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Old Friday, May 02, 2008
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Sentence
A group of words which has a subject and predicate and gives clear and complete sense is called sentence.

Kinds of sentence.
There are five kinds of sentence.
1. Declarative / assertive sentence.
2. Optative sentence.
3. imperative sentence.
4. Interrogative sentence.
5. Exclamatory sentence.

Declarative / Assertive sentence:
A sentence which makes a statement and ends with full stop is called declarative / assertive sentence.

Kinds of Declarative / assertive sentence:
1. positive / simple / affirmative sentence.
2. Negative sentence.
3. emphatic sentence.
4. cleft sentence.

1. positive / simple / affirmative sentence:
a sentence which makes a simple statement is called simple / positive / affirmative sentence.

He is going to school.
They are playing

2. Negative sentence:
a sentence which makes a negative statement is called negative sentence.

He is not going to school.
They are not playing football.

Double negative sentence:
A sentence which has got two ďnotĒ is called double negative sentence.
Note: two ďnotĒ are not possible in one sentence, one is ďnotĒ and the other one is a prefix which gives negative sense.

He is not unfit. It means he is fit.
It is not impossible. It means it is possible.

3. Emphatic sentence:
A sentence which contains stress or emphasis is called emphatic sentence.

Note: emphatic sentences are used in different places for different meanings.

The following usage is called imperative emphatic.

1. to stress:

(you) Do come tomorrow!
(you)Do serve your parents!

2. to insist:

I do beat him!
I do sit with them!

3. to counter someone in your defense.

Reporter: he doesnít want to come to Pakistan.

Concerned person: No, it is wrong; he does want to come to Pakistan.

Note: this usage of emphatic sentence is called infinitive emphatic as well, when the verb is followed by a full infinitive.

4. to agree with someone:

Nasir: I listened that he comes here every day.
Asif: yes he does come here every day!


5. for stress in future:

I will go to Karachi tomorrow. (!)
I will do this work. (!)

Note: if you want to make sentences of other tenses emphatic, stress on the be forms, helping verbs or model auxiliary verbs.

She is mental. (!)
I am working hard. (!)
She has finished her work.
Note: conditional sentences can become emphatic sentences if there is stress / emphasis in the sentence.
If he is here, he will help us.
If he were here, he would help us.

Cleft sentences:
There are usually two clauses in cleft sentences and there are ups and downs in the clauses. We sometime emphasis / stress the subject / object / compliment / any other particular word or complete clause. When we emphasis / stress the particular word or clause with a loud and stressed voice, our voice goes up and when we read rest of the words, our voice comes down.
e.g.
It was Nasir who insulted him. ( Not Nadir)
In this sentence it is called introductory or preparatory subject and Nasir is called delayed or postponed subject.
Note: when the object is a proper noun, we can use both who and that between the two clauses. With non-living objects that is used between the two clauses. Not who
It was motorbike that I demanded for. ( Not cycle)
With time, like ( days, months, hours etc) that is used between the two clauses.
It was Friday that she was coming. ( Not Saturday)

Optative sentence:
A sentence which contains a wish or desire or pray is called Optative sentence.
Pray.
Note: if we express a pray, we put May at the beginning and sign of exclamation at the end of the sentence and in some sentences, Allah/God comes and in some, doesnít come.
Formula: May + subject + IV + (object/complement) + !
May you defeat them!
May you reach there safe and sound!
May she pass the exam!
Formula: May + God / Allah + object/complement +!
May Allah save him from evil eyes!
May Allah help you!
Wish / desire
In Urdu there is only one way of expressing wish or desire but there are three ways of expressing wish or desire in English.
Would that / O that / Wish = kaash
Present
Would that / O that he were the P.M of Pakistan! ( He is not)
I wish he were the P.M of Pakistan! ( He is a clerk)
Past
Would that / O that he had been rich! ( He was not rich)
I wish he had been rich! (He was not rich)
Present
Would that / O that I had a car! ( I donít have a car)
I wish they had a car! ( They donít have)
Past
Would that / O that I had had a car! ( I didnít have a car)
I wish I had had a car!
Present
Would that / O that he didnít waste his time! ( He wastes his time)
I wish he studied in our college! ( She doesnít study in our college)
Past
Would that / O that they had not killed him! ( They killed him)
I wish they had not killed him!

Imperative sentences:
A sentence which contains a command / order / request / proposal / suggestion / offer / invitation / instruction / an advice is called imperative sentence.
Note: (i) Imperative sentences start from the 1st form of the verb.
(ii) You is the subject of imperative sentences but it is not usually used in the sentence but understood.
(iii) If we use you as a subject of our sentence, our sentence will be impolite.
(iv) Other proper nouns / common nouns can be the subject of imperative sentences instead of you these nouns can come at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.
(v) Imperative sentences have only and only affirmative and negative sentences.
(vi) you can be used as a subject if we make distinctions.
(vii) Imperative sentences can usually be used only and only with one verb in friendly atmosphere.
e.g. catch, come, sit. Wait, stand up etc.
Note: in requests if imperative sentences, please can come at the beginning or at the end of the sentences. Command or order:
Affirmative:
Close the door.
Learn this lesson by heart.
Turn on the fan.
Negative:
Donít sit here.
Donít call him.
Donít be absent.
Requests:
Note: In requests of imperative sentences, please can come at the beginning and at the end of the sentence.
If we use please at the beginning of a sentence, comma is not usually used after please if we use comma after please there will be a small pause between please and the sentence.
Affirmative:
Please come here. ( no pause)
Please, come here. ( a small pause)
Negative:
Please donít disturb them. ( no pause)
Please, donít disturb them ( a small pause)
Note: if we use double please at the beginning of a sentence, we use comma after each please
Please, please, forgive me.
Note: if we use please at the end of the sentence, then between the sentence and please comma is necessary.
Donít tease him, please.
Directions / Instructions
Dr. to patient: Take one tablet twice a day with milk.
Advice:
Teacher to student: Donít sit with bad boys.
Invitation:
A friend to another friend: come and eat food with us.
Offers:
Take this newspaper.
Take my book.
Suggestions / proposals:
Note: let us is an extra expression, which comes before the imperative sentences.
Affirmative:
Let us go to bazaar.
Let us play football.
Note: there are two different negatives of it.
Let us not go to bazaar.
Donít let us go to bazaar.
Note: if the speaker wants to use an impolite and rude language, he uses you before the imperative sentence as a subject of the sentence.
Ex. You be silent.
You donít come here again.
Note: other proper nouns or common nouns can be the subject of imperative sentences. These nouns can come at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.
Nadir, be silent.
Be silent, Nadir.
Be active, boys.
Boys, be active.
Note: in imperative sentences, one verb can give the meaning of a complete imperative sentence.
Ex. Sit, come, go, drink, eat etc.
Note: if we make distinctions, we can use you as subject; here you is necessary as the subject of the sentence.
You eat, I will eat later.
You sit here, I will sit there.
You go with them, I cant go.
Double imperative sentences:
Double imperatives sentences have got two 1st forms of the verb which are combined with the help of and
Go and call him.
Sit and eat food.
Go and talk to her.
Passive of Imperative sentences:
for general passive voice of imperative sentences, we act upon the following formula.
(Active) Close the door.
(passive) Let the door be closed.
Arrest them.
Let them be arrested.
there are two different ways of changing negative imperative active sentences into passive voice.
(Active) Donít help him.
(passive) Donít let him be helped.
Let him not be helped.
(active) Donít close the door.
(passive) Donít let the door be closed.
Let the door not be closed.
Note: the following imperative passive voices are formal, they are usually used in official languages, especially between two senior persons or a junior or a senior person. These passive voices are usually used in applications and official letters.
If there is request, we remove please or kindly and in the place of please/kindly we use you are requested and the main verb changes into full infinitive.
Please, give me an opportunity.
You are requested to give me an opportunity.
Please, donít support them.
You are requested not to support them.
Note: if there is an advice we bring you are advised at the beginning and main verb changes into full infinitive.
My dear reduce your expenditure.
You are advised to reduce your expenditure.
Donít waste your time.
You are advised not to waste your time.
Note: if there is an order we bring you are ordered first and then the main verb changes into full infinitive.
Release my citizens.
You are ordered to release my citizens.
Donít misuse the public funds.
You are ordered not to misuse the public funds.
Note: if there is a direction we bring you are directed first and then the main verb changes into full infinitive.
Come on time.
You are directed to come on time.
Donít be free with them.
You are directed not to be free with them.
Exclamatory sentences:
A sentence which express sudden and strong feeling of sorrow / surprise /happiness and ends with the sign of exclamation is called exclamatory or exclamative sentence.
Note: if the exclamatory sentence begins with interjection, then exclamation mark comes after the interjection and at the end of the sentence full stop. If the exclamatory sentence begins with W.H word, then exclamation mark comes at the end of the sentence.
Exclamatory sentences are introduced by the following.
Interjections.
W.H words
Interjections:
Those words or phrases which express sudden and strong feelings of surprise / sorrow / happiness are called interjections.
Ex. Ah! Good, there he is.
Ha! He broke the glass.
Ha! Ha! We defeated them.
Ho! They accepted it.
Oh! She is coming.
Oho! We reached.
Ooh! Our team won the match.
Ow! It hurts.
Wow! What a great car you have bought.
Note: some adjective can be used as interjections when someone feels something good at the action of someone and he wants to appreciate the person.
Ex. Bravo!
Good!
Great!
Marvelous!
Wonderful! Etc.
When someone feels something bad about the happening of something he uses the following phrases to express his bad feelings.
Oh God!
Damn!
Oh hell! Etc
The following phrases are used to express surprise.
Oh, my God!
My goodness!
Well! Etc
W.H words (how and what) exclamations:
W.H words ( how and what) are used in different ways with different meanings and different word order.
1. what + a/an + adjective + singular countable noun + sub + verb + !
what a beautiful bird it is!
What an expensive car it was!
what + adjective + plural countable noun + sub + verb + !
what beautiful cars these are!
What expensive watches those were!
what + adj + uncountable noun + sub + verb + !
what tasty soup it is!
What pure milk you bought!
what + (a/an) + adj + (person) sub + verb + !
what a brave man he is!
how + adj + sub + verb + !
how hot this tea is!
how + adj + (person) sub + verb + !
how united nation this is!
How weak he was!
how + adverb + sub + verb + !
how fast he runs!
how + adv + sub + verb + (obj/comp) + !
how carelessly they were using it!
how + sub + verb + (obj/comp) +!
How he came here!
How they got it!
Note: declarative, imperative and interrogative sentences can become exclamatory, if we say or read declarative sentences / imperative sentences / interrogative sentences suddenly and strongly, they become exclamatory.
Declarative: she is coming tomorrow.
Exclamatory: she is coming tomorrow!
Wait for me.
Wait for me!
What is he doing?
What is he doing!
5. Interrogative sentences:
A sentence in which we ask a question and ends with a question mark is called interrogative sentence.
Kinds of interrogative sentences:
1. Yes, No questions
2. Tag questions
3. Reinforcement tags
4. W.H word questions
5. Negative yes, no questions
6. included question / noun clause
7. declarative questions
8. short questions
9. echo questions
10. Questions for attention
11. Indirect questions
12. Rhetorical questions
13. Alternative questions
14. emphatic questions
15. polite questions
1. Yes, No Questions:
Yes, no questions are asked with the help of helping or model auxiliary verbs of the sentence and the answers of yes, no questions are usually given short with the help of the same helping or model auxiliary verb.
Q: Does she go to school?
Ans: yes, she does / No, she doesnít.
Tag questions:
Tag questions are small questions, they are asked with the help of helping or model auxiliary verb of the sentence and are used after a simple or negative statement to confirm the statement.
Note: after a simple statement, negative and interrogative tag question is used and after a negative statement, interrogative tag question is used.
For a negative interrogative tag question, a positive answer is usually given and for an interrogative tag question, a negative answer is usually given.
Statement and tag questions are said by the same person
Statement tag question Answer
She is coming with us. Isnít she? Yes, she is.
She is not coming with us. Is she? No, she isnít.
Reinforcement tag:
In reinforcement tag, we repeat the subject and the helping verb of the said statement for stress.
Statement Reinforcement tag
He is a teacher. He is.
Ahmad will beat you. He will.
W.H questions:
Note: What, who, how, why, when, where, whom, whose etc are called W.H words.
W.H questions are introduced by W.H words and W.H questions are used to ask about the reason, time, place, manner of happening something or about the person, who did it or to whom it happened or nature of work or nature of profession or nature of designation or to know about the things
Why did it happen? ( reason/cause)
What happened? (nature of action)
Where did it happen? (place)
When did it happen? (time)
How did it happen? ( manner)
What do you do? ( nature of work / profession)
What is he? ( nature of designation / profession)
Which vegetable do you like? ( choice/ about things)
Negative yes/no questions:
In negative yes/no questions, we want to confirm a positive statement which both of us the speaker and the listener are already aware about.
Note: in negative yes/no questions, we usually expect a positive short answer.
Positive statement yes/no questions short Ans
He plays football. Doesnít he play football? Yes, he does.
There are two types of yes/no negative questions
formal negative yes/no questions.
Informal negative yes/no questions.
Both formal and informal negative yes/no questions have got the same meaning.
formal negative yes/no questions: in formal negative yes/no questions 1st at the beginning of the sentence helping verb comes then subject and after the subject not comes and at the end of the sentence question mark comes.
Is she not coming?
Have they not come?
Informal negative yes/no questions: in informal negative yes/no questions, contracted form of helping/model auxiliary verb with not comes at the beginning and at the end of the sentence question mark comes.
Isnít she coming?
Havenít they come?
Included questions/noun clause:
In included questions we combine two questions together, when we combine two questions together, the 2nd question losses its word order and it becomes an affirmative sentence instead of interrogative sentence.
Included questions are also called noun clause.
Questions included question
Does he know?
Where does she live? Does he know where she lives?
Can you tell him?
What is his name? Can you tell him what his name is?

Indirect questions:
Indirect questions are asked indirectly. They are like affirmative sentences, helping and model auxiliary verbs come after the subject and end with a full stop instead of a question mark.
Note: indirect questions are used in the following places.
one person says to 2nd person to ask 3rd person this/that thing.
A says to B to ask C.
1st person tells the question of 2nd person in his own words
the 1st person conveys the message of the question to the 2nd person or the 3rd person which has been said for them by someone else.
Note: if the question is from a helping or model auxiliary verb if / whether comes between the two clauses.
Direct question indirect question
What is your name? Ask him what his name is.
Do you work? Ask him if / whether he works.

2.the 1st person tells the question of the 2nd person or 3rd person in his own words.
Direct question indirect question
What does he say? He asks me what my name is.
the 1st person conveys the message of the question to the 2nd or 3rd person which has been asked for them by someone else.

Direct question indirect question
What does he say? He asks you what your name is.
He asks him what his name is.
short questions:
Short questions are often used after a statement with the help of W.H words or W.H word phrases to get more information about the statement.
Statement short question Ans
I am going to Karachi. When? In the evening.
He doesnít want to come why? I donít know.
Questions for attention:
In questions for attention often short questions are used with the help of be forms / helping / model auxiliary verb of the sentence and common attention signals to show that the listener is taking interest or paying attention to whatever he is listening from the speaker.
Statement from the speaker listener speaker
That was a peaceful place. Oh, was it? Yes, it was.
They had a very beautiful car. Did they have? Yes, they had.

Declarative questions:
Declarative questions are like affirmative sentence but end with a question mark instead of a full stop. They are used to confirm the statement or to express surprise over the statement which the speaker already knows about or has understood now.
Note: commonly loud and stressed voice is used.
Declarative questions Ans
This is your house? Yes, it is.
They are your students? Yes, they are.
Echo questions:
In echo questions, we repeat the same statement of the speaker to confirm or to express surprise on the statement.
Note: the following usage is called recapitulatory echo question.
In recapitulatory echo questions we repeat the part or a complete statement.
Statement echo questions Ans
She will come tomorrow. She will come tomorrow? Yes, she will.

Note: W.H words can be used in echo questions, when we ask about the object/complement / adverb or number of person or things of the sentence. We repeat the sentence without stress and we use and stress only W.H words in the place of object/comp/adverb/number/quantity of the things which we are asking about.
Note: the following usage is called explicatory echo question.
Explicatory echo question goes for clarification rather than repetition.
Statement echo question Ans
They have finished their work. They have finished what? Their work
Note: if the action is in the present, in the past or in the future indefinite tenses, we stress the verb and the W.H word, like, did what do what etc.
She helped me. She did what?
Note: here the listener repeats the same question of the speaker with loud and stressed voice and after repeated question, he usually gives the Ans with a normal voice.
Speaker listener with Ans
Does she work hard? Does she work hard? Of course.
Rhetorical questions:
Rhetorical questions are not used for getting information, they are used to draw the attention of listener to something.
Do you know who she was? ( she was the daughter of P.M)
Do you know what time is it? ( it is 1 Oíclock)
Note: rhetorical questions can come after a statement.
Statement Rhetorical questions
I cant find my pen. What is it, then?
Note: Rhetorical questions can give the negative meanings.
How can I do this work in darkness? ( I cant do it)
How could I help you? ( I could not help you)
Q: what is the difference between questions for attention and rhetorical questions?
Ans: In Rhetorical questions speaker tries to draw the attention of listener to something and in questions for attention the listener shows the speaker that he is taking interest or paying attention to whatever he is listening from the speaker.
Alternative questions:
Alternative questions expect their answers from the alternatives given in the question.
Did you go by bus or by train?
What would you like tea or coffee?
Emphatic questions:
The questions which have got emphasis / stress are called emphatic questions.
Emphatic questions are asked emphatically.
Whoever told you this?
Where ever have you kept my books?
Polite questions:
Polite questions are used to ask someone in a very polite and formal way.
These questions are used to express respect for someone.
Would like to have a cup of tea with me?
Would you mind giving me a pen?
Aphoristic sentences:
Aphoristic sentences are also one of the kinds of the sentence, it is found in many proverbs.
Easy come, easy go.
The faster, the better.
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