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Old Tuesday, December 04, 2007
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Default Hints for beginners on learning English

How To Learn English


Tips and ideas on the best ways to learn English faster.



Tips for Beginners


1. You are like a new baby
Babies learn their language slowly.
First they learn to listen.
Then they learn to talk.
Finally, they can read and write.


2. Listen to English every day
Listen to English radio.
Watch English TV.
Go to English movies.
Use online lessons.


3. Make an English Native/ESL friends
Make up conversations.
Practise dialogues.
Use beginner textbooks.


4. Read English stories , articles and essays
Start with children's storybooks.
Try Standard readers.
Read advertisements, signs and labels.
Try CSSFORUM.COM.PK for Young Learners.


5. Write down new words
Start a vocabulary (new word) notebook.
Write words in alphabetical order (A...B...C...).
Make example sentences.
Always use an English-English dictionary first.


6. Keep an English diary
Start with one sentence.
How do you feel?
How is the weather?
What did you do today?
Write another sentence tomorrow.


7. Visit an English speaking environment
Learn English more quickly.
Stay with an English family.
Hear native speakers talk.
Have a fun experience.

It`s rather difficult to find where our borders abuted. You may acquire the accompany of good speakers at your academy.







Where do I start?



Why do you want to learn English?

Before you begin (or go back to) studying English, ask youself one question. Why do I want to study English? Is it because you want to, or because someone else wants you to? Like every decision in life, studying English must be something you want to do.

Set goals

If you know why you want to study, setting goals is easy. For example, maybe you want to travel to an English-speaking country. Great. Your goal might be to learn "Survival English". Perhaps you already know many useful phrases, but you want to improve your listening skills and pronunciation. Whatever your goals are, write them down.

Make an agenda

How long do you need to study to achieve your goals? This answer is different for every student. The important thing is to be realistic. If you work 60 hours per week, don't plan on spending another 40 hours a week studying English. Start off slow, but study regularly. Use material that is challenging, but not too difficult. Find out what works for you. After you have studied for a few weeks, adjust your study schedule accordingly. Do you study best at night, or on the bus on your way to work? Do you like to study alone in a quiet place, or with friends and background music? Click here for a sample 4 week agenda.

Make a commitment

Learning English requires a lot of motivation. Nobody is going to take your attendance when you aren't in class. If you are sure you are ready to begin studying, make a commitment. Click here to sign a contract with yourself.

Have fun learning English!

The things we do best in life are the things we enjoy doing. If you aren't having fun learning English, you're not studying the right way! You can be a serious student who has fun at the same time. Make up your own rewards program to give yourself incentives to stay on task.









Study a Balance of the 4 Key Skills


(Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing)



Most students want to communicate better in English. If this is one of your goals, it is important to study a balance of the four major skills. Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing are the main (macro) skills you need to communicate in any language. Being very good at only one of these skills will not help you to communicate. For example you need to be able to read well before you can write well. You also need to be able to listen before you can speak. It helps to think of these communicative skills in two groups.


INput «««
  • Listening (in through your ears)
  • Reading (in through your eyes)


OUTput »»»
  • Speaking (out through your mouth)
  • Writing (out through your hand)

It's simple. Think of it this way. First you have input. Next you have output. First you listen to someone ask you a question. Second you speak and give them your answer. First you read a letter from someone. After that you write back to them. These are examples of communicating.

Input and output don't necessarily go in a specific order. Sometimes you speak first and then you listen. Sometimes you write about something you hear. During communication, the person you are communicating with uses one of the opposite skills. Therefore, in order to understand each other, everyone must be skillful in all four areas.

Some students want to know which skill is the most important. Since all of the skills rely on each other, they are all important. However, to communicate we do use some skills more often than others. For example, about 40% of the time that we spend communicating we are simply listening. We speak for about 35% of the time. Approximately 16% of communication comes from reading, and about 9% from writing. These statistics are for an average communicator in English. Depending on someone's job or situation, these numbers may vary.

Each of these main skills have micro skills within them. For example, pronunciation is a type of speaking skill that must be practised in order to improve communication. Spelling is a skill that makes understanding the written word easier. Grammar and vocabulary are other micro skills. Micro doesn't mean they are unimportant. Macro skills such as listening are very general, while micro skills are more specific. (More about input and output)

For the best results, create an agenda that combines all four areas of study. Allow one type of studying to lead into another. For example, read a story and then talk about it with a friend. Watch a movie and then write about it. This is what teachers in an English class would have you do, right?





1. How to learn LISTENING

Listen to the radio
Don't always have a pen in hand. Sometimes it helps to just listen.


Watch English TV
Children's programming is very useful for ESL learners.
Choose programs that you would enjoy in your own language.
Remember that much of what you hear on TV is slang.


Call Automated Answering Machine recordings
You can find these numbers at the front of telephone books in many English-speaking countries. Before you dial, make sure that you are calling the free numbers.


Watch movies
Choose ones with subtitles, or one from www.ESLNotes.com (provides useful notes on popular movies).











2. How to learn SPEAKING and pronunciation

Talk to yourself

Talk about anything and everything. Do it in the privacy of your own home. If you can't do this at first, try reading out loud until you feel comfortable hearing your own voice in English.


Record your own voice

This might feel very uncomfortable, but it will help you find your weak pronunciation points. Listen to yourself a few days later. Which sounds do you have difficulty hearing?



Use the telephone.




Participate in class



Learn common idioms



Understand the sounds that your language doesn't have
For example, many languages don't have the "r" sound. These sounds require extra practice.


Recognize that teachers are trained to understand you
When you get out into the real world, average people will have a more difficult time understanding you unless you practise speaking slowly and with proper pronunciation.


Practise minimal pairs


Study word and sentence stress


Practice tongue twisters


For further assistance; Explore the following link :

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compu...unciation.html













3. How to learn READING and vocabulary


Read something every day
Children's books, simplified readers (Penguin), newspapers, magazines, Internet sites, novels, and much much more...


Read what interests you.
Remember that you learn better when you are having fun.


Read at the appropriate level
You want to learn new vocabulary, but you also want to understand what you are reading. If you are looking up every word, the reading is too difficult.


Review Who, What, Where, When, Why for each story you read
You can do this for almost any type of reading. Who is it about? What happened? Why did it happen? Where did it take place? When did it take place? This is very useful when you have no comprehension questions to answer. You can write or speak your answers.


Always have an English-English dictionary nearby
It is a bad habit to always rely on a translation dictionary or electronic dictionary.


Think of your English-English dictionary as your life line.
Use online dictionaries when you are using the Internet (keyword online dictionary).


Record vocabulary in a personal dictionary

Keep this notebook separate from other work
Record vocabulary in alphabetical order (an English address book works well because it has letters of the alphabet)
Record the part of speech (sometimes there is more than one)
Write a sample sentence for yourself (don't use the one from the dictionary)
Review your personal dictionary (especially new entries) every night before bed.


http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compu...sed-words.html











4. How to learn WRITING and spelling


Keep a diary/journal

Don't always pay attention to grammar. Free-writing can be very useful. It can show you that writing is fun. Have fun with the language.


Write emails in English

Stay in contact with teachers or other students.


Rewrite your local news in English

This is another exercise that can be done on a daily basis. Remember that regular activities are the best ones.


Learn important spelling rules

Remember, you won't always have a dictionary or a spell-checker handy, especially when you are writing a test. Even native English speakers need to review the spelling rules from time to time.


Learn commonly misspelled words


Learn common English errors


Examples of writing

1. Essay Writing

2. Precis Writing

3. Paragraph Writing











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Last edited by Sureshlasi; Tuesday, December 04, 2007 at 11:31 AM.
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Old Tuesday, December 04, 2007
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More TIPS for learning English



Don't be afraid of grammar

Grammar is for communication. Sometimes students get obsessed with grammar. This is especially true for students who grew up with strict grammar schooling. Remember that you only study grammar in order to communicate. Practise with a few exercises, then write an essay or have a conversation and try to use your new tools.


Isolate your weak points

Don't waste time on grammar exercises that you already understand just because they are easier for you. Concentrate on grammar that is difficult for you. If you are unsure of where your problems are, write a few short essays or paragraphs and ask a teacher to circle repeated errors. Then you can look up your problem and practise it.


Teach grammar points to a friend

Find a friend who studies at a lower level than you. Teaching will force you to remember the rules and to understand them properly. Try preparing a worksheet for your friend.



You may explore the Grammar Classes under following link :

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compu...ammar-section/










Improve your homework skills

  • Stay organized. Keep separate notebooks for exercises, writing, and vocabulary.
  • Use a pen that you love.
  • Study in short, regular periods.
  • Allow a short amount of time for review.
  • Study in a place where you feel happy and comfortable.
  • Don't allow distractions. Consider email, TV, and the telephone (unless in English) off limits while you are studying.
  • Have a drink and snack handy so that you don't have to get up.
  • If you study in pairs or groups, make an English-only rule.







Visit an English-Speaking People

  • Learn from native English teachers if possible
  • Gain access to English culture.
  • Volunteer.
  • Make friends with people from other countries
  • Become more confident
  • Hire a tutor
  • Offer language lessons/swap in your own native tongue








Fun with English Ideas

  • Have an English-only evening once a week. Cook in English (rewrite your recipe in English) or watch English movies.
  • Write an English love letter. (If your loved one doesn't understand English that's even better!)
  • Write English limericks. (These are excellent and simple for writing, pronunciation and rhythm practice.)
  • Rewrite fairytales, jokes or instructions in English.
  • Go out and pretend you don't understand your native language (try to get by in only English).
  • Go online and find the lyrics to your favourite English songs and sing along to them (use a search engine).
  • Invent an English character for yourself (with job, family, etc). Write this person's biography.
  • Buy an English board game (like Monopoly or Scrabble).
  • Play cards in English.
  • Start up or join an English reading or conversation club.
  • Talk to yourself in English while you clean or do the dishes.
  • Go around the house and try to name everything in English (furniture, clothes etc). Look up words you don't know.
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Old Wednesday, December 05, 2007
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The 4 Language Skills


When we learn a language, there are four skills that we need for complete communication. When we learn our native language, we usually learn to listen first, then to speak, then to read, and finally to write. These are called the four "language skills":
  • Skill #1: Listening
  • Skill #2: Speaking
  • Skill #3: Reading
  • Skill #4: Writing



The four language skills are related to each other in two ways:
  • the direction of communication (in or out)
  • the method of communication (spoken or written)

Input is sometimes called "reception" and output is sometimes called "production". Spoken is also known as "oral".








Skill # 1

English Listening




How to Hear English Everywhere

Two simple definitions
  • to hear: to receive sound with the ears
  • to listen: to try to hear

You are very good at languages. That's obvious, because you already speak one language very well - your own! And if you can learn and speak one language well, then you can certainly learn and speak one or more other languages.

But did you ever ask yourself: "How did I learn my own language?" In fact, you never really "learned" it at all - you just started speaking it. One day, when you were about two or three years old, you started speaking your language. A few words at first, not full sentences. But you spoke. And very soon you made progress without even thinking about it. It was like magic!

But it wasn't magic. It was the result of hearing. For two to three years before you spoke, you heard people speaking your language all day, and maybe all night. You heard people speaking your language. Maybe you listened to people, but more importantly you heard. them. Then, as if by magic, you started to speak. All that hearing was necessary for you to start speaking. For two to three years words went IN to your head. Then words came OUT of your head! That is why hearing (and listening to) English as much as possible is so important to you now. The more English you put in, the more you'll get out!

So how can you hear a lot of English when you're not in an English-speaking country or family? Fortunately, there are many ways of hearing English in almost all countries of the world.






Radio

You can receive English language radio in most countries. Two of the best international networks are the BBC World Service and Voice of America. Both of them have special programmes for learners of English. You can find information about times and frequencies for your country on their web sites.



Television

TV is an excellent resource for hearing and listening to English. The pictures help you understand what is being said. If you don't have access to English-language TV, you may be able to watch TV on Internet.



Internet

It is now a lot easier to hear English by Internet. If you're reading this at your computer, you can probably listen to some English-language radio news right now, without even moving! To be able to listen to radio on the Internet, you'll need to have special software called a "player" installed in your computer. Most sites work with two players - the RealPlayer from RealNetworks and the Windows Media Player from Microsoft. Don't worry. Both these players are free and you may already have them installed on your computer.




Music/songs

Songs in English are everywhere, even on foreign-language radio and TV stations. Listen to them often. Buy some cassettes or CDs, or make recordings, and try to write the words for an entire song. But choose one that is not too difficult. That means it should be reasonably slow, and with real words sung clearly. Some pop songs are very unclear and are difficult even for native English-speakers to understand fully!



Cinema

Outside the English-speaking world, many large cities have cinemas that show films in English, usually with sub-titles. Make it a habit to go to these films. If you need to read the sub-titles, at least you'll be hearing English even if you don't understand it.




Video

Video has one really great advantage. You can play it again . . . and again. You can use video to watch film cassettes that you buy or borrow. If there are sub-titles, you can cover them with paper (which you can remove if you really don't understand after listening several times). And you can use video to record programmes from television and then watch them several times to improve your understanding.



Friends

Try to make friends with English-speaking people so that you can practise your English through conversation. Of course, this will practise your speaking as well as your listening. And if you don't have a lot of time to go out and meet people, at least you can chat a little by telephone.

Finally, don't worry if you don't understand everything you hear. Hearing comes first! Understanding comes next!









Listen to English by Radio

Listen to radio news in English on your computer. From this page you can get instant access to English language radio news programmes wherever you are in the world, without a radio. Perfect for listening practice.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

BBC World Service (British English)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/home page

Latest news

24 hour news

The World Today


Voice of America (VOA)

VOA Special English (American English)
home page







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to be continued (skill # 2)
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Skill # 2


English Speaking



The Importance of Speaking Practice

There are 4 key skills when you learn a language:

listening
speaking
reading
writing



Which one of these is the "Odd-One-Out"? Which one of these is different from the other three? The answer is speaking. The other three you can do alone, on your own, without anyone else. You can listen to the radio alone. You can read a book alone. You can write a letter alone. But you can't really speak alone! Speaking to yourself can be "dangerous" because men in white coats may come and take you away!!

That is why you should make every effort possible to find somebody to speak with. Where can you find people who can speak English with you? And how can you practise speaking when you are alone?




At College or University

If you go to a language college, you should use the opportunity to speak to your teachers and other students. When you go home, you can still practise listening, reading and writing, but you probably can't practise speaking. If your teacher asks you a question, take the opportunity to answer. Try to say as much as possible. If your teacher asks you to speak in pairs or groups with other students, try to say as much as possible. Don't worry about your mistakes. Just speak!




Conversation Clubs

Many cities around the world have conversation clubs where people can exchange one language for another. Look in your local newspaper to find a conversation club near you. They are usually free although some may charge a small entrance fee.




Shopping

If you are living in an English-speaking country, you have a wonderful opportunity. Practise speaking to the local people such as shop assistants or taxi drivers. Even if you don't want to buy anything, you can ask questions about products that interest you in a shop. "How much does this cost?" "Can I pay by cheque?" "Which do you recommend?" Often you can start a real conversation - and it costs you nothing!





Language is all around You

Everywhere you go you find language. Shop names, street names, advertisements, notices on buses and trains... Even if you are not in an English-speaking country, there are often a lot of English words you can see when walking in the street, especially in big cities. And there are always numbers. Car numbers, telephone numbers, house numbers... How can this help you? When you walk down the street, practise reading the words and numbers that you see. Say them to yourself. It's not exactly a conversation, but it will help you to "think" in English. For example, if you walk along a line of parked cars, say the number on each car quickly as you pass it. Test yourself, to see how fast you can walk and still say each number. But don't speak too loud!




Songs and Video

Listen to the words of an English-language song that you like. Then repeat them to yourself and try to sing with the music. Repeat the words as many times as possible until they become automatic. Soon you'll be singing the whole song. Or listen to one of your favourite actors on video and repeat one or two sentences that you like. Do it until it becomes automatic. It's good practice for your memory and for the mouth muscles that you need for English.

Above all, don't be afraid to speak. You must try to speak, even if you make mistakes. You cannot learn without mistakes. There is a saying: "The person who never made a mistake never made anything." So think of your mistakes as something positive and useful.

Speak as much as possible! Make as many mistakes as possible! When you know that you have made a mistake, you know that you have made progress.



Telephone English

If the phone rings in English, don't be afraid to answer it! The fear of talking on the phone in a second language will disappear if you practise often. The hardest part about using the phone in a language that is not your own is the fact that you cannot see the other person's eyes, mouth and body movements (body language). Although you might not be aware of it, in face-to-face conversation you lip-read and watch for smiles, frowns and moving hands. Listening to someone on the telephone is like doing a section from a taped recording in class. The only difference is that you have to talk back!







Business Presentations & Public Speaking in English


All presentations have a common objective. People give presentations because they want to communicate in order to:
  • inform
  • train
  • persuade
  • sell


A successful presentation is one of the most effective ways of communicating your message. And because English is so widely used in international business, a working knowledge of the vocabulary and techniques used in an English language presentation is a valuable asset.


Quote:
Note : The provision of guidlines on Presentation is unneccessary. Guidance will be provided if needed in future







Weather

English speakers love to talk about the weather. It is a way of breaking the ice (starting a conversation). People talk about the weather on the phone and in person. Friends and family talk about the weather before they discuss what's new. Co-workers talk about the weather before starting a hard day of work. Even strangers discuss the weather. Learn the proper vocabulary and expressions, and you will find it easy to start a conversation anytime and anywhere with anyone you meet!



Common questions and responses about Weather :

What's it like out?
It's miserable out.

How's the weather?
It's ten below. (-10 degrees)

Do you have rain?
We haven't had a drop of rain for weeks.

What's the temperature there?
It's 22 degrees Celcius.

It's snowing here, what's it doing there?
It's pouring outside. (raining heavily)

Beautiful day, huh?
We couldn't ask for a better day than this.

What's the weather forecast?
They're calling for blue skies all week.





Quote:
One common mistake learners make when talking about the weather is mixing up the noun, adjective and verb forms of weather words.

Example 1: How's the weather?
It is snow. Incorrect
It is snowing. Correct
It is snowy. Correct

Example 2: What's it like out?
It is rain. Incorrect
It is raining. Correct
It is rainy. Correct

Example 3: What's the weather like?
It is sun. Incorrect
It is sunny. Correct
The sun is shining. Correct





Small Talk

In most English-speaking countries, it is normal and necessary to make "small talk" in certain situations. Small talk is a casual form of conversation that "breaks the ice" or fills an awkward silence between people. Even though you may feel shy using your second language, it is sometimes considered rude to say nothing. Just as there are certain times when small talk is appropriate, there are also certain topics that people often discuss during these moments.


Who, What, Where, When, Why?

WHO makes small talk?
People with many different relationships use small talk. The most common type of people to use small talk are those who do not know each other at all. Though we often teach children not to talk to strangers, adults are expected to say at least a few words in certain situations (see where). It is also common for people who are only acquaintances, often called a "friend of a friend", to use small talk. Other people who have short casual conversations are office employees who may not be good friends but work in the same department. Customer service representatives, waitresses, hairdressers and receptionists often make small talk with customers. If you happen to be outside when the mailman comes to your door you might make small talk with him too.

WHAT do people make small talk about?
There are certain "safe" topics that people usually make small talk about. The weather is probably the number one thing that people who do not know each other well discuss. Sometimes even friends and family members discuss the weather when they meet or start a conversation. Another topic that is generally safe is current events. As long as you are not discussing a controversial issue, such as a recent law concerning equal rights, it is usually safe to discuss the news. Sports news is a very common topic, especially if a local team or player is in a tournament or play-off or doing extremely well or badly. Entertainment news, such as a celebrity who is in town, is another good topic. If there is something that you and the other speaker has in common, that may also be acceptable to talk about. For example, if the bus is extremely full and there are no seats available you might talk about reasons why. Similarly, people in an office might casually discuss the new paint or furniture. There are also some subjects that are not considered acceptable when making small talk. Discussing personal information such as salaries or a recent divorce is not done between people who do not know each other well. Compliments on clothing or hair are acceptable; however, you should never say something (good or bad) about a person's body. Negative comments about another person not involved in the conversation are also not acceptable: when you do not know a person well you cannot be sure who their friends are. You do not talk about private issues either, because you do not know if you can trust the other person with your secrets or personal information. Also, it is not safe to discuss subjects that society deems controversial such as religion or politics. Lastly, it is not wise to continue talking about an issue that the other person does not seem comfortable with or interested in.

WHERE do people make small talk?
People make small talk just about anywhere, but there are certain places where it is very common. Most often, small talk occurs in places where people are waiting for something. For example, you might chat with another person who is waiting for the bus to arrive, or to the person beside you waiting to get on an aeroplane. People also make small talk in a doctor's or dentist's waiting room, or in queues at the grocery store. At the office, people make small talk in elevators or lunchrooms and even in restrooms, especially if there is a line-up. Some social events (such as a party) require small talk among guests who do not know each other very well. For example, you might talk to someone you do not know at the punch bowl, or at the poolside. It is called "mingling" when people walk around in a social setting and talk to a variety of people.

WHEN do people make small talk?
The most common time for small talk to occur is the first time you see or meet someone on a given day. For example, if you see a co-worker in the lounge you might say hello and discuss the sports or weather. However, the next time you see each other you might just smile and say nothing. If there is very little noise, that might be an indication that it is the right time to initiate a casual conversation. You should only spark up a conversation after someone smiles and acknowledges you. Do not interrupt two people in order to discuss something unimportant such as the weather. If someone is reading a book or writing a letter at the bus stop it is not appropriate to initiate a conversation either. Another good time to make small talk is during a break in a meeting or presentation when there is nothing important going on. Finally, it is important to recognize the cue when the other person wants the conversation to stop.

WHY do people make small talk?
There are a few different reasons why people use small talk. The first, and most obvious, is to break an uncomfortable silence. Another reason, however, is simply to fill time. That is why it is so common to make small talk when you are waiting for something. Some people make small talk in order to be polite. You may not feel like chatting with anyone at a party, but it is rude to just sit in a corner by yourself. After someone introduces you to another person, you do not know anything about them, so in order to show a polite interest in getting to know them better, you have to start with some small talk.






Conversation Starters



Talking about the weather

Beautiful day, isn't it?
Can you believe all of this rain we've been having?
It looks like it's going to snow.
It sure would be nice to be in Hawaii right about now.
I hear they're calling for thunderstorms all weekend.
We couldn't ask for a nicer day, could we?
How about this weather?
Did you order this sunshine?


Talking about current events

Did you catch the news today?
Did you hear about that fire on Fourth St?
What do you think about this transit strike?
I read in the paper today that the Sears Mall is closing.
I heard on the radio today that they are finally going to start building the new bridge.
How about those Reds? Do you think they're going to win tonight?



At the office

Looking forward to the weekend?
Have you worked here long?
I can't believe how busy/quiet we are today, can you?
Has it been a long week?
You look like you could use a cup of coffee.
What do you think of the new computers?


At a social event

So, how do you know Justin?
Have you tried the cabbage rolls that Sandy made?
Are you enjoying yourself?
It looks like you could use another drink.
Pretty nice place, huh?
I love your dress. Can I ask where you got it?




Out for a walk

How old's your baby?
What's your puppy's name?
The tulips are sure beautiful at this time of year, aren't they.
How do you like the new park?
Nice day to be outside, isn't it?





Waiting somewhere

I didn't think it would be so busy today.
You look like you've got your hands full (with children or goods).
The bus must be running late today.
It looks like we are going to be here a while, huh?
I'll have to remember not to come here on Mondays.
How long have you been waiting?






Links to English Speaking


Accommodation Theory - Each one of us is aware that our style of speech changes in the twinkling of an eye, as it were, depending on a wide range of variables... (Added: 1-Jun-2001)


American English Conversation - Effective phrases and dialogs with a sound track for self-study. (Added: 7-Jun-2004)


Anecdotes from A to Z! - Anecdotes from A to Z! (Added: 15-Oct-2002)


Canadian Living English - Practical English dialogues for everyday situations.

DELNIA.COM - English Speech Training - Offering English pronunciation programs to groups and individuals on-site and online.

Easy Conversation Starters - Conversation starting tips and advice for young people.

english-tutoring.com - Free live help with oral English, grammar and writing here every day!


Learn English Online - Language Exchange - Speak or write with native speakers. Use "How-to" guidelines and lesson plans for effective learning.


Power English: WHAT to say and HOW - Conversations scripts, phrases and dialogs for hundreds of situations.

Public Speaking Skills - Learn to design and deliver presentations that audiences actually listen to. Look forward to your next public speaking opportunity.







________________________

to be continued (Skill # 3)
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Last edited by Shooting Star; Saturday, April 28, 2012 at 11:44 PM.
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Additional (as per request)

Tips for Presentation



When making an oral presentation in class or office, you must know your subject well and convince your audience that they have something to gain from listening to you. Here are some things you can do to make an effective oral presentation.



Be prepared

Research your subject to ensure that you are knowledgeable. Practice your presentation until you feel comfortable. Make sure you can present your information within whatever time limits you will have. Anticipate questions you may be asked and prepare answers to these.



Know your audience

Tailor your presentation to your audience’s level of knowledge about the subject of your presentation, what they need to know, and their interests.



Be positive

Make it clear that you are knowledgeable and enthusiastic about your subject.

Don’t read your presentation. Talk to your audience. Use your notes as prompts as needed.



Provide examples

Try to make your presentation as concrete and “down to earth” as possible. Add appropriate anecdotes and humor to drive home a point.




Use visual aids

Supplement what you say with visual aids such as handouts, charts, transparencies, and slides. Make sure that everyone can easily see the visual aids. Don’t use visual aids that are so complex that the audience will spend its time trying to read them instead of listening to you. Visual aids are supplements to what you say, not replacements for what you say.




Maintain eye contact

Shift your eye contact around the room so that everyone feels that you are talking to them.

Actively involve your audience. People can only listen so long without their attention wandering. Making your presentation interesting will help you to capture and keep your audience’s attention for a while, but you must do more. Build in some simple and quick activities for your audience so that they are actively involved in your presentation. Ask questions that you are confident your audience will be able to answer.




Use your voice effectively

Vary the tone of your voice and be careful not to talk too quickly.




End on a high note

Leave your audience feeling upbeat about what they have just heard.









Regards,

Suresh lasi
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Skill # 3


English Reading



Becoming a Flexible Reader


To become a flexible reader, you need to know how to select and use a reading style that is consistent with your purpose for reading. There are three important reading styles you should learn to use. Each has its own purpose. Knowing when and how to use these three reading styles will make you a flexible reader. Read to learn about the three reading styles used by flexible readers.


Study Reading

Study Reading is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to read difficult material at a high level of comprehension. When using the Study Reading style, you should read at a rate that is slower than your normal reading rate. Further, as you read you must challenge yourself to understand the material. Study Reading will often require you to read material more than once to achieve a high level of comprehension. Sometimes, reading the material aloud will also help you improve your comprehension.


Skimming

Skimming is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to quickly obtain a general idea about the reading material. The Skimming style is most useful when you have to read a large amount of material in a short amount of time. When using the Skimming style, you should identify the main ideas in each paragraph and ignore the details in supportive sentences. Because you are only looking for the main idea in each paragraph you read, a lower level of comprehension is to be expected than when using the Study Reading style.



Scanning

Scanning is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to quickly locate a specific piece of information within reading material. The piece of information to be located may be contained in a list of names, words, numbers, short statements, and sometimes even in a paragraph. Since you know exactly what you are looking for, move your eyes quickly over the reading material until you locate the specific piece of information you need to find.

Before you begin your next reading assignment, identify your purpose for reading. Decide if you are reading for a high level of comprehension, trying to get a general idea about what you are reading, or looking for specific information. Then use the reading style that is appropriate for your reading purpose.








Reading Comprehension

REDW is a good strategy to use to find the main idea in each paragraph of a reading assignment. Using this strategy will help you comprehend the information contained in your assignment. Each of the letters in REDW stands for a step in the strategy.
Read

Read the entire paragraph to get an idea of what the paragraph is about. You may find it helpful to whisper the words as you read or to form a picture in your mind of what you are reading. Once you have a general idea of what the paragraph is about, go on to the next step.

Examine

Examine each sentence in the paragraph to identify the important words that tell what the sentence is about. Ignore the words that are not needed to tell what the sentence is about. If you are allowed to, draw a line through the words to be ignored. For each sentence, write on a sheet of paper the words that tell what the sentence is about.

Decide

Reread the words you wrote for each sentence in the paragraph. Decide which sentence contains the words you wrote that best describe the main idea of the paragraph. These words are the main idea of the paragraph. The sentence that contains these words is the topic sentence. The other words you wrote are the supporting details for the main idea.

Write

Write the main idea for each paragraph in your notebook. This will provide you with a written record of the most important ideas you learned. This written record will be helpful if you have to take a test that covers the reading assignment.

Use REDW to help you understand the information in your reading assignments.









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Last edited by Shooting Star; Saturday, April 28, 2012 at 11:45 PM.
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Skill # 4


English Writing




The Use of Large Letters (Capitals)


Each letter of the English alphabet may be written as a small letter (abc...) or as a large or capital letter (ABC...). Here is a full list of capital letters.

In English, we do not use capitals letters very much. We use them mainly for the first letter of sentences, names, days and months as well for some abbreviations. In addition, of course, we always write the first person pronoun as a capital I.

It is not usual to write whole sentences in capitals. A sentence or paragraph written in capitals is extremely difficult to read. Did you ever see a book or newspaper written completely in capitals? Of course not! We cannot easily read large amounts of text in capital letters. Lawyers know that capital letters are difficult to read. That is why some legal texts are written completely in capitals.




When do we Use Capital Letters?

1. Use a capital letter for the personal pronoun 'I':

What can I say?

2. Use a capital letter to begin a sentence or to begin speech:

The man arrived. He sat down.
Suddenly Mary asked, "Do you love me?"


3. Use capital letters for many abbreviations and acronyms:

G.M.T. or GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)
N.A.T.O. or NATO or Nato (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)


4. Use a capital letter for days of the week, months of the year, holidays:

Monday, Tuesday
January, February
Christmas
Armistice Day


5. Use a capital letter for countries, languages & nationalities, religions:

China, France
Japanese, English
Christianity, Buddhism



6. Use a capital letter for people's names and titles:

Anthony, Ram, William Shakespeare
Professor Jones, Dr Smith
Captain Kirk, King Henry VIII



7. Use a capital letter for trade-marks and names of companies and other organizations:

Pepsi Cola, Walkman
Microsoft Corporation, Toyota
the United Nations, the Red Cross



8. Use a capital letter for places and monuments:

London, Paris, the Latin Quarter
the Eiffel Tower, St Paul's Cathedral
Buckingham Palace, the White House
Oxford Street, Fifth Avenue
Jupiter, Mars, Syrius
Asia, the Middle East, the North Pole



9. Use a capital letter for names of vehicles like ships, trains and spacecraft:

the Titanic
the Orient Express, the Flying Scotsman
Challenger 2, the Enterprise



10. Use a capital letter for titles of books, poems, songs, plays, films etc:

War And Peace
If, Futility
Like a Virgin
The Taming of the Shrew
The Lion King, Gone With The Wind


11. Use capitals letters (sometimes!) for headings, titles of articles, books etc, and newspaper headlines:

HOW TO WIN AT POKER
Chapter 2: CLINTON'S EARLY LIFE
LIFE FOUND ON MARS!
MAN BITES DOG








Why Are Capital Letters Difficult?


Why are words written in capitals more difficult to read than words in small letters? There are two basic reasons:
  • Firstly, at least for native English speakers, children usually learn to read and write small letters before capital letters.

  • Secondly, and more importantly, words written in capital letters have no "shape". Words with small letters go up and down. Some small letters have "ascenders" (like the letter b). They go up. Some small letters have "descenders" (like the letter p). They go down. Some small letters have no ascender or descender. They stay in the middle. So small letters vary in height. But all capital letters are the same height (BP).

When we read text, especially when we read fast, we do not read each individual letter. Instead, we read whole words and phrases. And we recognize these words and phrases partly by their shape.



Click on the following link for further tips :

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compu...icization.html








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to be continued
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Advice for Writing in English



1. Write Perfect Paragraphs with the PREP Method

P: Start with the main POINT of your paragraph

The first sentence is usually called a "topic sentence". Simply state whatever the topic is. Try to start with an interesting sentences. Instead of saying "Joe is a teacher", say "Joe is one of the best English teachers in the history of the world!".



R: Give the REASON why you believe this

Next, write why you think so. You might write, "Students need a kind teacher to guide them, so they always move in the right direction and don't waste time." You might also try to link this sentence to the next one, to help make a smoother "transition".



E: Give an EXAMPLE to support your belief

Find an example, or maybe two. This will "paint a word picture" in your readers' minds, which they will remember long after they finish reading. "I never listened to English much before I heard of Teacher Joe, but now I listen to his jokes, sayings and dictations. Listening has helped me improve my speaking ability in English, and now I'm moving up to a better job." Sounds great, doesn't it?



P: Repeat your POINT one more time

Your readers will often remember the last thing you write more than anything else. If you can, try to use different words to say the same thing. "Joe has helped tens of thousands of students learn to listen to English. He deserves the title of 'Super Teacher' more than anyone I have ever met."



Finally, put it all together

Joe is one of the best English teachers I have ever met. I think all students need a kind teacher to guide them, so they can always move in the right direction. I never listened to English much before I heard of Teacher Joe, but now I listen to his jokes, sayings and dictations. Listening has helped me improve my speaking ability in English, and now I'm moving up to a better job. Joe has helped tens of thousands of students learn English. He deserves the title of 'Super Teacher' more than anyone I have ever met.








2. Writing Powerful Introductions


When you write, what's the best way to begin? Many students start with a simple sentence, such as "I will write about my hometown", or they use no special introduction at all. Here are six ways to write better introductions.



1) Write about a problem

Everybody has problems! Most of our energy each day is spent trying to solve problems. By starting your writing with a problem, you automatically hook your readers into searching for a solution. Your readers will start to think about how they might solve the problem or wonder what solution you have in mind. But be careful not to take too much time on the problem itself. This is an introduction, not the body of your writing.




2) Write about a story or start with a joke

A very brief story or joke that illustrates your main idea can also hook the reader. Use clear details and vivid descriptions to appeal to your readers' senses and emotions. For example, if you want your readers to give up smoking, describe the painful effects of an elderly person who is unable to stop coughing, unable to breathe freely. If you are writing about an interesting place, describe what the readers would see, what they would hear, what they would taste, so that they can almost feel they are there. A joke, if it really fits the topic, can also make your readers more receptive to your ideas. Look at How to Tell Jokes for a simple way to remember jokes and stories.




3) Start with a question

This is one of the easiest ways to begin writing. However, be careful not to use questions that are too simple. If everyone already knows the answer, they will not be interested in what you write next. Remember, you have to make them think! "Do you like to eat?" is not very interesting. However, "Have you ever spent more than $100 dollars on one meal?" will make your readers start dreaming!




4) Write a bold statement or use an interesting statistic

If you begin with something like, "In the United States, fifty percent of all marriages end in divorce!", your readers will want to know your point of view on this topic. You can look up statistics on the Internet for just about any topic, so go to it!



5) Start with a quote from an important person

This kind of introduction has two advantages. As with the other ways, it gets your readers to think about what you will say next. In addition, the words of important people have the ability to persuade many people. "If Bill Gates said it, it's probably true", many people will think.



6) Write about necessary background information

This is not a very interesting way to begin, but sometimes it's necessary to help your readers before you begin. Some topics will be too difficult for readers to follow without some help, so you may have to provide basic information first. If possible, try to write about this information using one of the five opening techniques above!










2. How to Write Memorable Conclusions



When people are given a list of things to memorize, researchers found that they best remember items at the beginning and end of the list. It is the same way when people read. If you have a strong conclusion, people are more likely to remember your main message. Here are some suggestions on how to write memorable conclusions.



1) Use a broad statement to summarize your main idea

If you are writing about the environment, for example, you could end with a broad statement such as, "It's up to us to protect the environment because, after all, we only have one world".




2) End with a quotation

If you are writing about dealing with stress, you could conclude this way: "Remember the old saying, 'all work and no play makes Teacher Joe a dull boy'". As this example shows, you can adapt the quotation to fit the situation.




3) Express your hopes for the future

"My hope is that in ten years, we will no longer have to see newspaper stories about young children who cannot afford to get an education", would be a good way to end a paper on providing financial aid to poor families.





4) Use a question

As with introductions, questions are a good way to burn an idea into your readers' brains. "If we can go to the moon, why can't we go to Mars, too?", will focus readers' attention on the reasons you wrote about in the body of your paper.




5) Call for action!

This is one of the most common ways to conclude. Don't be shy about asking for some kind of response. "If you agree with me, then go out and volunteer" or "Take some time to analyze your diet to see how many calories you could easily do without", are two examples. Asking people to volunteer to help others or do something to help themselves is a powerful way to get them to think deeply about your suggestions.

So, do you think you could apply any of the ideas above? Bookmark this page now, so the next time you have to write something, you can come back here and try one of these ideas!









4. To Write Better English Sentences, Be Specific




Sample Sentence One:

a) "There is a man over there."

Many of students write sentences like this while preparing for the writing test. Unfortunately, this sentence tells us nothing about the man or where he is. Here is a slightly improved sentence:

b) "A tall man is standing next to the car."

Depending on the situation, you could add many more details. For example:

c) "A tall man wearing a dark suit is standing with his arms folded next to an old, red taxi."

This sentence communicates much more to the reader and shows that you know how to really use English well.






Sample Sentence Two:

a) "I was very tired."

First, you could add the reason for being tired:

b) "I am always tired after work."

Next, be more specific about how long you had to work:

c) "I always feel tired after working from 9 in the morning until 10 at night."

Isn't sentence "C" much better than sentence "A"? Remember, when you write, you are trying to communicate. These specific details are what communicate information to your reader.





Sample Sentence Three:

a) "Can you come?"

Again, you can answer the basic questions "When" and "Where":

b) "Can you come to my office tomorow morning?"

Of course, you can be even more specific with the time:

c) "Can you come to my office tomorrow morning between 9:30 and 10 o'clock?"

And finally, you could add "Why":

d) "Can you come to my office tomorrow morning between 9:30 and 10 o'clock so that I can give you the information you wanted?"





Remember This!

When you are writing, always remember to answer the basic questions in detail:



Who? What? When? Where? Why? and How?


When you include lots of specific answers to these basic questions, your writing will be much better than most students, and you'll be on your way to success!







Words are the most powerful drug used by mankind." - Rudyard Kipling



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