Table of Contents
1. Zia’s Regime
i. Zia in Power
ii. Constitutional Changes
iii. U.S. reaction against Zia
2. Civil War in Afghanistan Before Soviet Invasion
i. Soviet Invasion
ii. Post-Soviet Afghanistan
3. Pakistan’s Foreign Policy during Zia Regime
a) Era of Neutrality (1947-1953 )
b) Era of Alliance (1954-1962)
c) Era of bilateralism (1962-1969)
d) Era of non-aligned Movement (1969-1981)
e) Era of Revival of Policy (1981-1990)
f) Era of Regionalism (1990-2001)
g) A New Era (2001-to date)
ii. Causes behind the Pakistan’s tilt toward U.S. during Zia’s Regime
4. Consequences of Zia’s Regime
iii. Ethnic diversity
iv. Security dilemma
vi. Incident of Ojri camp
viii. External and internal threats
ix. Lack of government capability
x. Economic Crisis
Pakistan is situated in very important place. It has borders with both Southeast and Southwest Asia and near to china Soviet Union and Gulf countries. We will discuss the Zia regime in respect to U.S. relation under his rule. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as elected president started a fresh chapter of democracy in Pakistan history. He introduced constitution known as 1973 constitution but soon he carried 7 amendments in the constitution to enhance his power. He did arbitrary reforms in fields of Industry, agriculture and bureaucracy although He is consider the father of Pakistan’s nuclear programs. But people become against to his arbitrary rule. On July 5, 1977 polity set back and Bhutto was picked by Chief of the Army Staff, Gernal Zia ul Haq.
Zia regime starts in 1977, by taking over the previous government of Bhutto. After taking over the government, he starts the concept of “Islamisation” for controlling the people of Pakistan.
Though the Bhutto government also preached Islamic socialism but Zia was more emphasis on the concept of Islamisation and introduced the Nizam-e-Mustafa plan. He issued orders to all government departments for break for Namaz prayers during office hours. He also gave orders that all commercial centers and markets would be closed for Friday prayers. He established a committee to monitor the Zakat and Usher programmes in all over the Pakistan. Islamic banking system was introduced. He also started the Islamic punishment Hadud for drinking, theft and adultery. TV and radio was also ordered to redesign their programs according to the teaching of Islam.
Plamen Tonchev said
“Bhutto was executed in April 1979. Under Zia,Pakistan saw an even sharper turn to Islamisation, one which had a profound impact on the state and the entire society. In terms of foreign policy, Zia’s 11-year rule wasmarked by Pakistan’s close links with the Mujahideen fighting Soviet troops in Afghanistan, at the height of the Cold War.”
As it was discussed in the starting lines that Zia used Islam as a tool. He got benefit from external threat by Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. Zia got benefit of this external threat to Pakistan’s survival to legitimize his power. As president Ayub relied on civil bureaucracy for strengthening his government but Zia gave key position to military officials. He brought them to bureaucracy and it was the first time when military official were started working at the key posts of bureaucracy. He introduced Constitutional changes in the 1973 constitution.He introduced 58(2b) to empower the president to dismiss the elected prime minster and parliament without any obligation to consult with Senate or the Supreme Court.
U.S. Reaction against Zia
America condemned this act and protest against it. In the early days of Zia regime the relationship between Pakistan and US is at the lowest point in the history. General Zia admitted this thing in an interview that in the administration of President Carter the relations reached at the lowest point. The main cause is the controversy on the nuclear issues. But when Soviet invaded Afghanistan then America try to do every thing to reduce the influence of Russia in the South Asia. Then for Pakistan U.S. changed its strategy and provide assistance in military and economic fields. The most determining factor in the Pakistan and US relationship during this period was is the geographic importance of Pakistan in the region.
In 1976, Pakistan and France reached an agreement in which France provides a nuclear reprocessing plant to Pakistan. But what America do, he put pressure on France to cancel the agreement. And because of this pressure France refuse to give nuclear reprocessing plant. General Zia said,
The only poor country that president carter could get hold of for achieving his aims was Pakistan and he forced France and president Giscard; somehow or the other I think he came under pressure from the united states and refused to give us plant.
So this is the main issue which destroyed the relationship between Pakistan and U.S., after this the Pakistani government issued a strongly angry statement against the US policy.
Pakistan has deeply regretted the escalation of the campaign by the United States against Pakistan nuclear program. The US ambassador was summoned to the foreign office here today and informed of the government of Pakistan serious concern over the escalation of the campaign of threats and intimidation in regard to Pakistan peaceful nuclear program.
This shows the relation of Pakistan and US in the early Zia regime. There are some other reasons which gave bad impact to US toward Pakistan .And the last is the mistaken belief that the United States was involved in the attack on Makah (the holiest place for Muslims in the world). This result the people attacks on the US embassy. Result was the death of some employees of embassy. After this the economic aid for Pakistan was disconnected. All these issues show that Pakistan and U.S were how much far from each other in the early days of General Zia regime.
All policies of Zia shows his morality and goodness but basically he wants to divert the attention of the people from Bhutto execution. He also tried to unite Pakistan in the name of religion. For establishing Mujahedeen he must show his Islamic attitude and make all policies according to Islam so that he easily got the public opinion in his favour.
We see that because of nuclear program in Pakistan, US stopped all the aids to Pakistan and the relationship of both states was also affected. But after Soviet Union attack on Afghanistan, USA again established good relations with Pakistan and ignore the nuclear issues. So when Zia visited United States of America, he forced the American government to accept the Pakistan nuclear program.
Though Reagan warned Pakistan about any development in nuclear programme but when Zia insisted to accept the Pakistan nuclear program, then American president and secretary thinks seriously how they handle the nuclear issue without effecting the US Pakistan relations. They know that they need Pakistan assistance against Soviet Union and without the cooperation of Pakistan they will not successful. So in the period of Afghanistan war Pakistan continued its nuclear program secretly and also gets the US aid which strengthens its defense and economy.
The US Pakistan aid and the cooperation between ISI and CIA make it possible that the Mujahedeen defeat Soviet Union. And in 1986 it seems that the soviets are thinking to withdrawal from Afghanistan. And after the air crash the regime of Zia was ended. After the air crash president Ghulam Ishaq Khan do a meeting with his colleagues and consult with them how to handle this situation and tries to strengthen his presidency. And then Benazir political complain starts which basically emphasis on the Kashmir issue.
“Pakistan’s military involvement – even if an indirect one – in the confrontation with the USSR in Afghanistan allowed Zia to receive substantial political and
Financial backing from the US, but at a rather high cost, as it turned out later on.”
Civil War in Afghanistan before Soviet Invasion
Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 24, 1979. No state invaded another state till it has some weaknesses in its domestic politics. These flaws provide the rogue states to take an advantage of it. Same was the case in Afghanistan. Before soviet invasion there was much unrest in Afghanistan. Power was the bone of contention between different leaders.
Afghanistan became constitutional monarchy in 1964. Zahir shah was constitutional monarch with two chamber legislature. This period give way to new political parties. The people`s Democratic Party of Afghanistan formed in 1965, was first communist party. In 1967, the party divided into two factions, the Khalk, led by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin and the Parcham, led by Babrak Kamal. The Khalk had strong ties within the Afghan army.
The conflict has its root in 1973 when Mohammad Daoud removes the king and became president and prime minister by declaring Afghanistan a republic. In 1978, Nur Mohammad Taraki overthrow Daoud`s Government. It was the start of a new communist regime. This regime introduced many new reforms that create unrest in the majority that was much associated with their traditions and religion. Religious leaders were tortured and executed during this regime. Religious leaders started attacks on the Afghan communists. They also targeted soviet advisors during a local rebellion. In 1979 Nur Muhammad Taraki was assassinated by Hafizullah Amin who came in power after that. Resistance was shown by some previous Government and military officials but they killed by the present ruler. This civil war gave way to Soviet invasion. Soviet Union was alerted by the Islamic revolution in Iran. She cannot afford another revolution in Afghanistan so she find no way else to attack Afghanistan to assist communist regime.
The duration of this war was 10 years. It put very disastrous effects on Afghanistan. The invading forces killed Hafizullah Amin and put Babrak Karmal in power. This conflict was basically between anti-communist Muslims(Mujahideen) and Afghan Government and Russian army. The troops involved in war were 30,000 initially but later increased to 100,000. Mujahideens were included 200,000 fighters from over 20 Muslim states. Usama Bin Ladin was one of those who joined. Russian troops hold the urban areas and Mujahideens were in rural areas having a strong control over them. First they resisted to the sophisticated army through guerrillas warfare. But later they got enough assistance from China, U.S.A and Saudi Arabia through channel of Pakistan. CIA invested $2.1billion during the 10 years. This assistance was also included American Anti craft missiles. Now Mujahideen used tactics with sophisticated weapons and resisted strongly to the Soviet troops. By the mid 1980s the assistance for Mujahideens increased both in quality and quantity. USA provided them with Stingers missiles that down hundreds of Soviet helicopters and transport aircraft. This tactic forced Soviet generals to change their policy towards air assaults.
The United Nations General Assembly passed United Nations Resolution 37/37 on November 29, 1982, which stated that the Soviet Union forces should withdraw from Afghanistan.
“Soviet tactics utilized the following military and economic efforts.
• The deployment of the 40th Soviet Army (over 100,000 ground troops). With air support, logistics, MVD troops, and other miscellaneous troops, the total number is estimated by some observers at approximately 175,000 troops total. This represented almost 20% of the category 1 (front-line) divisions possessed by the Soviet Union at the time.
• There was wide-spread use of chemical weapons behind the front lines by the Soviet Union. This was accepted practice for Soviet military units as reported by Soviet military journals.
• More than 20 million anti-personnel mines were dropped by the Soviet Union.
• Russian costs (in 1986 dollars) were approximately US$20 Billion / yr.
These tactics accomplished the following results:
• Approximately 90,000 Afghan combatants killed (mujahadeen and government), and 90,000 wounded. Including civilian casualties, estimates are that 10% of the total population and 13.5% of the male population was killed, 1.5 million killed overall.
• Approximately 22,000 Soviets were killed and 75,000 wounded.
• Approximately 6 million refugees were driven into surrounding countries.
• Damages of approximately $50 Billion US to Afghanistan, about 1/3 to 1/2 the net worth of the country.
• Agricultural production reduced by 50%, livestock losses of 50%.
• 70% of paved roads destroyed.
• Of 15,000 villages in the country, 5,000 were destroyed outright or made economically unsupportable by destruction of all economic resources such as fields, wells or roads.”
In 1986 Karmal resigned and Najibullah became the head of collective leadership. Mikhael Gorbachev referred Afghan war as bleeding wound. In 1988 he announced the withdrawal of soviet troops which completed one year later.
After the Russian withdrawal, civil war again started between rebel groups and the communist Government. Mujahideen got the control of Kabul and assassinated the Najibullah. Now the war began different factions of mujahideen. They were united to defeat the Russia and Communist Government but it was great fact that they were much different fron each other. They were from different parts of the state and ethnically diverted.
The four main ethnic groups are the Pashtuns, from the south and west, and the Tajiks and Uzbeks who dominate in the north and east. Also, the Hazari minority accounts for most of the country's Shiite Muslims. Pashtuns, Uzbeks and Tajiks are mostly Sunni Muslims. The Taliban began in the Pashtun area of Kandahar, while the forces of Rabanni and Massoud are primarily Tajik. Dostum is from the Uzbek region around the city of Mazar-i Sharif .
Some rebel groups joined and formed a coalition called Islamic Council of Mujahideen. They elected Rabanni as president who remained in office till 1996. This council excluded parties by the minority of Shetes muslims and armed group called Hizb-i Islami lead by Gulbddin Hekmatyar. Hizb-I Islami was supported by Pakistan during Soviet invasion. It also got much weaponry from USA. Gulbddin Hekmatyar did not accept this exclusion. He formed a coalition with Abdur Rashid Dostum in an attempt to overthrow Rabani and his defense minister Ahmad Shah Massoud. Dostum was a warlord in command of the ethnic Uzbek Junbish militia in northern Afghanistan during the Soviet occupation. He joined Najibullah in 1985 but moved back to Mujahiden in 1995. In this fighting 25,000 civilians died in Kabul and one third of the city destroyed. During 1994-1995 different armies and militias oj mujahideen fought with each other through out the country with ruling their own area of influence. During this period there was no central government in Afghanistan.
During this civil war another religious leader joined the scene. He was Mullah Mohammad Omar, a former mujahideen leader. He formed another organization with the name of Taliban. Many mujahideen with Pushtoon background joined him. His followers were mostly Islamic Religious students. He implemented Islamic Jurisprudence in the country. He also welcomed Usama bin Ladin. Pakistan also helped Taliban in order to form a stable government in Afghanistan. Taliban first get control of Kandhar and then they approached to Kabul. Ahmad shah Masoud and Rabanni fled to North and continued war against Taliban. Ahmad Shah Massoud got aid from Russia and Iran.
During this period Dostum gained power in the Northern five provinces. In 1997 Taliban started an effective operation against him. One of his deputies Gen. Abdul Malik Pahlvan joined Taliban and turned over the city of Mazar-i Sharif. After this event Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates recognized the Taliban government. Throughout Taliban regime, Iran provided weapons and training to the Northern alliance. This alliance was consist of the Uzbek forces of General Dostum, the Tajik troops of President Rabbani and the Shiite Hazaris led by Haji Mohammed Mohaqiq.
In 1998, due to terrorist attacks on American embassy in Africa, USA launched cruise missiles on training camps of Usama Bin Loddin in Afghanistan. In 2001, Ahmad Shah Mssoud was assassinated in an attack. It was assumed by Ussa Bin Lodin. After that, 9/11 occurred and field opens for another super power to attack on Afghanistan.
Pakistan’s Foreign Policy during Zia’s Regime
We have to first understand the historical background of Pakistan’s foreign policy before going towards its foreign policy during Zia’s regime or Pakistan’s foreign policy after Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The historical background of Pakistan’s foreign policy inherited the legacy of foreign policy from British India. There are three main factors which determined Pakistan’s foreign policy. These factors are security, development, and ideology. The security remained the main factor because of its geopolitical importance. Great powers and regional powers have influenced its foreign policy in different times and are influencing till today. Thus Pakistan’s foreign policy underwent changes in accordance to the international situation.
The historical background of foreign policy of Pakistan could be described in six phases. In these phases the foreign policy underwent changes to compensate with the requirements of international situation. These eras or phases are following:-
Era of Neutrality (1947-53)
In this era, Pakistan promoted harmony and cooperation with the Muslim states. Pakistan could not maintain its neutrality in this era, as Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan visited America instead of USSR which has given invitation to him.
Era of Alliances (1954-62)
In second era Pakistan entered into alliance with US and signed two important treaties i.e. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and Baghdad Pact, which evolved into the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) in 1958. Pakistan entered into these pacts actually to get military and economic aid against the expected threat of aggression by India. From 1955 to 1965 U.S. provided more than $700 million military aid to Pakistan . Many Muslim countries criticized Pakistan alignment with U.S. It resulted to isolate Pakistan from many Muslim countries and Pakistan didn’t remain able to participate in the nationalization of oil by Iran and nationalization of Suez Canal by Egypt.
The India refused to enter into collective security scheme of America and proclaimed her neutrality. Thus America faced challenges in balancing relations with India and Pakistan. Prime Minister Jawahir Lal Nehru during his visit to U.S. in December 1956 privately told President Eisenhower that Pakistan entry into SEATO and Baghdad Pact has threatened India’s security because this defense alliance is strengthening Pakistan’s military. Washington continued the policy of military assistance with Pakistani president Ayub Khan for the purpose to combat the spread of communism. This alignment policy of Pakistan ended when in 1965 Indo-Pak war, U.S. refused to help Pakistan and suspended military aid in the time of need. U.S. imposed sanctions on Pakistan by passing Symington amendment . Pakistan withdrew from SEATO but remained member of CENTO because of presence of Turkey and Iran for some time.
Era of Bilateralism (1962-69)
In this era Pakistan emphasized to develop relations with individual Muslim states. Pakistan developed bilateral relations with Iran and Turkey, which later gave way to Regional Cooperation Development (RCD).
Era of non-aligned Movement (1969-81)
During this phase, Pakistan shifted her foreign policy from alignment with West to non-aligned policy and joined non-aligned movement (NAM). In this era Pakistan withdrew from Commonwealth, SEATO and recognized many countries such as East-Germany, Democratic Republic Korea, and Vietnam. The objectives of Pakistan were then start focusing to develop relations with all great powers including the USSR and settlement of disputed issues with India by negotiating Simla Pact.
In this period Pakistan cultivated economic relations with oil reach Arab states and established Joint-Ministerial Commissions with a number of Muslim states for the purpose to increase cooperation in the fields of trade, industry, agriculture and science and technology. During the civil war in East Pakistan in 1971, the U.S. didn’t provide any help (due to which Pakistan withdrew from SEATO). This era is important in a sense also that Pakistan has actively started working on its nuclear program. When India exploded a nuclear device in 1974, Prime Minister Zulfikhar Ali Bhutto launched a heavily publicized nuclear program. This posed serious challenges to Pak-U.S. relations. The Symington act was actually passed by U.S. senate now. The result of which is that U.S. stopped all assistance except food aid to Pakistan.
Era of Revival of Policy (1981-90)
In December 1979 Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, the U.S. once again found Pakistan as a front line state to contain USSR expansionism. Thus Pakistan revived its policy and established close relations with America. In 1981 President Ronald Reagon provided five year economic and military aid of $3.2 billion. Both Pakistan and United States worked in collaboration until the withdrawal of USSR from Afghanistan. Tensions occurred in relations when U.S. started pressurizing Pakistan to abandon its nuclear programme by signing NPT. But Pakistan didn’t accept; which resulted in suspension of aid.
Era of Regionalism (1990-2001)
A distinct feature of this era is regionalism. Pakistan joined SAARC and played active role in strengthening the regional organizations and OIC. Pakistan played an important role in establishing ECO.
In this era Pakistan followed policy of impeasement toward U.S. by representing a moderate, liberal, and humane face of Islam. U.S. once again posed nuclear sanctions on Pakistan. In 1990 under Pressler amendment deliveries of all major military equipment were suspended. The Pressler amendment was amended by Brown amendment in September 1995. But nuclear sanctions were posed when Pakistan exploded five nuclear devices in June 1998.
In the start of this discussion it was mentioned that foreign policy of Pakistan has six phases but we cannot say that this era didn’t finish. This era get finished in 2001. So foreign policy of Pakistan entered into a seventh phase .
A New Era (2001-to date)
The international economic and military sanctions were lifted, when Pakistan joined the international coalition targeting the Taliban in 2001. The Al Qaeda’s terrorist attacks in September 11, 2001 against America totally changed the relations of Pakistan with United States. Pakistan once again becomes alloy of U.S. in war against terror. Due to this alignment we are facing problems till today but Pakistan didn’t get any step to bring changes in foreign policy.
Causes behind the Pakistan’s Tilt toward U.S. during Zia’s Regime
When Soviet invaded Afghanistan in December 1979, President Carter changed his policy toward Pakistan and offered an aid package of $400 million but General Zia rejected it and waited for the Reagon administration. The administration changed in U.S. in January 1981. Reagon administration makes strong the relations with Pakistan as they have need of a strong alloy in South Asia to contain USSR. An aid package of $3.2 billion was given to Pakistan in the context of economy and military assistance. There was rapid restoration of the supply of advanced equipment, including 40 F-16 fighters.
The dialogue between Pakistani and U.S. officials became “unusually cordial and productive” in the words of Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig. The State Department spokesman stated in June 1981 :
“this administration believes that addressing those security concerns which have motivated Pakistan’s nuclear program and re-establishing a relationship of confidence with it offer the best opportunity in the long run for effectively dealing with its nuclear programme.”
Until the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, Pakistan played a critical role in the Reagon policy of confronting the USSR. At the same time Pakistan was taking care of political campaign against Moscow. Resolutions and drafts were made year after year to condemn the Soviet aggression in Afghanistan and called for their withdrawal and restoration of the sovereign and non-aligned status of Afghanistan. The U.S. was quite content to give the leading military and diplomatic role.
Now we are going to analyze the reasons which make Pakistan change its foreign policy to become alloy of America. The border regions of Pakistan were overrun by refugee numbering in millions after the Soviet intervention. The Pakistan was facing a great security problem on behalf of following reasons :
i. Kabul-Soviet attacks on the refugee camps, and hot pursuit of the Afghan guerrillas into Pakistan territory.
ii. Soviet military pressures along the Durand line with the aim of seizing salients of Pakistani territory in order to control mountain passes.
iii. Encouragement and support of ethno-national movements inside Pakistan.
iv. Either an Indian attack on the eastern border or a coordinated border attack, with the Afghan-Soviet forces opening a western frontier.
On its own Islamabad had limited capacity to defend itself against a determined Soviet invasion, but Pakistan succeeded the Soviet threat from Afghanistan through a variety of means. First, Pakistan changed its foreign policy and modernized its armed forces by receiving military and economic assistance from U.S.
Secondly, Pakistan developed collaboration with the Afghan resistance that makes weaken the Moscow’s attempt to consolidate its hold on Afghanistan. Finally, Pakistan was careful that not to escalate the resistance to a point that would provoke Soviet retaliation while remaining firm in its position that armed conflict would continue until the withdrawal of Afghanistan.
Consequences of Zia regime
Following are the consequences of Zia’s regime.
3. Ethnic diversity
4. Security dilemma
6. Incident of Ojri camp
8. External and internal threats
9. Lack of government capability
10. Economic crises
In Pakistan, militancy, extremism and terrorism are on rise. This thing emerged during Zia period. At that time, extremists groups misused Islam to make political gains. They brought radicalization in Afghanistan by training them in madarsas about jihad; they trained them in the areas of NWFP and FATA.
The event of the Zia period brought Pakistan to a leading position in world affairs. In the 1990s, Pakistan faced some major domestic problems--mounting ethnic and sectarian strife as well as widespread civil disorder. Pakistan had too many threats from India since its independence. The security planners of Pakistan should have to face this problem and they used more efforts for defense strategy. They aliened themselves with the west. This was the reason Pakistan joined the American block, but this thing later on created complicated security situation in Pakistan.
Pakistan supported America in Afghanistan, but when soviet left Afghanistan, the madarsas made by Pakistan ISI for training Mujahidins were totally ignored. Government did not think about their development and also not provide them with some course. These madarsas were left in the hands of extremists and they taught the students in madarsas on their own lines.
The Taliban trained in those madarsas created problems for Pakistan as well. They created religious extremism in the areas of NWFP, boarder areas and FATA. They forced the local population to follow their law. If they will not follow their law then they will punish them and even kill them. They restricted women to their homes, asked them to use veil. They banned women education. This thing can also be seen in the valley of swat. They forced men to have beard. They banned western education system and applied Islamic law which they consider to applied.
Refuges from Afghanistan
When the soviet left Afghanistan, the migration of afghan refuges in Pakistan is uncommon. It was estimated that in one year 75,000 people migrated from Afghanistan to Pakistan and Iran. When the civil war started in Afghanistan, the number of afghan refuges reached to 90,000. This number was too large for Pakistan to provide them basic needs. When refuges reached in the areas of NWFP and Balochistan, they increased the ratio of local population up to 15%.
When these refugees start stabling in areas of Pakistan this thing created ethnic diversity in Pakistan. The baloch people already had this inferiority complex that they have been neglected since the independence. But after the stay of refuges in the area of Balochistan they increased this complex. In Balochistan, pakhtoons are fast reducing the balochi dominance. They make the balochies in minority. This was a threat to baloch provincial government. The balochi government demanded that these refuges should turn to Punjab and Sind because NWFP and baloch areas have less agrarian land.
The refuges were those who usually earn their living through agricultural land. But the Punjabis and Sndhis are not as much patient as people of NWFP and Balochistan. They demand that after the end of civil war and better conditions in Afghanistan these refuges should go back to their country. But their was problem that, these refuges have not only invested in different businesses but also bought homes and commercial properties. Local people were not ready to coup with them and ethnic conflicts emerged in these areas.
This thing also created security dilemma for Pakistan. It was commonly believed that afghan saboteurs have came Pakistan in the guise of refuge with the object of spying. The more serious problem was the alleged smuggling of arms from the tribal areas to afghan resistance groups. Pakistan refused this allegation of smuggling but western media and soviet media propagate this thing that Pakistan is smuggling arm weapons.
Proliferation of Conventional Weapons
This is also an alarming challenge to human security. Many of the conventional arms present in Pakistan is the result of U.S.A. according to Norwegian initiative on small arms transfer, from 1950 to 1996, the U.S government donated 120,000 small arms to Pakistan. In afghan crises, 50 to 60 U.S truck loaded weapons crossed Pakistan boarder each day, 20% of those never given to Afghanistan, they were diverted to black market in Pakistan. Illegal weapons were also made in tribal areas as well.
According to interior ministry, three million Kalashnikovs circulated in NWFP; which is termed as Kalashnikovs culture. Other types are M-16s and G3s hand guns, rocket –propelled grenade launchers, all these things are sailed in the arm bazaar of NWFP. There is no official estimate of these illegal weapons, but rough estimate is 10 million.
Incident of Ojri Camp
On April 10, 1988 the military bombs stored at Ojri Camp, Rawlapindi, allow to run free a firestorm that sent all sorts of rockets all over Rawlapindi and into neighboring Islamabad. It was ammunition dump. Everyone knew that this was related to the Afghanistan operation and ISI controlled the location. Soon, the politics also began becoming clear and before long Mohammed Khan Junejo was booted out. But that was the extent of it. Theories abound, but it remains unclear exactly what happened? Who did what? How? Why?
The high prevalence of small arms, poverty, injustice, and lack of efficient police force has resulted in the increased rate of crimes. According to the research Pakistan federal beuro rate of crimes increased in last ten years. 98% of the fire arms were used in murder cases. Karachi, the big city, has seen frequent incidents of violence general public suffered the psychological traumas and material losses.
External and Internal Threats
Pakistan had threat from Russia as well because if Russia can attack on Afghanistan then she can also pose threat to Pakistan. It was also feeling threat from America that if Pakistan did not supported America then America will find support from India which is the rival of Pakistan since independence. India had developed its nuclear programme which was also a threat to Pakistan’s security.
Religious extremism had created already many problems for Pakistan. Swat disaster is the result of this extremism. Many suicide bomb blasts could be seen in the history of Pakistan now. Thousands of people died during these blasts. The religious extremism has now turned into terrorism.
Lack of Government Capability
The government of Pakistan was not able to coup with all these problems. It was due to the amendments done by the Zia in the constitution of Pakistan. Article 58 (b) of this amendment empowered the president to dismiss an elected prime minister and parliament without any obligation to consult with the senate or Supreme Court. This amendment was called 8th amendment. Zia had done this to continue his power but this becomes the tradition in Pakistan. Every new government tried its best to increase its powers rather than reducing the major problems of the country.
The government of Pakistan did not used democratic tools to coup with this situation. As we have witnessed in swat. They never provide security but a source of insecurity for the people of Pakistan. People usually depend on the religious extremists, feudal and the local government rather than the leaders of Pakistan.
When refuges came in Pakistan they created economic depression in Pakistan. They were large in number so it was very difficult for the government to coup with the situation. Not only Pakistan spent 50% for the relief work but also for afghan children schoolings and health treatments. For this purpose many organizations also helped Pakistan like UNESCO, UNICEF, and USAID. Pakistan’s economy went downward while doing such kind of relief work.
When Pakistan started nuclear programme for its security purposes, America did not favor this act of Pakistan. They had already done some amendments in the foreign assistance act in 1977 and they cut all assistance except food aid to Pakistan. In 1981, this amendment was reinterpreted but American government was never in favor of Pakistan nuclear program. In October 1990, U.S suspended military and economic aid to Pakistan. Such kind of sanctions on Pakistan aid weakened the economy of Pakistan.
The Zia regime and its support to U.S and afghan Mujahidins had created a lot of problems for Pakistan but it also had a positive impact. Islamabad sees enormous opportunity for entering the markets of the central Asian states. Which are already eager to establish trade and investment links but without the bridge of Afghanistan, Pakistan may not succeed in furthering its interests in this region.
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