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BOTANY (Total Marks - 200)

PAPER - I (Marks-100)

  1. Thallophytes

    1. Phycology: Origin, evolution, distribution and classification with reference to range, structure, life history, ecology and economic importance of the main groups of algae.
    2. Mycology & Plant Pathology: Structure, development reproduction, classification; phylogeny, physiology and economic importance of the main groups of fungi, Diseases of economic importance and general principles of their control.

  2. Bryology: Evolution of ganietophytes and sporophytcs.
  3. Peteridophyta and Gymnosperms: General structure fife history and evolutionary tendencies, Ontogeny and structure of seed.
  4. Anatomy and Embryology: Primary and secondary tissues, Meristems, tissue differentiation, normal and abnormal secondary growth, anatomy of leaf, stem and root, Micro and megasporogenesis, pollination mechanism, fertilization, development of embryo and endosperm, seed dispersal.
  5. Taxonomy of Angiosperms: Systems of classification, Rules of botanical nomenclature, Concepts of speciarion, Introduction to modern trends in plant taxonomy: Bio-systematics, chemotaxonomy and numerical taxonomy.

PAPER - II (Marks - l00)

  1. Plant Physiology: Plant water relations, osmotic quantities, absorptions, transpiration, role of essential mineral elements, their uptake and distribution, growth and development, plant hormones, photoperiodism, vernalization, Dormancy and seed germination, Biochemistry of carbohydrates, proteins and fats with reference to plants, Enzymes, Plant pigments, Photophosphorelation, path of carbon in photosynthesis, oxidative phosophorelation (respiration), nitrogen and fat metabolism.
  2. Ecology: Influence of climatic. edaphic and biotic factors on plant growth, Sampling techniques, Major formations in relation to climatic zones, Concepts of ecosystems and their productivity, Ecological energetics, efficiency, pyramids, food chains and trophic levels. Salinity and water logging in Pakistan, causes. reclamation, soil erosion, methods of control and conservation. Pollution and conservation of natural resources.
  3. Cytology: Detailed study of ultrastructure of cell. Mitosis and meiosos. Significance of meiosis.
  4. Genetics
    • Mendalian Genetics, Linkage, crossing over, sex linked genes, lethals, balanced lethals. Mutation, polyploidy.
    • Biochemical Genetics: Bichemical nature of hereditary material, genetic Code, Fine Structure of gene, transduction and transformation.
  5. Evolution Theories of evolution, Neo-Darwinism Neo Lamarckism. Adaptive mutations.

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Suggested Readings


Title Author
An Introduction to Plant Diseases Wheeler, B.E.J.
An Introduction to Plant Anatomy Eames, A.G. & Mc. Daniels, L.H.
An Introduction to Embryology of Angiosperms Maheshveri
Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics Clive, A. Stace
The Biology of the Algae (2/e) Round, F.E.
The Structure and Life of Bryophytes Watson, E.V.
The Morphology of Pteridophytes Sporne, K.R.
The Morphology of Gymnosperms Sporne, K.R.
Cytology Wilson, G.B. & Morrison J.H.
Diagnosis & Improvement of Saline & Alkali Soils Richards, L.A. (ed)
Plant Physiology (2/e) Frank, B. Salisbury & Cleon W. Ross
Plant & the Ecosystem Billings, W.D.
Principles of Genetics Gardner, E.J.
Morphology of Plants Bold, Harold, C.
Introduction to Fungi Webster, J.
Plant growth and development Leopold, A.C. & Kriedmann, P.E
Terrestrial Plant Ecology Barbour, M.G. & Bark, J.H. Titts, W.D.

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