more than 80%.

As said before your aptitude is your strength and next step to get excellent marks is to administer your aptitude. Only advice that could be given is to evaluate your aptitude precisely. Point is to put effort. Remember any subject either belongs to natural science or social science would be of no use if you have no aptitude or interest. Lower the aptitude, higher would be boredom; higher would be boredom, higher the difficulty in dealing the subject and ultimately higher stamina would be required to grip on that subject.

2. Am I competent enough to take CSS exam?

There are indeed some apprehensions such as:
• I have never enjoyed creditable academic record.
• My English is not that high.
• I am not confident.

Can I offer what this endeavor demands?

You can cope with any kind of apprehension if you have high will compound with logic. If there is a will there is a way! What you have to do is to draw a strategy or a plan with different milestones. Your job is to cross milestones within time. For instance your milestones (which could be interpreted in terms of prerequisite of success) could be these:

Milestone 1: I have to get English proficiency (say first three months).

Milestone 2: I have to develop analytical characteristics (say within two months).

Remember any subject either belongs to natural science or social science would be of no use if you have no aptitude or interest. Lower the aptitude, higher would be boredom; higher would be boredom, higher the difficulty in dealing the subject and ultimately higher stamina would be required to grip on that subject.

First you have to draw your strategy; strategy is how you define your “problem statement” that is you define what you have to do in order to achieve your objective. The second part which is most important is the execution of strategy that is your work on “how” part of your problem. Remember do not render strategy making “a brown study” or “building castle in air.” Your strategy should be feasible and must be realistic or workable. Again please do not overestimate yourself.

You can do anything what any other single human being can. If you feel that you take more time as compare to any other person or just simple that you can't grab things fast do not bother yourself, remember the essence that 'YOU CAN DO WHAT OTHER CAN DO!' Instead of taking time span a predicament. But time span should be realistic such as if one can do a piece of work in one day you must be able to do that work in three days. Anyhow that difference must keep dwindle as time passes and you should be able to do that work in one and a half day.

Besides aforementioned stuff, follo-wing are other imperatives that are equally important:

• English language proficiency
• Grasp on Current Affair
• Analytical capabilities

What role English language profi-ciency plays is as obvious as one's existence.?

A bout grasp on current affairs, I would like to quote Yahya's statement that if one has no grasp over current affairs no one needs to bother oneself to take exams. Yahya scored 37th position in 2003 CSS exams. Yahya's statement holds water in very circumstances and one can easily validate his statement if one has gone through other papers' pattern of CSS exams. Even Islamiyat paper is not devoid of current affairs.

3. What is sufficient time span of preparation?

No one can predict accurate time span. It could be from six months to three years. It all depends on the academic background you have, what kind of skills you have and your capability to grasp concepts.
If one has to start from scratch but possessing good metal capabilities, rough estimation is of one year.

If one has to start from scratch with not too good metal capabilities rough estimation is of one and a half to one year.

If one need not to start from scratch and possessing good metal capabilities rough estimation is of six months.

4. How much should I study?

Answer of this question strictly depends on your choice of time span coupled with your metal capabilities. Whatsoever time span you chose as suggested above (in second last question) you need to study from six to eight hours on daily basis.
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Last edited by Shooting Star; Monday, April 16, 2012 at 05:12 PM. Reason: Avoid Red Color.
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Old Tuesday, April 17, 2012
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CSS Q&A

After serving in the Pakistan Air Force for fifteen years, Mr. Nawaz Khalid Arbi switched over to the Civil Service by dint of sheer hard work and determination. Currently, he is serving as District Coordination Officer, Pakpattan and has the additional responsibilities of District Officer Human Resource Management, District Officer Planning and Executive District Officer Finance. He has successfully been coaching the classes of CSS students. In an interview with the World Times, he has given some very useful tips to the students who wish to appear in the CSS examination.

In the light of your personal experience and observation, what are the prerequisites for the students who wish to succeed in the CSS exam?

Students wishing to appear on the competitive examination must have a sound and solid academic base. It is unwise to appear in the CSS exam immediately after graduation, because, at this stage, most of the students are immature and inexperienced and have less knowledge and exposure. Thus, before attempting the CSS exam, it is better for them to get Master's degree in some subject, which would inevitably widen their knowledge, outlook and vision and raise their maturity level. An additional benefit of this strategy is that even if they fail to get through the CSS exam, they will have another option open for them. If with a fair command over English and the habit of studying with full concentration for long hours, students work sincerely for one or two years they are most likely to succeed, even if their previous academic career was not so brilliant. As CSS is a planned activity that requires systematic preparation under proper guidance.

There are a large number of academics for the guidance of CSS students. Are they really helpful for the students?

In some CSS academies, only a single man tries to teach all the subjects. If the students of such academies pass the examination, it is not due to the academies but due to the preparation of students and their hard work. Some other academies which have trained and skilful teachers, prove very helpful for the students. They not only assist the students in the preparation of their subjects but also help them in developing a particular type of attitude, because, CSS is not just an examination, it is the name of an attitude; and as long as the students do not have this particular attitude, they are not likely to succeed in the examination, no matter how intelligent, competent and hardworking they are.

How can the students acquire good marks in the written examination?

It all depends on the presentation and expression of ideas in a clear, concise, appropriate and convincing manner. The more convincing your presentation is, the more marks you are likely to obtain.

Many students pass the written examination but fail in the interview. What is your advice for such students?

Interview is not just the testing of your knowledge. It is the testing and assessment of your entire personality, including the balance, calm and composure of your personality. Thus, besides the display of your knowledge during the interview, you should remember several other important points. If you do not know the answer to a question, instead of beating about the bush, you should simply say sorry and without smiling. You should be able to introduce yourself nicely and rightly.

If a question is asked in Urdu, do not answer it in English. Do not get involved in controversies with the inter-viewers. Do not try to become overambitious and boastful of your knowledge, your answers should be brief, comprehensive and to the point. Some students start making long speeches in response to simple questions which proves counter-productive. If a question irritates you, do not get irritated or tense.

Try to remain calm and cool instead of showing irritation and anger. You should be courteous and polite throughout the interview. While answering the questions, you should use the word sir. If an interviewer gives you a tip or clue regarding a difficult question, you must express your gratitude to him. Too much use of body language leaves a negative impression on the interviewers. There must be a balance between the verbal and non-verbal communication.

Can cramming be helpful in passing the CSS exam?

While preparing for the exam, you have to cram certain things such as facts and figures, dates and names of places, etc. However, the cramming of detailed questions cannot be so helpful, because, interview is not just the test of memory, it is the evaluation of the entire personality. At times, some students memorise a number of questions and luckily they pass the examination because the same questions are asked from them.

However, after their selection, when they become a part of the bureaucratic fraternity, their ignorance is exposed in the presence of their colleagues. I personally believe that instead of asking mathematical type of questions such questions should be asked as may reveal the opinion, temperament and personality of the candidates.

How can the level of interviewers be improved?

If a person is a senior civil servant, a retired secretary or a retired general, it does not mean that he is necessarily a good interviewer. Interviewing is an art and those who wish to become a part of the panel of interviewers must be trained how to evaluate the personality of the candidates, putting aside their own prejudices and biases. I have to say with regret that most of our interviewers are not capable of taking interviews. A good interviewer must be a good and trained human resource manager. I am glad to note that things are now changing because we are now realising the consequences of wrong selection through inappro-priate interviews.

Many students fail in the essay paper. Would you like to give some tips or suggestions to them?

Essay writing is a skill which comes with practice. A person may have thousands ideas in his mind about a given topic, but he is most likely to fail if he does not have the skill of composition and presentation of those ideas with an effective and emphatic expression in the form of a well-knit and coherent essay.
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Old Friday, April 20, 2012
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CSS Q&A


PROFESSOR ANWAR ALI BUKHARI is a renowned teacher and a scholar. He has vast experience of teaching at the university level abroad and in Pakistan. M.A in English and History from the University of Punjab, Pakistan he proceeded abroad to earn doctorate from the University of London. He remained abroad until a few years back when he returned to Pakistan and is presently associated with a private sector university as its Director Academics. Prof. Bukhari has established himself as an expert in guiding students aspiring for competitive examinations in Pakistan. He has a unique method of teaching and is well known for his expertise in the field of teaching and research.

World Times approached him with some questions with reference to CSS examinations and sought his views on how Corporate sector is fast emerging in Pakistan but our youth is still much attracted towards civil service. Why is it so?

The answer lies in the peculiar mind-set that characterises our people. We are overawed by the pomp and perks associated with civil services. Our exposure to civil servants and their authoritarian behaviour, the power they wield and the lifestyle they maintain much beyond their means attracts the youth of today as material considerations outweigh any other considerations.

Also, parents still have a lot of say in the choice of careers of their children who consider jobs with the government safer than jobs in the corporate sector where advancement depends entirely on job performance and development of personality as well as requisition of latest techniques in work accomplishment, meeting deadlines and developing right attitude towards colleagues and seniors. In short, corporate world requires constant vigilance and competitiveness which the youth of today abhors. They want it easy and fast.

Being an experienced teacher of CSS students what do you think students of what aptitude should opt for CSS?

A person should decide the choice of his career while still at graduation stage. Subjects chosen at that stage can better develop an aptitude for services. English Literature, Economics, Political Science or History are better choices at this stage with Persian, Sociology, Education or Public Administration as optional subject. The tendency that doctors and engineers are increasingly appearing in CSS should open our eyes to the imbalance in services that we have at the moment.

I wish we can have more Pakistan level services which are at par in status, authority and perks with the civil services of Pakistan. I suggest Pakistan judicial service, Pakistan medical service, Pakistan engineering service and Pakistan education service etc which should enjoy power and prestige at par with civil services.

Students should choose their subjects considering what factors?

CSS is a competitive examination. Consideration must be paid to choose subjects in which a candidate, in his own assessment, can score high marks. But, as said earlier this must begin with the choice of subjects at the graduation level. This gives a candidate few more years of preparation towards his goal. Choice of his subject at master's level too has a lot of bearing in a candidate's success. English Literature, Law and Business Studies can be greatly helpful in landing position in coveted services.

Students keep changing optional subjects after first or even second attempt. Is it right approach?

Students with right aptitude and focused preparation succeed the very first time. Those who don't, blame the choice of subjects. In my experience it is crying over spilt milk. Choice of optional subjects at first attempt is made carefully keeping in mind a candidate's goal and his liking. Having said that what fails a candidate is not the choice of subjects that much but lack of preparation and hard work required to succeed at that level. I strongly feel that guidance must be sought from competent sources at the stage of deciding optionals. Cursory and haphazard choices are doomed to fail anyway.
I wish we can have more Pakistan level services which are at par in status, authority and perks with the civil services of Pakistan. I suggest Pakistan judicial service, Pakistan medical service Pakistan engineering service and Pakistan education service etc which should enjoy power and prestige at par with civil services.

How far the need to cram is important for CSS preparation?

The system is constructed in such a way that cramming cannot be avoided, specially for psy-chological and intelligence tests after success in the written examination. Even general know-ledge questions require crammed answers. But, at interview stage communication skills, capacity to make decisions and ability to implement decisions is seriously looked into. Discussions and command tasks as well as the interview with the psychologist are the points in case. The final interview requires in-depth understanding of current issues. Cramming cannot help at this stage. In short, cramming cannot be avoided but extensive and in-depth studies cannot be over emphasised. Intelligent reading of newspapers is a rich source of up-todate opinions and background to topics and issues facing the country and the world.

How do you assess role and importance of academies for CSS candidates as they are expensive too?

I am not satisfied with the work that academies do. They introduce shortcuts to students. Books offering ready answers to 20 questions in any subject encourage cramming. This can help a student to pass and even to secure high marks but his comprehension and grasp on the subjects suffers. Academies hardly impart in-depth studies. Nothing is done to improve their personalities and to develop communication skills. I will not go to the extent of rejecting the role of academies in a candidate's preparation but I strongly recommend that academies must realise their responsibilities in this regard. No wonder that the quality of students even after selection falls abysmally short of what is required.

How do you evaluate the recently revised pattern of CSS written examination? Is there any change needed at the moment?

No, not much is required to be change. These days objective part is introduced in question papers which requires a candidate to read extensively rather than selectively. What is required is that the questions be constructed in a manner that tests a candidate's comprehension of the subject rather than his or her memory. That will weed out crammers and bring forward thinking individuals who have the capacity to draw conclusions and apply their minds while attempting questions.

What strategies do you suggest to get higher marks in interviews?

Practice speaking English as well as Urdu. I suggest to my students that they, at the initial stage, read from a text, preferably newspapers or magazines and record what they read. Listen to what is recorded. It will show them the deficiencies in the quality of their voice, pronunciation mistakes, fluency of expression and lack of control over breath and stamina. Practice this for at least two weeks and then add saying in your own words, in your own style and language what was read and recorded. This will improve a candidate's comprehension, add to his knowledge and improve his capacity to express views in his own words. In short, this will work wonders to improve one's communication skills and boost self-confidence while debating a position in discussions and command tasks presentations.

Would you like to recommend any profession for those candidates of CSS who fail to qualify?

Well, that is why I have said that selection of main discipline at master's level must be carefully done. An MBA, for example, or MA English Literature, Economics, Accounts or Law can pursue a different career if he or she fails in CSS. Also failure in CSS does not mean the end of the world, provided a person has chosen right while doing graduation or post-graduation. Easy subjects with no purchase, later on, leaves, one high and dry. This be avoided. Teachers and mentors must guide aspiring students to this fact. There is a tendency among academies to do the opposite. For heaven sake advise a student to think and plan for alternative profession should he fail in CSS. There must always be a fall back position. A good planner always guards his flanks and secures fall back positions.

I personally feel that bright students should better enter corporate world as professionals. Accountancy, management, marketing and sales are rewarding careers and very exciting too. These days jobs at university and graduate studies level are very well paid too . But, this can only be done if the route adopted for success in CSS is not short changed picking such subjects that are easy and score well but are of no use later.

Any special message you like to forward to our readers.

Competitive examinations are not normal examinations where you pass and get something for it in the shape of certificate or degree. They are competitions where you are fighting for limited seats which are to be filled by the best of the lot. Passing in these exams gets you nothing, not a certificate or citation. So, develop the right attitude to compete not just pass. Read extensively and do not go for short cuts. Improve your skills and learn more skills. Learn time management and discipline. Hopefully, all that I have said above will benefit your readers and prepare them better.

In the end, my prayers that the parents and the youth realise that a country is as good as its citizens. It is a cut throat world of competition. Only the fittest and the best prepared will succeed.
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Old Monday, April 23, 2012
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Thumbs up How to attempt Optional papers

How to attempt Optional papers


Every subject has its own peculiar nature and standing. Two subjects are never same in their textual styles. History subjects are always objective and based on events and occurrences while subjects like sociology, journalism, public administration, etc. are conceptual and subjective in their essence. So, the candidate is required to apply the corresponding ways and means to grasp over these subjects.

Sociology

Sociology is one of the widely opted subjects in the CSS examination. Candidates usually consider sociology as the easiest subject to qualify. It is learnt from the past results that the average marks awarded in sociology are between 35 to 55. However, a candidate can secure 70 marks if he studies and comprehends the subject according to its requirement.

Sociology consists of two parts, i.e. Sociological thought and principles of sociology. The candidate is supposed to cover both these parts of the subjects without sacrificing one to the other. The principles of sociology may not be comprehended if the sociological thought is not read and vice versa. So, the justice with the subject demands comprehension of both these parts.

The works and contribution of Ibn-e- Khaldun, August Comte, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber are very important in sociology. The examiner of the papers surely expects a candidate to know the thought of these sociologists and these should be reflected in the answers of the candidates. If a candidate has read these sociologists thoroughly, he can justify his answer in an impressive manner, quoting their references. Therefore, he should make maximum use of these thinkers in answering the paper of sociology. It is how the examiner is compelled to award maximum marks.

The candidate should know one or two authorities/sociologists who have specifically dealt with any principle of sociology. For example, George Murdock has extensively worked on the institution of family; Charles H Cooly is known for his contribution in defining “Group”; Ralf Linton worked on social change.

If a candidate quotes the well-known sociologist over a particular area of sociology, he can secure impressive marks. The examiner will be impressed that the candidate has grasped the very essence of the subject and would have no other option but to be generous in the distribution of marks.

Recommended Books

1. Sociology by Horton and Hunt
2. Sociology by J.J Jiskani

Important questions of Sociology

1. What major contributions did Max Weber and Emile Durkheim make to our understanding of the social experience?
2. Migration from rural to urban area is on the rise in Pakistan. Discuss all the positive and negative points at the origin and destination keeping theory of migration into consideration.
3. What do you understand by social mobility? Discuss “do transfer of payments aid or discourage social mobility”.
4. Define social institution. What is the significance of family, religion and education as institutions in the process of socialisation? Explain your answer with examples from Pakistani society.
5. Define status. Discuss the factors which decide status of an individual in a society.
6. Discuss the importance of social research for the study of sociology. Explain the steps to be taken in social research process.
7. What is the role of culture in socialisation of an individual to become a useful member of society? Discuss with examples.
8. What are the different forms of social classes? Discuss the impact of feudal system in Pakistan.

Write a detailed note on following:
(a) Social change (b) Community (c) Urbanisation (d) Ethnocentrism

History of Pakistan and India

The history of Pakistan and India is based on several historical events and the administrative contributions of various emperors who ruled the Subcontinent. These historical events are connected with each other. One is the corollary to the happening of the other. So, they should not be read in isolation, otherwise it would be difficult to comprehend the subject on the whole.

Usually, candidates read selective chapters and areas of the subject. This is the unjust and improper way to study the history subject. It would surely result in failure or less marks awarded to the candidate. The subject needs to be pursued extensively as the history requires.

The paper-I of the subject pertains to history period from 712 A.D to 1707. There are all but 15 important emperors. The epoch of the each emperor is to be read and kept in mind. This will help understand the policies of the successive rulers. In this way, a candidate can confidently analyse or comment on any history questions framed in whatever style.

For example; to write on the saga story of Mahmud Ghaznavi , it is imperative to know the succeeding epoch of Muhammad Ghauri and vice versa. The administrative rule of Jahangir can be justified if a candidate has thoroughly read the era of King Akbar and the Mongol menace in the subcontinent can be impressively analysed if the policies of Ghiyasuddin Balban, Allauddin Khilji,etc are well read.

A candidate has to remember all the important works of those authors who have specifically dealt with different eras. The famous books written on the history of India and Pakistan would help a candidate substantiate his stand. This will surely make the examiner feel that the candidate is at home with the subject and award good marks to him.

Recommended books

1. History of Pak-India by K. Ali
2. Medieval History of India by R.S Chaurisa

Important questions of History of Pakistan and India Paper-I

1. How would you justify the statement that "Sindh is Babul-Islam!1" with reference to the Arab conquest of Sindh.
2. "Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq's character was a mixture of two extremes but he was a man of ideas." Discuss
3. Ghiyasuddin Balban successfully suppressed the internal and external rebellion that provided stability to his reign. Analyse
4. Allaudin Khilji's administrative and economic policies were more successful than his foreign conquests.
5. Sher Shah was the pioneer of a comprehensive system of administration in the subcontinent to be followed by his successors in history. Discuss
6. Akbar is considered not only a great administrator but also a great warrior. Write a detailed note on his administration?
7. "The war of succession among the sons of the Shah Jehan was, in fact, war between the two ideologies". Comment and account for the success of Aurangzeb Alamgir.
8. Give an account of the development of Mughal architecture in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent.

Expected Questions of History of Pakistan and India Paper-II
1. Estimate the contribution of Shah Waliullah towards the regeneration of the Muslim of South Asia.
2. "Aligarh Movement created reawakening among Muslims to provide a political platform through Education network." Analyse the statement
3. What role did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan play in the reawakening of the Muslims of the Subcontinent? Discuss
4. The Khilafat Movement spearheaded the Pakistan Movement and provided the necessary weapon through which a political war to identify the Muslims as such could be waged." Discuss
5. The Lucknow Pact provided a commitment to Hindu-Muslim unity but it soon failed. Discuss
6. Congress rule during 1937-1939 provided an opportunity to All India Muslim League (AIML) to reorganise. Discuss Congress rule in provinces and its impact on AIML.
7. Pakistan’s relations with China have proved to be a blessing for peace in the region. Discuss.
8. Write notes on the following:
a. Objectives Resolution
b. Six Points of Mujeebur Rehman
c. Pakistan's role in the war against terrorism
d. Separation of East Pakistan
e. Cripps Mission

Journalism

Journalism has always remained a favourite subject for the candidates in the CSS examination. It is generally believed that the subject carries a defined and concise syllabus which can be covered with a little effort. Owing to this reason, the candidates take this subject for granted and pay insufficient heed to various contents of journalism.

This style of dealing with this subject has many a time awarded discouraging marks to the candidates. The result of CSS-2010 is an example to be pondered over. However, the candidate can secure maximum marks if due efforts are made.

This subject is divided into three parts.
1. History of journalism in Indo-Pak subcontinent
2. The technical areas like News, Editorial and Column
3. Public relations and advertising

The candidate is supposed to cover all these three sides of the subject. He has to deal with each section with utmost care. Let us take the example of the part-1 of journalism.

A candidate should know the role of media throughout the Pakistan Movement. He has to remember all the important newspapers and periodicals which played their role during the period. It would certainly irritate the examiner if there is insufficient mention of the newspapers/periodicals in the question of the history period.

The candidate should rather substantiate his ideas with the help of the journalistic enterprises of the time. This would impress the examiner a lot.

The candidate is supposed to remember the famous definitions and comments of the experts over various journalistic areas. If he discusses the question over communication, it would be inspiring if the candidate quotes the views of Wilber Scram, Shoemaker, Mehdi Masud, etc. It is through this way that the examiner can be impressed to feel that the candidate has well read this subject.

The candidate should be acquainted with the latest trends of journalism. He should update himself with the activities of Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ), Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors (CPNE) and Press Information Department (PID). This would help him discuss the question with the help of latest developments in Mass Communication. The examiner would know that the candidate has not only understood the text of the subject but is updated to the current phenomena in journalism.

Recommended Books
1. Exploring journalism by Mehdi Masud
2. Exploring journalism by Mirza Mohammad Yousuf.

Journalism Important questions

1. Discuss the concept and process of communication? What is the importance of Mass Communication in this modern age?
2. The present era is considered as the era of development of electronic media in Pakistan. Critically evaluate the role of present TV channels in social development?
3. What is the purpose and scope of Public Relations in any organisation? Describe major responsibilities of a Public Relations Officer?
4. What role did the militant Muslim press play in the subcontinent?
5. Describe the need and significance of editorial.
6. Explain what is news, its functions and values.

7. What do you know about advertising. Explain its functions and importance in the modern age.

8. Define the following in detail:

(a) Press release (b) Press note (c) Press communique
(d) Press conference (e) Hand Out (f) Freedom of press (g) Libel

Public Administration

Public Administration consists of theory and practice. The theoretical section is important for the practical application of the subject. The administrative system and the related issues may not be grasped if the textual understanding of the subject is missing. The nature and scope of Public Administration needs to be well comprehended before surfing through other contents of the subject. It will help the candidate in understanding and tackling various other areas of the subject.

It is imperative to have a thorough study of the principles of New Public Administration. The administrative problems of the modern era can be well analysed if the candidate knows the significance and scope of the New Public Administration (NPA). The examiner equally expects a candidate to know the modern trends of a successful administration. Mere dependence on the past theories of the administration shall be unfair.

The candidate should also keep himself abreast of the prevalent administrative and governmental systems of the country. He should properly know the work dynamics at district, province and national level. It is by this way that he can measure the pros and cons of the system and suggest novel strategies and solutions to the administrative problems.

Recommended Books
1. Public Administration by Sultan Khan
2. Personnel Administration by Sultan Khan
3. Public Administration by Abdul Majeed Memon

.
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@omarhanif

Most of the articles/interviews you post are already present in this very section.Search well before posting anything on board.

Do mention source of any piece of writing you post even if you are taking it from JWTimes.

Any such post will be deleted in future without explanation.
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Old Friday, April 27, 2012
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@omarhanif

Most of the articles/interviews you post are already present in this very section.Search well before posting anything on board.

Do mention source of any piece of writing you post even if you are taking it from JWTimes.

Any such post will be deleted in future without explanation.
Be Careful.Read forum rules if you are unaware.
In future, I shall search more deeply before posting.
But a week ago I posted some articles properly mentioning the source, someone still deleted those articles. And I know those are not present here in any thread.


Regards,
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Old Friday, April 27, 2012
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But a week ago I posted some articles properly mentioning the source, someone still deleted those articles. And I know those are not present here in any thread.


Regards,
All those articles are already available in this section.Moreover,no source was mentioned.
We never delete anything unless it is duplicate,entirely useless or contradicting forum rules.

Regards.

Last edited by Shooting Star; Friday, April 27, 2012 at 05:22 PM.
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