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sadafnoorelahi Wednesday, September 25, 2013 09:59 PM

kindly evaluate
 
[B]Discuss the successes and failures of political parties in bringing about a meaningful change in Pakistan.

[/B][B]Introduction[/B]

Political parties are a beauty of any democratic country. pakistan has failed to develop a consistent democratic society due to the weakness of the political parties.ever since its inception,two political parties have emerged as strong contenders-PML-N and PPP. Nowadays, PTI has also emerged on the scene advocating slogan of change.

[B]ACHIEVEMENTS OF PPP [/B]

I formation of 1973 constituition and later on its Revival.
ü Constitution empowerment of Gilgit-Baltistan
ü Consensus approval of 7th NFC Award
ü Consensus approval of 18th Constitutional Amendment
ü Transfer of Presidential powers to the office of the Prime Minister and the Parliament
ü Financial and Administration empowerment Of provinces
ü Distribution of 12%share of 80 government Institutions among 5 lac workers through BESOS
ü Initiation of Aghaz-e-Haqooq-Balochistan Package
ü Financial Protection of 50 lac poor families through Benazir Income Support Program

[B]achievement of PML-N[/B]
Motorways network (first of its kind in Pakistan) – Motorways network project was initiated on 11th January 1992 and that is Mian Nawaz Sharif is also known as “Sher Shah Suri” of modern day Pakistan. Motorways was conceived as 6-lane and the work was started but Benazir Bhutto during her 2nd tenure (1993-96) reduced it to 4-lanes.
Atomic explosions (making Pakistan the 7th nuclear power) Nawaz Sharif took the bold decision of conducting nuclear tests despite threats from USA and other countries.
Restoration of Judiciary
JF-17 thunder (defense production) – Mian Nawaz Sharif had a great role in defense collaboration with China. Nawaz Sharif and Chinese Premier Zhuji Rongji signed this project in 1998 (then called Super-7). It was also the Chinese Government that came forward to help the Govt of PML-N when USA had imposed restrictions due to nuclear explosions.
Metro Bus (in other mega cities of Pakistan) – Everyday more than 125000 people travel by Metro Bus that leads to reduction in roads congestion, saving of fuel, reduction in traveling time
Introducing fibre optic – the 1st of its kind, Digital Pager service (predecessor of SMS) was launched in 1991 and then Paktel and Mobilink were established during this period because of the optic fibre cable.
Eradication of Dengue – various health/epidemic/virology experts (from Sri Lanka, Thailand, Pakistan) have duly acknowledged and lauded the efforts of the government of Mian Shahbaz Sharif in controlling the epidemic of dengue.
Ghazi Brotha Dam – the feasibility was conducted in 1992 during Nawaz Sharif’s tenure.
Privatization of banks – Nawaz Sharif privatized Allied Bank of Pakistan Limited. While United Bank Limited and Habib Bank Limited were privatized during the regime of General Musharraf since it was already proven by PML-N that privatization works well for economic growth.
Ashiana housing scheme
Chashma nuclear power plant – marvelous success of serious & mature leadership!

Daanish school system – Funds were allocated in the provincial budget for Eight Danish Schools constructed in Vihari, Layyah, Lodhran, and Bhakkar districts. The Punjab Government further made it mandatory that all educational institutions charging fee exceeding Rs. 5000/- will reserve 10% seats for the poor but promising students.
Laptop scheme for 215,000 meritorious student
Distribution of land among harries – Special efforts were made to distribute unoccupied land among the landless Haries of Sindh in 1992-1993
Ujala scheme (solar lamps)
[B]MQM[/B]
• Development of Karachi.
• De-weaponization bill
• Land Reform bill.
• Voice rights of minorities
[B][B]FAILURES OF democratic parties
[/B][/B]Energy crises
Corruption and mismanagement
Mishandling of state run instituitions and autonomonous corporations like PIA,steel , mills
International loans
Poverty increased
kindly evaluate and if its not the correct answer then please give hints.

sadafnoorelahi Wednesday, September 25, 2013 10:03 PM

syrian civil war notes
[B]introduction[/B]
The Syrian civil war, also known as the Syrian uprising or Syrian crisis is an ongoing armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Ba'ath government and those seeking to oust it. The conflict began on 15 March 2011, with popular demonstrations that grew nationwide by April 2011. These demonstrations were part of the wider Middle Eastern protest movement known as the Arab Spring. Protesters demanded the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad, whose family held the presidency in Syria since 1971, as well as the end of Ba'ath Party rule, which began in 1963.
In April 2011, the Syrian Army was deployed to quell the uprising, and soldiers fired on demonstrators across the country. After months of military sieges the protests evolved into an armed rebellion. Opposition forces, mainly composed of defected soldiers and civilian volunteers, resisted without central leadership. The conflict is asymmetrical, with clashes taking place in many towns and cities across the country. Late 2011 marked growing influence of the Islamist group al-Nusra Front within the opposition forces. In 2013 Hezbollah entered the war in support of the Syrian army.[The Syrian government is further upheld by military support from Russia and Iran, while Qatar and Saudi Arabia transfer weapons to the rebels. By July 2013, the Syrian government controls approximately 30–40 percent of the country's territory and 60 percent of the Syrian population. In late 2012 UN report described the conflict as "overtly sectarian in nature" between Alawite shabiha militias and other Shia groups fighting largely against Sunni-dominated rebel groups, though both opposition and government forces denied that.
In June 2013, the death toll surpassed 100,000 according to the United Nations.
In addition, tens of thousands of protesters have been imprisoned and there are reports of widespread torture and terror in state prisons. International organizations have accused both government and opposition forces of severe human rights violations. UN inspections and probes in Syria have determined that the Syrian government's abuses are highest in frequency and largest in scale. Chemical weapons have been used in Syria on more than one occasion, triggering strong international reactions. Causes of the Syrian civil war

[B]Religious resentment[/B]

The Assad family comes from the minority Alawite religious group, an offshoot of Shi'ite Islam that comprises an estimated 12 percent of the total Syrian population. It has maintained tight control on Syria's security services, generating resentment among some Sunni Muslims, a sect that makes up about three-quarters of Syria's population. Ethnic minority Syrian Kurds have also protested and complained over ethnic discrimination and denial of their cultural and language rights.

[B]Socioeconomic factors[/B]

Discontent was strongest in the poorer areas. rural areas were hit hard by the drought of 2011.the situation started to aggravate by the introduction of free market policies by hafiz-ul assad,father and former president of Syria. these policies facilitated only those in contact with government of sunni merchants. By 2011, Syria was facing a deterioration in the national standard of living and steep rises in the prices of commodities. The country also faced particularly high youth unemployment rates.

[B]Human rights violation[/B]

Bashar al-Assad is widely regarded to have been unsuccessful in implementing democratic change, with a 2010 report from Human Rights Watch stating that he had failed to substantially improve the state of human rights since taking power, although some minor aspects had seen improvement. Rights of free expression, association and assembly were strictly controlled in Syria even before the uprising. The authorities harass and imprison human rights activists and other critics of the government, who are often times indefinitely detained and tortured in poor prison conditions. Women and ethnic minorities have faced discrimination in the public sector. Thousands of Syrian Kurds were denied citizenship in 1962 and their descendants continued to be labeled as "foreigners".

[B]Domino’s effect [/B]

In December 2010, mass anti-government protests began in Tunisia and later spread across the Arab world, including Syria. By February 2011, revolutions occurred in Tunisia and Egypt, while Libya began to experience its own civil war. Numerous other Arab countries also faced protests, with some attempting to calm the masses by making concessions and governmental changes.

[B]Syria and the use of chemical weapons[/B]

The Syrian government has been accused of conducting several chemical attacks, the most serious of them being the 2013 Ghouta attacks.
The rebels have also been accused of conducting several chemical attacks, the most serious of which was the Khan al-Assal chemical attack. (19 th march 2013)
On 29 April, another chemical attack was reported, this time in Saraqib, in which 2 died and 13 were injured. French intelligence acquired blood, urine, earth and munitions samples from victims or sites of attacks on Saraqeb. The analysis carried out confirms the use of sarin.
On 13 June, the United States announced that there is definitive proof that the Assad government has used limited amounts of chemical weapons on multiple occasions on rebel forces, killing 100 to 150 people.
On 21 August, Syrian activists reported that Assad regime forces struck Eastern Ghouta region with chemical weapons. At least 635 people were killed in a nerve gas attack. The Ghouta chemical attacks were confirmed after a three week investigation conducted by the UN, who also confirmed the main agent used in the chemical attacks was sarin gas.
On September 9 Russia urged Syria to put its' chemical weapons stockpile under international control. The initiative was expressed in the wake of American threat of attacking Syria after the chemical attack of August 21. On September 14, US and Russia announced in Geneva that they reached a deal on how Assad should give up his chemical weapons.

[B]Effect of Syrian civil war[/B]

[B]Death toll[/B]
On 2 January 2013, the United Nations stated that 60,000 had been killed since the civil war began,
[B]refugee[/B]
The violence in Syria has caused millions to flee their homes. In August 2012, the United Nations said more than one million people were internally displaced and in September 2013, the UN reported that more than 6.5 million Syrians had been displaced,
[B]Human rights violation[/B]
Human rights violations have been committed by both the government and the rebels. UN investigations have concluded that the government's abuses are the greatest in both gravity and scale
[B]Economy
[/B]By July 2013, the Syrian economy has shrunk 45 percent since the start of the conflict. Unemployment increased fivefold, the value of the Syrian currency decreased to one-sixth its pre-war value, and the public sector lost 15 billion US dollars.
Crime wave[B][/B]
As the conflict has expanded across Syria, many cities have been engulfed in a wave of crime as fighting caused the disintegration of much of the civilian state, and many police stations stopped functioning. Rates of thievery increased, with criminals looting houses and stores. Rates of kidnappings increased as well.
[B][B]Cultural heritage[/B][/B]
The civil war has caused significant damage to Syria's cultural heritage, including World Heritage Sites. Destruction of antiquities has been caused by shelling, army entrenchment and looting at various tells, museums, and monuments.


11:36 PM (GMT +5)

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