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Old Sunday, December 03, 2017
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Post seniors,kindly checkout my precis

EXAMINATION 1991
Generally, European trains still stop at borders to change locomotives and staff. This is often necessary. The German and French voltage systems are incompatible. Spain — though not Portugal — has a broad gauge track. English bridges are lower than elsewhere, and passengers on German trains would need a ladder to reach French platforms, twice as high as their own. But those physical constraints pale in comparison to an even more formidable barrier — national chauvinism. While officials in Brussels strive for an integrated and efficiently run rail network to relieve the Continent’s gorged roads and airways, and cut down on pollution, three member countries —France, Germany and Italy—are working feverishly to develop their own expensive and mutually incompatible high-speed trains.


European trains had to exchange their engines and staff because of National chauvinism and differences in voltage system and broad guage. Brussal tried to run better rail network and control on pollution.France,Germany and Italy are working hard to develop their own expensive ad mutually high speed- train.

Title:National Chauvinism in Europe

Let me clear this point,precis should be in past tense.In above lines France,Germany and Italy what should be? are or were
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Old Sunday, December 03, 2017
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Tooba2 View Post
EXAMINATION 1991
Generally, European trains still stop at borders to change locomotives and staff. This is often necessary. The German and French voltage systems are incompatible. Spain — though not Portugal — has a broad gauge track. English bridges are lower than elsewhere, and passengers on German trains would need a ladder to reach French platforms, twice as high as their own. But those physical constraints pale in comparison to an even more formidable barrier — national chauvinism. While officials in Brussels strive for an integrated and efficiently run rail network to relieve the Continent’s gorged roads and airways, and cut down on pollution, three member countries —France, Germany and Italy—are working feverishly to develop their own expensive and mutually incompatible high-speed trains.


European trains had to exchange their engines and staff because of National chauvinism and differences in voltage system and broad guage. Brussal tried to run better rail network and control on pollution.France,Germany and Italy are working hard to develop their own expensive ad mutually high speed- train.

Title:National Chauvinism in Europe

Let me clear this point,precis should be in past tense.In above lines France,Germany and Italy what should be? are or were
The tense of Precis should be the same as used in the original paragrah.
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Old Sunday, December 03, 2017
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First of all you need to understand that precis is not just shortening of the passage You have to shorten it in a meaningful way.

European trains had to exchange their engines and staff because of National chauvinism This is wrong. They don't change their engines because of patriotism. They change it because of technical reasons or difference in rail systems.

Brussal tried to run better rail network and control on pollution Brussels did not try to run better railway. They just 'strive' to have an efficient and integrated system.

France,Germany and Italy are working hard to develop their own expensive ad mutually high speed- train. This point is connected to the one about Brussels, meaning despite brussels trying to run a compatible railway network, these three countries are working in the opposite direction. Also 'mutually high speed' doesn't make sense to me. The passage only says mutually incompatible which simply means not able to work together(rail systems)
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Here is my precis:

European trains often have to stop at borders to change locomotives and staff as rail systems for most countries are not compatible with each other. This issue is worsened by national chauvinism. Brussels strives to develop a mutually compatible rail system to reduce burden on other modes of travel as well as pollution. Contrarily, France, Germany and Italy continue to undermine their efforts by working towards developing their own, mutually incompatible rail systems.

I think it is a bit long with 73 words as the original text is 121 words. But I haven't started practicing precis yet.
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Arrow Check out my precis

Kindly also check my other one precis also....misieries. It is one of most important rule of precis it always should in past but u said it is as like in orginal passege.t
his sense now make me confuse kindly clear it?
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Old Sunday, December 03, 2017
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Appropriate title of Paragraph= Train system in Europe
and simple European countries in place of Italy, France and England
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Old Monday, December 04, 2017
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Quote:
Originally Posted by San Sufi View Post
The tense of Precis should be the same as used in the original paragrah.
Sorry, it came out wrong. Always use Past tense in the precis.

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Old Monday, December 04, 2017
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Tooba2 View Post
EXAMINATION 1991
Generally, European trains still stop at borders to change locomotives and staff. This is often necessary. The German and French voltage systems are incompatible. Spain — though not Portugal — has a broad gauge track. English bridges are lower than elsewhere, and passengers on German trains would need a ladder to reach French platforms, twice as high as their own. But those physical constraints pale in comparison to an even more formidable barrier — national chauvinism. While officials in Brussels strive for an integrated and efficiently run rail network to relieve the Continent’s gorged roads and airways, and cut down on pollution, three member countries —France, Germany and Italy—are working feverishly to develop their own expensive and mutually incompatible high-speed trains.


European trains had to exchange their engines and staff because of National chauvinism and differences in voltage system and broad guage. Brussal tried to run better rail network and control on pollution.France,Germany and Italy are working hard to develop their own expensive ad mutually high speed- train.

Title:National Chauvinism in Europe

Let me clear this point,precis should be in past tense.In above lines France,Germany and Italy what should be? are or were
Precis must be in coherent way and all points in a connected pattern. Try to use 'transitional phrases' to make your precis interconnected and comprehensive.

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Old Monday, May 13, 2019
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So guys, what should be this then???

I think we have to catch the essence of passage not what is written.

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Old Tuesday, May 14, 2019
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Arrow kindly check my precis and point out mistakes.

Original passage:
There are those devotees of sport who support the emphasis laid on school games and for whom sport is a kind of religion. to them the sporting spirit is the finest attitude with which to face life since its possessor is very conscious of his obligations to the community.Yet the truth about the religion of sport is that it does not deliver the goods; it fails to produce sportsmen.In actual fact, games have practically no effect on character,for a selfish man will play his games selfishly in spite of all that has been talked about the spirit while a chivalrous man will be chivalrous in his games. games afford an opportunity for showing spirit within; they are a vehicle for virtue or for vice and it is for this that we should value them; not as some miraculous process for making a bad man or a crooked man straight. if we support the system of compulsory games, let it b for the right reason.

PRECIS:
TITLE: GAMES IMPROVE CONSCIOUS AND SPIRIT.
Games are essential part of our schools and,our daily routine life,that improved the responsibilities, and obligations to society.Greedy men never gain from sport, even he has team spirit but, sincere always gain and remain loyal to games. Games are valuable chance to increase our strength and, energy, so if they made a good planning for games it would be better for us.
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