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Default Pakistan Relations and forign policy

Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (after Indonesia), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. Pakistan is also an important member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC).

Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations. Historically, its foreign policy has encompassed difficult relations with the Republic of India; especially on the core-issue of Kashmir, over which it has fought two wars. However it has had long-standing close relations with its other neighbors Afghanistan, Iran and China, extensive security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf and wide-ranging bilateral relations with the United States and other Western countries.

Wary of Soviet expansion, Pakistan had strong relations with both the United States of America and the People's Republic of China during much of the Cold War. Today, the two countries remain Pakistan's closest allies.

It was a member of the CENTO and SEATO military alliances. Its alliance with the United States was especially close after the Soviets invaded the neighboring country of Afghanistan. In 1964, Pakistan signed the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) Pact with Turkey and Iran, when all three countries were closely allied with the U.S., and as neighbors of the Soviet Union, wary of perceived Soviet expansionism. To this day, Pakistan has a close relationship with Turkey. RCD became defunct after the Iranian Revolution, and a Pakistani-Turkish initiative led to the founding of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) in 1985. For several years prior to the staged November 2008 Mumbai attacks, Pakistan's relations with India had been gradually improving, which opened up Pakistan's foreign policy to issues beyond security. An increasingly important actor on the world scene, Pakistan formed the "Friend of Pakistan" group which includes important countries such as Australia, Britain, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United States, the United Nations and European Union


Pakistan shares a long and porous border with Afghanistan (also called the Durand Line). The border is poorly marked. The problem is exacerbated by cultural, historical, linguistic, ethnic and political ties crossing close relations between peoples who live on both sides of the border. This is further complicated by the fact that many of the Pashtun tribes on both sides of the border are often married and refuse to recognize it much to the frustration of both the Afghan government and the Pakistani government.

Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, the Pakistani Government played a vital role in supporting the Afghan resistance and assisting refugees. Social and health indicators dropped considerably during this period as Polio and Tuberculosis, previously eradicated from the country, were re-introduced and the country became awash with drugs, weapons, prostitution rings and increased incidences of crime and violence. After the Soviet withdrawal in February 1989, Pakistan, with cooperation from the world community, continued to provide extensive support for displaced Afghans. In 1999, the United States provided approximately $70 million in humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan and Afghan refugees in Pakistan, mainly through multilateral organizations and NGOs.

Pakistani strategists view Afghanistan in a fraternal matter and vice versa, despite the support of anti-Pakistani elements in recent history; this has led Pakistani analysts to hope that Afghanistan could provide "strategic depth" in the event of a war with neighboring India. For this reason Pakistan strives to have friendly relations with Afghanistan. Furthermore, many Pakistanis saw in Afghanistan and Afghans a common bond based on religion, history, culture, language and ethnic ties. At various times, Pakistan has backed the mujahideen factions as suited its interests, against its perceived enemies.

In the 1950s, there were suggestions of a possible formation of a confederation between Afghanistan and Pakistan, a move supported by Zahir Shah, the Afghan king along the lines of the original Afghan Empire founded by Ahmed Shah Abdali. Many Afghans and Pakistanis want to see improved relations which they feel are a necessity for both countries to fulfill their destiny, often what one country lacks, the other has an excess of. Scholars point out that it is not an issue of if the two countries unite, but rather of when they unite as both countries have historically always worked together and been a single political entity.

The overthrow of the Taliban Regime in November 2001 has seen strained relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

People's Republic of China

Main article: Sino-Pakistan relations
In 1950, Pakistan was among the first countries to break relations with the Republic of China or Taiwan and recognize the People's Republic of China. Following the Sino-Indian hostilities of 1962, Pakistan's relations with the PRC became stronger; since then, the two countries have regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in a variety of agreements. China has provided economic military and technical assistance to Pakistan.

Favorable relations with China have been a pillar of Pakistan's foreign policy. China strongly supported Pakistan's opposition to Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and was perceived by Pakistan as a regional counterweight to India and the USSR. The PRC and Pakistan also share a close military relation, with China supplying a range of modern armaments to the Pakistani defence forces. Lately, military cooperation has deepened with joint projects producing armaments ranging from fighter jets to guided missile frigates. Chinese cooperation with Pakistan has reached high economic points with substantial investment from China in Pakistani infrastructural expansion.


Pakistan extended diplomatic recognition to the Kyrgyz Republic on December 20, 1991. A Protocol for the establishment of diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan was signed on May 10, 1992. Pakistan's diplomatic resident Mission at Ambassadorial level was established at Bishkek in August 1995.

There have been high level visits from both sides in last ten years. In December 2000, the Chief Executive of Pakistan extended an invitation to Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev to pay a State visit to Pakistan. The invitation was accepted by the President of Kyrgyzstan.

Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan co-operate with each other in various fields for the promotion of trade and economic relations between the two countries. A few Pakistan nationals have established their business concerns in the fields of hoteling, pharmacy and tourism in Kyrgyz Republic.

During the visit of Minister of State for Economic Affairs in December 1991, an export credit of US$ 10 million was offered to Kyrgyzstan for the establishment of pharmaceutical factory at Bishkek. An agreement was signed in May 1993. On the request of Kyrgyzstan, keeping in view of friendly and brotherly relations with Kyrgyzstan, the Government of Pakistan rescheduled the loan repayment and prolonged its payment for the next six years. An agreement on rescheduling was signed accordingly.

One of the achievements in the economic co-operation between the two countries is the opening of the branch of the National Bank of Pakistan at Bishkek. The main aim of the bank is to boost the trade and economic relations between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan. The National Bank of Kyrgyzstan took a decision to issue the license for the branch of the National Bank of Pakistan to open the accounts for local individuals from January 1, 2002. Before, the National Bank of Pakistan was authorized to open the accounts for the companies and organizations only. Within one year after the opening, this branch has become the profit-earning unit. After some time, the bank would be able to extend small credit facility to the local population. The National Bank of Pakistan has also offered a regular training programme for the Kyrgyz Bankers.

Pakistan is extending all possible help for Kyrgyz nationals under the Technical Assistance programme in the field of education, diplomacy, banking, English language and postal services, etc.

More than 200 Pakistani students are enrolled at various educational institutions in Kyrgyzstan on self-finance basis. Some of the medical students have already completed their studies and returned to Pakistan.

The leadership of the Kyrgyz Republic has demonstrated keen interest to have more bilateral cultural cooperation and people to people contact by establishing sister city relationship with the cities of Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan. Establishment of sister city relationships between Quetta- Bishkek and Osh-Sialkot are under consideration by the two sides.

Both the countries have expressed their desire to conclude a Cultural Agreement with the aim of developing relations and mutual understanding between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan. A draft Cultural Agreement is under consideration.

A draft Agreement between APP and "Kabar" news agency of Kyrgyzstan is also under consideration.

The Government of Pakistan has agreed to present a printing press to be used for production of literawre solely for Islamic purposes to the Muftiat of Kyrgyzstan.

Being the members of OIC and ECO, Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan support each other on various global and regional issues as well as during the elections to the key posts in the international organizations.

Republic of Turkey

There is a remarkable coalescence of views between Turkey and Pakistan on major issues of regional and global significance, particularly since both have been allied to the United States. The two countries have always extended full support to each other on several issues. Pakistan fully supports the cause of the Turkish Cypriot people and Turkey has backed the cause of the people of Jammu and Kashmir. Their tensions over supporting rival factions during the Afghan civil war were reduced by the US-backed overthrow of the Taliban regime.

The two countries have also cooperated over the issue of Bosnia and Herzegovina and have adopted joint positions on this issue at the international fora. The prime ministers of the two countries took a joint trip to Sarajevo in 1993 to express solidarity with Bosnian Muslims. Both countries also sent peace-keeping forces to Bosnia.

The two countries have worked closely with each other in the context of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) as well. Pakistan actively participated in the second ECO summit in Istanbul in July 1993. Similarly the Turkish delegation to the third ECO summit held in Islamabad in 1995, was led by President Demirel and extended full support to the strengthening of the important regional organization which includes all Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. High level exchange of visits

The frequency of high level visits between Turkey and Pakistan has been one of the key factors in maintaining close ties between the two countries. Prime Minister of Pakistan Mohtrama Benazir Bhutto paid a three-day visit to Turkey in December 1993. President of Pakistan Sardar Farooq Khan Leghari also visited Turkey in September 1994. President of Turkey Suleyman Demirel paid a three-day official visit to Pakistan in 1995 and received a warm and enthusiastic welcome from the people of Pakistan. A number of agreements for increased cooperation between the two countries were signed during these visits. Defence cooperation

The commanders of the Armed Forces of the two countries exchange regular visits. There are regular programs of exchange of officers and training. The two countries have also purchased some defence related equipment from each other.

In the field of economy and trade relations between the two countries have been somewhat limited. However over the last few years, both countries have made conscious and sustained efforts to improve their economic relations. The Turco-Pakistan Joint Economic Commission which meets at the ministerial level to strengthen economic relations, held its 10th session in Ankara in September 1995 and adopted a comprehensive protocol to promote economic and commercial cooperation between the two countries.

Cooperation between the private sectors of the two countries is on the increase. Some major contracts have been awarded to the Turkish companies such as STFA. Other Turkish companies are also planning to enter the large Pakistani market. Cultural and educational cooperation

Cultural relations between Turkey and Pakistan are governed by a Cultural Cooperation Agreement. Specific cultural exchange programs are prepared under the agreement. The last protocol was signed in November 1992, for the years 1993-96. There have been a number of cultural exchange between the two countries which include visits of cultural troupes, participation in photographic, arts & crafts exhibitions and children's festivals. The Embassy of Pakistan in Ankara has also organized a number of cultural activities and Single Country Exhibitions to highlight the similarities and the diversity between the two cultures.


Historically, Iran was the first nation to recognize Pakistan. Since then, Pakistan has had close geopolitical and cultural-religious linkages with Iran. Relations between the two countries have existed since ancient times when the Pakistani region was part of the large Persian Empire. Persian is still considered the cultural language of Pakistan and most of Pakistan's national anthem is written in that language. Persian was the lingua franca of India up to 1843 before the British abolished its use in favour of Urdu and English. Relations between Iran and Pakistan peaked in the 60's and 70's under the Shah with considerable joint ventures and assistance provided by Iran to Pakistan. Iran is also a popular tourist spot for Pakistan's Muslims, notably its Shia population which represents about 20% of Pakistan population of 170 million people. Low period have occurred, however, strains in the relationship appeared in the 1980s, when Pakistan and Iran supported opposing factions in the Afghan conflict. Also, some Pakistanis suspect Iranian support for the sectarian violence which has plagued Pakistan. Furthermore, many Pakistani's were disappointed when much of Iran's nuclear research was stated as having originated from Pakistan, this despite the fact that Iran's nuclear program was started some 20 years before that of Pakistan's. Nevertheless, Pakistan pursues an active diplomatic relationship with Iran, including recent overtures to seek a negotiated settlement between Afghanistan's warring factions. Pakistan also supports Iran's use of Nuclear Technology for peaceful purposes. Both countries are endeavering to improve and strengthen bilateral trade and commerce between them. On January 27, 2006, Pakistan, Iran, and India agreed to start work on IPI gasline which Pakistan needs to shrink the gap of Demand and supply of energy in Pakistan to maintain economic growth. India has consistently stalled the talks asking for more time under the duress of the United States, but Pakistan and Iran have agreed to go ahead with the project even if India doesn't participate thus highlighting the two countries commitment to the project. Relations, however, once again have become strained over the ongoing Afghan conflict. The Afghan Republic has consistently accused Pakistan's intelligence of supporting insurgents and contributing to an unstable Afghanistan. President Ahmadinejad vowed on an official visit to Kabul to stand by its cultural traditional neighbor at "all times, even when facing confusion from neighbors", referring to his support for Afghanistan over Pakistan in the many border skirmishes and diplomatic upheaval. Iran's president has also accused Pakistani agents of masterminding the suicide bombing in south-east of the country targeting a group of the elite Revolutionary Guards force. The attack which has been blamed on the Sunni resistance group, Jundullah claimed forty two lives

Palestinian Territories
Main article: Pakistan–Palestine relations
Relations between Pakistanis and Palestinians are considered to be very close and warm as Islamabad advocates for an independent Palestinian state and an end to the on-going illegal[3][4] Israeli occupation of its territories. As its official stance that it does not consider to recognise the so-called State of Zionist regime, which is advocated for a two state solution as the best solution to the conflict and if it was acceptable to the plan by its own peoples of that country. Pakistan is one of the 100 countries to recognise Palestine as a Nation-state since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence on November 15, 1988

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Main article: Pakistan-Saudi Arabia relations
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has helped Pakistan in many fields since Pakistan gained independence in 1947. Since the inception of Pakistan, Saudi Arabia has provided Pakistan with assistance in the form of fuel credit, fuel donation, loans, aid, donations, and gifts. Most famous example of Saudi Arabia's relationship with Pakistan is the Faisal Mosque, the National Mosque of the country in Islamabad, Pakistan. More recently, Saudi Arabia has given Pakistan hundreds of millions of dollars as a donation for the 2005 Earthquake in Pakistan. In fact, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the number one donor, having contributed $600 million.

United States of America

President of the United States George W. Bush with President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf at the Aiwan-e-Sadar, Islamabad during March 2006
The Consulate-General of Pakistan in Houston is Pakistan's diplomatic station in unincorporated Harris County, Texas, United StatesHistorically, no ally of the United States has faced as many sanctions from the US as Pakistan.[citation needed] The United States established diplomatic relations with Pakistan in 1947 with the appointment of the first Ambassador, Paul H. Alling, on September 20, 1947.[5] Since the Eisenhower administration, however, Pakistan and the US began developing more cozy relations. The American agreement to provide economic and military assistance to Pakistan and the latter's partnership in the Baghdad Pact, CENTO and SEATO strengthened relations between the two nations. At the time, its relationship with the U.S. was so close and friendly that it was called the United States' "most-allied ally" in Asia.[6] Pakistanis felt betrayed and ill-compensated for the risks incurred in supporting the U.S. - after the U-2 Crisis of 1960, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had threatened the nuclear annihilation of Pakistani cities. The U.S. suspension of military assistance during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war generated a widespread feeling in Pakistan that the United States was not a reliable ally. Even though the United States suspended military assistance to both countries involved in the conflict, the suspension of aid affected Pakistan much more severely. Gradually, relations improved and arms sales were renewed in 1975. Then, in April 1979, the United States cut off economic assistance to Pakistan, except food assistance, as required under the Symington Amendment to the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, due to concerns about Pakistan's nuclear program.

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 highlighted the common interest of Pakistan and the United States in peace and stability in South Asia. In 1981, the United States and Pakistan agreed on a $3.2-billion military and economic assistance program aimed at helping Pakistan deal with the heightened threat to security in the region and its economic development needs. With U.S. assistance - in the largest covert operation in history - Pakistan armed and supplied anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan, eventually defeating the Soviets, who withdrew in 1988.

Recognizing national security concerns and accepting Pakistan's assurances that it did not intend to construct a nuclear weapon, Congress waived restrictions (Symington Amendment) on military assistance to Pakistan. In March 1986, the two countries agreed on a second multi-year (FY 1988-93) $4-billion economic development and security assistance program. On October 1, 1990, however, the United States suspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler amendment, which required that the President certify annually that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosive device."

Under intense pressure from U.S., Pakistan moved reluctantly to ally itself with the United States in its war against Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. It provided the U.S. a number of military airports and bases, for its attack on Afghanistan. In subsequent military operations, Pakistan has reportedly arrested and killed several hundred Taliban and Al-Qaeda operatives.[7] Since this strategic re-alignment towards U.S. policy, economic and military assistance has been flowing from the U.S. to Pakistan and sanctions have been lifted. In the three years before the attacks of September 11, Pakistan received approximately $9 million in American military aid. In the three years after, the number increased to $4.2 billion.[8] In June 2004, President Bush designated Pakistan as a major non-NATO ally, making it eligible, among other things, to purchase advanced American military technology. In May, 2006, The Bush administration announced a major sale of missiles to Pakistan, valued at $370 Million USD

This section does not cite any references or sources.
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Indo-Pakistani relations
Since independence, relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion. Although many issues divide the two countries, the most sensitive one since independence has been the status of Kashmir.

Roots of Conflict
At the time of independence and the departure of the British from South Asia, the princely state of Kashmir, though ruled by a Hindu Maharajah, had a majority Muslim population. At first, the Maharajah hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947, but when tribesmen armed by Pakistan with the overt support of regular troops began invading occupied Kashmir, the Hindu Maharajah had no option other than to call upon India to repel the invasion and annexed the territory. Following the invasion, the Maharajah offered his allegiance to India. Pakistani troops still continue to occupy the Northern and Western portion of Kashmir referred to as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (P.O.K.) in India and Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. India and Pakistan agreed with UN resolutions which called for a UN-supervised plebiscite to determine the future of Kashmir. But Pakistan has refused to remove their troops from Pakistan occupied Kashmir and have thereby frustrated carrying out the plebiscite.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Full-scale hostilities erupted in September 1965 when Pakistan attacked India forcing India to attack Lahore in retaliation. Hostilities ceased three weeks later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries at a time Lahore, one of the most important cities in Pakistan was on the brink of falling to the Indian Army. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Pakistan Air Force carried out bombing raids on different airfields in India. India was thus drawn into the civil war between the East Pakistanis of Bengal and the Pakistanis of the West, and started helping anti-Government rebels to liberate East Pakistan to form Bangladesh. The war ended in a humiliating defeat for Pakistan in which 90,000 Pakistani soldiers were taken prisoner by India. Large parts of Pakistani territory were also captured by India. Pakistan President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met in the mountain town of Shimla, India in July 1972 for the Shimla Accords. India magnanimously agreed to return the large swathes of Pakistani territory captured by India and repatriate the 90,000 captured Pakistani prisoners of war. They agreed to a "Line of Control" (ceasefire line) in Kashmir resulting from the December 17, 1971 cease-fire, and endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means. In 1974, Pakistan and India agreed to resume postal and telecommunications linkages, and to enact measures to facilitate travel. Trade and diplomatic relations were restored in 1976 after a hiatus of five years.

Nuclear Arm Race
India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers were brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. A formal "no attack" agreement was signed in January 1991. In 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade.

Indo-Pakistani Cold War
Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri separatists from Pakistan occupied Kashmir backed by the Pakistan's ISI perpetrated violence in Indian Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between Pakistan and India, but relations worsened again after terrorist bombings in Bombay, in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock.

Improvement in Relations
In the late 1990s, the Indo-Pakistani relationship veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume an official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place, with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Sharif in February 1999. There was considerable hope that the meeting could lead to a breakthrough. However Pakistan surreptitiously occupied certain border areas forces in Kashmir. By early summer, serious fighting flared up in the Kargil sector. The fighting lasted about a month till the Pakistani forces were driven out of the areas that had been surreptitiously occupied by them.

Relations between India and Pakistan continued to be strained when Pervez Musharraf came to power on October 12, 1999 Pakistani coup d'état. India alleged that Pakistan provided monetary and material support to Kashmiri militants, a charge which Pakistan has always denied even in the face of direct and insurmountable evidence.

War on Terror
In 2001, following the 9/11 attacks, the United States formed an alliance with Pakistan in its War on Terror to use its air bases for operations against Afghanistan and preferring to confer on Pakistan the title of Major Non-Nato Ally. However, as Musharraf would later reveal in his book In the Line of Fire, Pakistan was coerced in joining the coalition against Taliban in Afghanistan. According to Mussarraf, Richard Armitage, then the Deputy Secretary of State, threatened to bomb Pakistan back to stone age if it did not join the war on teror.[9]

Musharraf dropped his insistence that no issues could be discussed until the Kashmir issue was fully solved. Bilateral meetings between the two sides resulted in new people-to-people contacts. Air services and cricket matches were restored. Trains started plying between Sindh and Rajasthan. Bans on Indian movies and TV channels were eased in Pakistan.

Transport links across the Line of Control in Kashmir were reopened. More importantly the intelligence services and armies of the two countries started to cooperate in identifying terrorists who threatened attacks. On June 20, 2004, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. In 2007 the two countries agreed to start flights between their capitals. Legal trade between the countries reached 2 billion dollars. After the Mumbai terror attacks in 2008, the already fragile relations have once again worsened.
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