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Old Saturday, October 06, 2012
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Pak-U.S Relations
“While history has been unkind to Pakistan, its geography has been its great benefit”. (Stephen P Cohen)
• West-Iran, Afghanistan and Wakhan link to CARs
• South-Arabian sea
• North-China
• East-India
• Energy richer, most conflicted and most populous region
• Trade route, sea route, energy corridor, Geostrategic location
• A diplomatic blunder to engage in alignment policy in 1953
• Serious of engagements and estrangements
• MEDO in 1954
• SEATO in 1954 withdrawal in 1972
• CENTO/Baghdad Pact in 1955 withdrawal in 1979
• Military sanctions in 1965 (suspension of military aid)
• Symington amendment in 1979(suspension of military and economic aid)
• Pressler amendment in 1985
• Brown’s Amendment in 1996
• Glenn Amendment in 1998 ( going nuclear )
• Kerry-Lugar-Berman bill in 2009
• In 1959, 1981 and 2001 aid without sanctions
Afghanistan issue
• Shares Pak-US mutual responsibility
• Both agreed to cope
• US success to mould world sympathies
• Military and economic aid to Pakistan
• Confrontation started over Haqqani network and Tehrik-e- Taliban Pakistan (TTP)
• Drone attacks, Raymond Davis case, Abbottabad operation and Silala check post attack
• Pakistan could not mould world favours to its plight besides being partner in war against terrorists
U.S strategy to tackle the issue
• Anti-Taliban government
• Indian engagement
• Pressure on Pakistan t o ‘do more’
• Less share to Pakistan in Afghanistan development
• Terrorist activities inside Pakistan through TTP (Swat, Bajoure,chitral as safe havens of TTP in kunr, kandhar, Nooristan)
• Military and economic aid to Pakistan conditional with full cooperation
• Only those Taliban acceptable who are ready to accept US hegemony
Pak Strategy to tackle the issue
• Taliban remain in government
• To collect more military and economic gains
• Indian evacuation from Afghanistan
• U.S to leave the region completely
• Good and bad Taliban definition of extremists
Neighboring States’ Strategy
• Russia and China don’t want U.S stay in the region
• Iran and Turkey don’t want Taliban government
• India is also against Taliban regime
• India wishes to receive maximum benefits from development perspectives
• Clear, transparent and comprehensive strategic policies
-No hidden agreements
- Policy discussion in parliament
-Minimize intelligence agencies and military role regarding policy making
• Ban on domestic religious extremist groups activities
• Cordial relations with Afghanistan government
• Pakistan should clearly define its links with Haqqani Group
• Pakistan should focus its benefits from stable and peaceful Afghanistan
• Pakistan should function as a professional trader not soldier
• Mobilize regional stakeholders

• Acknowledge Pakistan’s efforts to curb terrorism globally
• U.S should clearly define whether it has its stake in Afghanistan or Taliban
• Ban of drone attacks
• Must help its afghan partners to rework their relationships with Pakistan
• Must clearly define its agenda of exit till 2014
• Must engage Pakistan in peace talks with Taliban
• Must engage Pakistan in army training and development programmes
• Must end Indian consulates’ and Moulvi Fazal ullah’s TTP ‘s activities in Afghanistan’s Eastern provinces
• Provided civil government with more administrative powers
• Engage regional security forces in peace activities

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Old Friday, October 12, 2012
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Default ::Links of JWT magazine:: Current Affairs for CE 2013

Articles, World Affairs and much about CSS.






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Old Friday, November 09, 2012
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@wasiqh,,,thnx alot bt plz guide me hw to access to this JWT's data in order to make it it is nt being copied,,,,plzz helpp
All that I am, or hope to be, I owe to my angel mother.....!!
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Old Tuesday, November 13, 2012
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Originally Posted by anam ehsan View Post
@wasiqh,,,thnx alot bt plz guide me hw to access to this JWT's data in order to make it it is nt being copied,,,,plzz helpp
use ctrl(control)+c to copy and paste it where ever you want.
''Surely with every hardship there is relief'' (The Holy Quran 94:6)
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Old Thursday, December 27, 2012
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Default East Asia: Need of Peaceful Solution and Role of China

As naval patrol vessels of China, South Korea, Japan, and other Southeast Asian countries impacts each other and stress installs, it’s time to consider peaceful and safe solutions. The claims of East Asian Countries of sea sources and possible large supplies of oil and gas beneath ocean, stones. If a solution can be worked out for discussing the continues between concerned parties: Japan, Vietnam, Malaysia, China, and the Philippines while precautionary shunning the controversial sovereignty issues, conflict can be prevented.

In the oil industry, border conflicts between countries are settled with joint development regions, or the oil and gas procedure of “unitization.” Basically, unitization lets each country access underwater sources, but results in border issues unchanged.

Oil tanks that cross national frontiers need special contracts. In oil states where cross-border tanks have been discovered, for example areas straddling Norwegian and the UK in the North Sea, the state authorities decided on a common structure to create these sources. With unitization, owners of managing and nonoperating passions share property passions in a generating area, normally a field, to form one natural managing unit. In return, persons receive a pre-negotiated amount of interest. Unitization is usually performed to achieve the most efficient and cost-effective exploitation of supplies to benefit all events.

ASEAN nations, in particular, have an immediate need to negotiate conflicts quickly as a protecting position. Over the past 30 years, China has obtained worldwide proficiency in oil exploration. Companies managing from China could now in theory draw out sources under conflicted- boundaries or unique financial areas by using online exploration, which can arrive at near 90 levels flat and increase out several miles. ASEAN members, except for Malaysia, officially lag the China oil market and need to secure supplies from private growth.

Additionally, oil and gas tanks can move underground from areas of high gas stress to lower stress – significance a well managing under China growth could cause pristine oil or gas supplies under the Philippine part to move toward the China part. Unitization needs thorough applying and bookkeeping of the tank, particularly if it’s to be utilized as a single source. Without unitization, the “rule of capture” usually prevails; oil and gas that have moved from beneath nearby boundaries can be easily appropriated without settlement to others by generating organizations.

An unitization contract can help determine cross boundaries by splitting the problem of actual sources, handled through a joint program, from sovereignty. Based on the solutions found to similar problems in other areas of the world, an contract on the problem of transboundary oil tanks has

•Established typical remains of oil and natural gas, not discussing a particular nation area but to certain remains, the level identified by the states events through a combined technological percentage, motivated to determine the sources in situ (Austria-Czechoslovakia 1960);

•Defined accurate regional places in connection with oil sources (Norway-UK, 1976);

•Established combined growth places, separated by provisional medians splitting two sub-zones, one for each nation (Federal Republic of Germany-the Holland, 1962) or as many subzones as needed (Japan-Korea, 1974);

•Established combined growth places (Bahrain-Saudi Arabic, 1958) or combined routines (Iran-Sharjah, 1971) or typical places (Saudi Arabia-Sudan, 1974);

•Defined delimitation techniques setting up secured places (Australia-Papua New Guinea, 1978) or a collaboration area, described by regional harmonizes and separated into places (Australia-Indonesia,1989).

In the Norway-UK agreement, for example, each govt required the recommendation of the version to identify an agreement with the licensees of the nearby nation to employ a typical owner. The agreement manages the free activity of individuals and components, issues of safety, examinations, taxes, exchange of privileges and other issues, but does not impact privileges and legislation in each nation. This structure symbolizes a good design for China and its others who live nearby. The plan would reduce management costs, but give the events enough management to protect the sovereignty, demanding nations to consent on the most effective growth plan and the way in which the continues are to be apportioned.

The Mexico-US case in the Gulf of Mexico is as another possible prescient design for China and members of ASEAN.

At present, neither the US nor Mexico has described a plan for typical agreement in joint oil functions. To allow combined growth of national hydrocarbons, Mexico has designed a legal means to protect its patrimony. Pemex, the Mexican oil organization, is the only oil organization permitted as trader and owner under the Mexican system. This structure prevents international management of oil and gas development – a situation similar to China and ASEAN nations, which monopolize management to state-owned oil companies.

However this year, the US and Spanish government authorities finalized a contract to manipulate the sources in the European Gap under an unitization contract. Formerly there was a 10-year moratorium on exploration in this 5000-square-nautical-mile historic area, with continental-shelf and unique financial area statements debated by the two nations.

The destruction of oil supplies onshore and in superficial ocean, such as Beach of Siam surrounding Vietnam and Thailand, is driving China to discover for new sources in further overseas areas close to common boundaries. Truly, Israel declared the biggest overseas organic gas development in its history, the Leviathan area with 16 billion cubic legs of organic gas. Yet this area straddles competitive limitations with The red sea, sovereignty problems will gradually be brought up.

In common, the techniques require organizations to handle the system. These can be complicated or simply based on the level of believing in within the other person’s regulators and organizations in issues related to edge collections, allows, standards and exploration requirements, to name a few. Otherwise, the techniques should include a full program of regulators and organizations to handle problems.

Finally, the alternatives to the transboundary tanks must be divided from the traditionally monopolistic framework of the oil market. Different nations have different levels of growth and technical ability. Thus, in the cases of such cross-border areas, China and, say, Vietnam each could employ companies to form a joint-development effort within competitive limitations and, under that contract, allow PetroChina and PetroVietnam to handle the discussing of sources. However, as described, neither of the nations has yet indicated possible features or recommendations for such an agreement or plans for settlement and acceptance.

The significances of effective unitization contracts with China are huge. Namely, issue could be prevented. State stars with financial passions would have immediate access to sources. It may also set a precedent for future areas of the world in regards to source removal such as the Arctic Sea, Greenland, or the Antarctic, where China looks for to extend its impact as an establishing superpower.

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Old Monday, July 15, 2013
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is it's cmpletee course of c.a??
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Old Monday, July 15, 2013
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Originally Posted by amara ali View Post
is it's cmpletee course of c.a??
It is not coplete course. you have to consult newspapers for day to day developments in different issues and also cover the new emerging issues.
Success is never achieved by the size of our brain but it is always achieved by the quality of our thoughts.
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Old Sunday, January 11, 2015
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For Current Affairs I think to read newspaper daily is really essential as Current Affairs vary every year but the problem is how to remember particular date for particular event its really tough task to remember dates specially. Can any one please guide me regarding this, that how should one prepare for current Affairs apart from newspaper!!
Thank you
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Old Sunday, January 25, 2015
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Aslam o alaikum, please can someone share the notes of International Economic Issues and Pakistan?
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good effort bro...
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