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Old Saturday, October 29, 2005
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Default Corruption In Pakistan

CORRUPTION IN PAKISTAN:

Key sectors affected by corruption in Pakistan

To fully respond to the question as to which sectors are most affected by corruption, both quantitative (through diagnostic material) and qualitative (through reports and direct questioning of international and national experts) sources have been consulted. Nevertheless, it is worth bearing in mind that some of the reasons that particular sectors are highlighted more often than others are due not only to objective merits but also to the facts that
i) there is more research and survey work done in those areas and
ii) public perception and awareness seem to be more vocal as regards those areas. Thus, the exercise of highlighting some of the sectors should be read with the knowledge that corruption in Pakistan seems pervasive across most sectors. With that in mind, it is safe to say that expert sources indicate that the following sectors are among those most affected by corruption (the particular order varies from source to source):

Police and law enforcement
Judiciary and legal profession
Power sector
Tax and customs
Health and education
Land administration
In addition, Public Procurement seems to be a major concern across most sectors

These sectors seem to be affected by chains of:

petty corruption to access public services or to bypass the law (through the direct interaction of citizens with the respective authorities and bribe-paying)
middle and grand corruption (through corruption in public contracting and procurement as well as direct misappropriation of public funds by senior officials).
in addition, political patronage, conflicts of interest, influence peddling and other forms of corrupt behaviour are commonplace across the sectors.

Reform Initiatives:

At the heart of Pakistan's recent anti-corruption drive are country's National Anti-Corruption Strategy (NACS) launched in 2002, the National Accountability Ordinance of 1999 (amended 2002) and the National Accountability Bureau - the agency charged with the implementation and overall coordination of the NACS and the Ordinance which are working in hte best possible ways through the introduction and implication of reforms for the removal of corruption from the offices and society.

1. Reforms in sectors rated to be amongst those most affected by corruption
Police and law enforcement

Corruption in the police and law enforcement is perceived to be pervasive - creating a culture of lawlessness and lack of credibility and trust in authorities. The police and law enforcement appointments are often politicised and full of conflict of interest. Criminals and rent-seeking and extortionist authorities are often the sole beneficiaries of the game.

Police reforms were instituted about two and a half years ago by President Musharraf but, according to certain expert voices, have been significantly watered down by the elected government, which still sees political patronage of police officers as important. However, a system of recruitment of better quality and standards is being implemented with improvements in areas of professional training, competence development and remuneration. A great deal remains to be done to implement full police reforms including the establishment of public safety commissions and an effective independent police complaints authority.

It is hoped that the reorganisation outlined by the new Police Order of 2002 and the Police Complaints department will improve the functions of the police and provide relief to the citizens. Reportedly, one of the first steps taken in the reorganization has been the separation of the police force into various branches, divisions, bureaus and sections. It is intended to help improve the efficiency but in fact may lead to more corruption and less efficiency due to non-cooperation or lack of coordination. The Police Order of 2002 has also outlined a format for setting up district Public Safety Commissions (PSC). The functions of such commissions will inter alia include investigations of complaints on excesses and neglect against police officers and encourage greater police-public participation. The PSCs are to be set up within the Federal and Provincial Government and the District and Town Local Governments. There shall also be a National Public Safety Commission.

Further, the Order makes provisions for setting up of federal and provincial police complaints authorities for enquiring into serious complaints against the members of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies. Other measures provided for by the Order include the establishment of the Criminal Justice Coordination committee, to work on the improvement of the system as a whole and promote good practices, and of the National Police Management Board, to work on overall technical and human resource capacity building within the Police.

Judiciary and legal profession

There is widespread lack of public confidence in the institutional legitimacy of the justice system. Access to justice and the rule of law are undermined by corruption and are under a threat. Alongside the corrupt judiciary is the legal profession with low ethics of lawyers and poor controls of the bodies (such as the Pakistan Bar Council) responsible for maintaining the high standards that should be required of it.

Reform efforts have included:

a) Access to Justice Programme
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has in 2001 approved Access to Justice Programme loans totalling US$ 350 million due for completion towards the end of 2004 with Pakistan's Ministry of Law, Justice, Human Rights and Parliamentary Affairs (MOL) as the Executing Agency hosting the programme management unit (PMU). The Programme is built around five inter-related governance objectives:

(i) providing a legal basis for judicial, policy, and administrative reforms;

(ii) improving the efficiency, timeliness, and effectiveness in judicial and police services;

(iii) supporting greater equity and accessibility in justice services for the vulnerable poor;

(iv) improving predictability and consistency between fiscal and human resource allocation and the mandates of reformed judicial and police institutions at the federal, provincial and local government levels; and

(v) ensuring greater transparency and accountability in the performance of the judiciary, the police and administrative justice institutions.

Accountability Courts:

In 1999, following the coup, Accountability Courts (lapsed as of 1994) have been once again set up throughout the country to decide cases under the amended National Accountability Bureau Ordinance. These Accountability Courts were established for speedy disposal of cases involving corruption and corrupt practices, misuse, abuse of power, misappropriation of property, kickbacks, commissions and the matters connected and ancillary or incidental thereto. The Accountability Courts have so far announced judgments in several high profile corruption cases. Criticism with regards to selective accountability and political motives has been voiced in terms of the courts on a number of occasions, while the NAB and some others have been counter-arguing in defence of the integrity of the practices.

Public sector procurement and contracting


There have been major concerns in this area. There is large-scale corruption in procurement and contracting affecting government and development aid funded programmes, public works, etc. Some of the systemic weaknesses have included the lack of a standardised procurement regime (sets of clear, transparent rules and legislation) along with absence of repository of procurement expertise in the government. Grounds and opportunities for corruption are provided at every stage of the procurement process (from preparation to tender, bid evaluation, negotiations, and contracting).

Some of the reform efforts include:

a) Establishment of a public procurement regulatory authority

For years, several agencies and groups have been recommending the establishment of a single regulatory authority for public procurement, such as the WB in its Country Procurement Assessment report of 1997, as well as TI during its country mission in 2002. In June 2002, the PPRA was promulgated by the President for regulating procurement of goods, services and works in the public sector and for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto; and extended to the whole of Pakistan. The PPRA, which comprises the Secretary, Finance Division (chair), and the Secretaries of Ministry of Industries and Production, Defence Production Division, Ministry of Water and Power, Ministry of Housing and Works, Ministry of Communications and three members from private sector nominated by the Federal Government, can take such measures and exercise such powers as may be necessary for improving governance, management, transparency, accountability and quality of public procurement of goods, services and works in the public sector. It may monitor application of the laws and procedures; recommend revisions in or formulation of new laws, rules and policies in respect of or related to public procurement; make regulations and lay down codes of ethics and procedures for public procurement, inspection or quality of goods, services and works; monitor public procurement practices and make recommendations to improve governance, transparency, accountability and quality of public procurement; monitor overall performance of procuring agencies and make recommendations for improvements in their institutional set up and other.

Some reports (such as NACS related sources) suggest that the agency, however, has not been properly staffed and needs capacity building if it is to perform the intended functions.

b) Resolution related to procurement standards

In 2002, the National Accountability Bureau as a part of its study in preparing the NACS organised an international workshop, resulting in the stakeholders adopting a resolution related to ensuring transparency in Public Procurement in Pakistan. This resolution was incorporated in the NACS report and was approved by the Ministerial Cabinet and the President of Pakistan

Financial oversight bodies:



The Supreme Audit Institution of the country (the Auditor General's office) is trying to reform itself by following international best practices, such as those of the International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI), as part of its reform agenda. It has been noted that there seems to be some progress in reorganizing the department with a view to adopting modern techniques of audit and reporting formats. It has initiated a capacity building program under the project to improve Financial Reporting and Auditing (PIFRA). Some of the other reform efforts include the design of diagnostic tools, such as a "Financial Government Rating Index (FGRI)" and an "Internal Quality Rating (IQR) for its departments, etc.

Public Accounts Committee:


the PAC was for a number of years operating as an ad-hoc body in need of serious reform efforts. In December of 2003, a Standing Committee on Public Accounts was finally established comprising about 18 members including the present Minister for Finance (ex-officio).

Independent Anti-Corruption Agencies:


the Government of Pakistan has undertaken a number of steps to strengthen the Anti-Corruption Agencies, and has especially concentrated on the National Accountability Bureau for its reforms. The reforms include the creation of NAB as the sole Anti Corruption Agency at the Federal level; adding the functions of prevention through research and monitoring and public awareness and coalition building with civil society to NAB's mandate; provisions on appointments of ACAs (from the elected opposition members) and security of tenure of key office bearers of the ACA and others. Further reforms and restructuring are in the process.

Local Government: the Devolution programme (forming part of the local government plan built around decentralization of administrative authority, de-concentration of management functions, diffusion of the power-authority nexus, and distribution of resources to the district level) of handing over local governance to the local levels and the people is deemed to be progressing satisfactory. The Devolution programme is coordinated by the National Reconstruction Bureau. Some survey tools have been developed in cooperation with CIET International to measure progress and the impact of the process on public service delivery at local levels.


Civil society and public participation: It has been noted that civil society and non-governmental organisations are being engaged in government's committees, task forces and other advisory and oversight roles. So, for example, the local government is now required to establish various bodies that are to act as "watchdogs" and contribute inter alia towards the fight against corruption. These are to be set up in each town where citizens can take part in the direct monitoring of the Police, Judiciary, the District Government and others. These include the district Public Safety Commission to prevent unlawful or motivated use of police by the District Nazim; a Police Complaints Authority which will address serious complaints against police; Citizens Community Boards (comprising of civil society representatives) for energizing the community for development and improvement in service delivery through voluntary and self help initiatives as well as for carrying out citizen monitoring of the local government; local Ombudsman schemes and other bodies.

Freedom of Information and Media: Several ordinances have been promulgated in 2002, including the Freedom of Information Ordinance, the Press Council of Pakistan Ordinance and others. While this legislation has scope for major improvements, it is a reasonable first step to build on
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Default really nice ma'am

Assalam u alaikum ma'am, i hope you are fine. Ma'am i just have one request ma'am i want an essay about the same title "corruption" for intermediate level. Because i have a test in which i have to write an essay so kindly help me in essay it would be so nice of you.
And also suggest me some essays in order to prepare my self for the test.
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