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Old Wednesday, September 03, 2008
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Default Vocabulary

Building a Better

Everyone—from beginning learners in English to veterans in journalism—knows the frustration of not having the right word immediately available in that lexicon one carries between one's ears. Sometimes it's a matter of not being able to recall the right word; sometimes we never knew it. It is also frustrating to read a newspaper or homework assignment and run across words whose meanings elude us. Language, after all, is power. When your children get in trouble fighting with the neighbors' children, and your neighbors call your children little twerps and you call their children nefarious miscreants—well, the battle is over and they didn't stand a chance. Building a vocabulary that is adequate to the needs of one's reading and self-expression has to be a personal goal for every writer and speaker.

Making It Personal

Using some durable piece of paper—white construction paper or the insides of the ripped-off covers of old notebooks—begin to write down words in small but readable script that you discover in your reading that you can't define. Read journals and newspapers that challenge you in terms of vocabulary. Pursue words actively and become alert to words that you simply overlooked in the past. Write down the words in one column; then, later, when you have a dictionary at your disposal, write down a common definition of the word; in a third column, write a brief sentence using the word, underlined.

Carry this paper or cardboard with you always. In the pauses of your busy day—when you're sitting on the bus, in the dentist's office, during commercials—take out the paper and review your vocabulary words until you feel comfortable that you would recognize (and be able to use) these words the next time you see them. The amazing thing is that you will see the words again—even "nefarious miscreants," and probably sooner than you thought. In fact, you might well discover that the words you've written down are rather common. What's happening is not that, all of a sudden, people are using words you never saw before, but that you are now reading and using words that you had previously ignored.

Using Every Resource
Most bookstores carry books on building a more powerful vocabulary, some of them with zany names such as Thirty Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary. If you've got money to spare or if they're on sale, buy them and use them; they can't hurt. Books that group words according to what they have in common—more in meaning than in spelling—are especially useful.

Newspapers often carry brief daily articles that explore the meanings of words and phrases. These articles often emphasize peculiar words that won't find themselves into your working vocabulary, but they can still be fun. Often you'll find that learning one new word leads to other new words, little constellations of meaning that keep your brain cells active and hungry for more. Make reading these articles one of your daily habits, an addiction, even.

Play dictionary games with your family in which someone uses the dictionary to find a neat word and writes down the real definition and everyone else writes down a fake (and funny) definition. See how many people you can fool with your fake definitions.

A thesaurus is like a dictionary except that it groups words within constellations of meaning. It is often useful in discovering just the right word you need to express what you want to say. Make sure you correctly understand the definition of a word (by using a dictionary) before using it in some important paper or report. Your bookstore salesperson can provide plenty of examples of an inexpensive thesaurus. The online Merriam Webster's WWWebster Dictionary has access to both an extensive dictionary and a hyperlinked thesaurus. Links allow you to go conveniently back and forth between the dictionary and the thesaurus.

If you have a speedy computer processor and a fast hookup to the internet, we recommend the Plumb Design Visual Thesaurus. Once the program is entirely loaded, type in a word that you would like to see "visualized," hit the return key, and a construct of verbal connections will float across the screen. Click on any of the words within that construct and a new pattern of connections will emerge. Try the Visual Thesaurus with several different kinds of words—verbs, adverbs, nouns, adjectives—and try adjusting some of the various controls on the bottom of the window. We do not recommend this web-site for slow machines; in fact, the bigger your monitor and the faster your computer and connection, the more satisfying this experience will be.

When people use a word that puzzles you, ask what it means! You'll find that most instructors, especially, are not in the least bothered by such questions—in fact, they're probably pleased that you're paying such close attention—but if they do seem bothered, write down the word and look it up later, before the context of the word evaporates.

Knowing the Roots

At least half of the words in the English language are derived from Greek and Latin roots. Knowing these roots helps us to grasp the meaning of words before we look them up in the dictionary. It also helps us to see how words are often arranged in families with similar characteristics.

For instance, we know that sophomores are students in their second year of college or high school. What does it mean, though, to be sophomoric? The "sopho" part of the word comes from the same Greek root that gives us philosophy, which we know means "love of knowledge." The "ic" ending is sometimes added to adjectival words in English, but the "more" part of the word comes from the same Greek root that gives us moron. Thus sophomores are people who think they know a lot but really don't know much about anything, and a sophomoric act is typical of a "wise fool," a "smart-ass"!

Let's explore further. Going back to philosophy, we know the "sophy" part is related to knowledge and the "phil" part is related to love (because we know that Philadelphia is the City of Brotherly Love and that a philodendron loves shady spots). What, then, is philanthropy? "Phil" is still love, and "anthropy" comes from the same Greek root that gives us anthropology, which is the study ("logy," we know, means study of any kind) of anthropos, humankind. So a philanthropist must be someone who loves humans and does something about it—like giving money to find a cure for cancer or to build a Writing Center for the local community college. (And an anthropoid, while we're at it, is an animal who walks like a human being.) Learning the roots of our language can even be fun!

Some common Greek and Latin roots:

Root (source) Meaning English words
aster, astr (G) star astronomy, astrology
audi (L) to hear audible, auditorium
bene (L) good, well benefit, benevolent
bio (G) life biology, autobiography
dic, dict (L) to speak dictionary, dictator
fer (L) to carry transfer, referral
fix (L) to fasten fix, suffix, affix
geo (G) earth geography, geology
graph (G) to write graphic, photography
jur, just (L) law jury, justice
log, logue (G) word, thought,
speech monolog(ue), astrology, biology, neologism
luc (L) light lucid, translucent
manu (L) hand manual, manuscript
meter, metr (G) measure metric, thermometer
op, oper (L) work operation, operator
path (G) feeling pathetic, sympathy, empathy
ped (G) child pediatrics, pedophile
phil (G) love philosophy, Anglophile
phys (G) body, nature physical, physics
scrib, script (L) to write scribble, manuscript
tele (G) far off telephone,television
ter, terr (L) earth territory, extraterrestrial
vac (L) empty vacant, vacuum, evacuate
verb (L) word verbal, verbose
vid, vis (L) to see video, vision, television

Authority for this chart: The Little, Brown Handbook by H. Ramsay Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, & Kay Limburg. 6th ed. HarperCollins: New York. 1995. By permission of Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc.

Learning Prefixes and Suffixes

Knowing the Greek and Latin roots of several prefixes and suffixes (beginning and endings attached to words) can also help us determine the meaning of words. Ante, for instance, means before, and if we connect bellum with belligerant to figure out the connection with war, we'll know that antebellum refers to the period before war. (In the United States, the antebellum period is our history before the Civil War.)

Prefixes showing quantity
Meaning Prefixes in English Words
half semiannual, hemisphere
one unicycle, monarchy, monorail
two binary, bimonthly, dilemma, dichotomy
hundred century, centimeter, hectoliter
thousand millimeter, kilometer
Prefixes showing negation
without, no, not asexual, anonymous, illegal, immoral, invalid, irreverent, unskilled
not, absence of, opposing, against nonbreakable, antacid, antipathy, contradict
opposite to, complement to counterclockwise, counterweight
do the opposite of, remove, reduce dehorn, devitalize, devalue
do the opposite of, deprive of disestablish, disarm
wrongly, bad misjudge, misdeed
Prefixes showing time
before antecedent, forecast, precede, prologue
after postwar
again rewrite, redundant
Prefixes showing direction or position
above, over supervise, supererogatory
across, over transport, translate
below, under infrasonic, infrastructure, subterranean, hypodermic
in front of proceed, prefix
behind recede
out of erupt, explicit, ecstasy
into injection, immerse, encourage, empower
around circumnavigate, perimeter
with coexist, colloquy, communicate, consequence, correspond, sympathy, synchronize

Authority for this table: The Little, Brown Handbook by H. Ramsay Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, & Kay Limburg. 6th ed. HarperCollins: New York. 1995. By permission of Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc.

Suffixes, on the other hand, modify the meaning of a word and frequently determine its function within a sentence. Take the noun nation, for example. With suffixes, the word becomes the adjective national, the adverb nationally, and the verb nationalize.

See what words you can come up with that use the following suffixes.

Typical noun suffixes are -ence, -ance, -or, -er, -ment, -list, -ism, -ship, -ency, -sion, -tion, -ness, -hood, -dom

Typical verb suffixes are -en, -ify, -ize, -ate

Typical adjective suffixes are -able, -ible, -al, -tial, -tic, -ly, -ful, -ous, -tive, -less, -ish, -ulent
The adverb suffix is -ly (although not all words that end in -ly are adverbs—like friendly)

Using Your Dictionary
The dictionary should be one of the most often used books in your home. (We'll allow room for sacred texts here.) Place the dictionary somewhere so that you can find it immediately and use it often. If you do your reading and homework in the kitchen and the dictionary is on a shelf in the den or bedroom, it's too tempting to say "I'll look it up next time."

The home dictionary should be large enough to contain much more than just spellings. It should contain extensive definitions, word origins, and notes on usage. Carrying in your purse or backpack a pocket dictionary with more concise definitions is also a good idea. Get in the habit of turning to it often. A well worn dictionary is a beautiful thing.


faryal shah
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Old Friday, September 05, 2008
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Post Vocabulary

Arsenal: A place for storage of weapons & ammunition
Anonymous: Something which does not bear the name of its writer
Atheist: One who does not believe in the existence of God
Antiseptic: A medicine that prevents decomposing
Antidote : Medicine to counteract the effect of poison.
Autobiography: Life history written by self
Audience: Assembly of listeners
Irreparable: That which cannot be repaired
Cannibal : A man who eats human beings
Catalogue: A list of books
Colleague : An associate in office or institution
Contemporary: A person living at the same time as another
Cosmopolitan: One who is free from national prejudices
Credulous : A person too ready to believe
Democracy: Government of the people by the people and for the people.
Dead letter: A letter which is not claimed by any one
Dead language: A language which is no longer in use
Draw :A battle or a match in which neither party wins
Edible : Fit to be eaten
Illegible : That which cannot be read easily
Illiterate : One who is unable to read or write
Immigrant: One who comes to settle in a country
Impassable: That which cannot be passed through
Inaccessible: That which cannot be approached or reached
Impregnable: That which cannot be pierced through
Impracticable: That which cannot be put into practice
Inaudible : That which cannot be hared
Incorrigible: That which cannot be corrected
Incurable : That which cannot be cured
Indefatigable: One who does not tire
Popular : One who is liked or admired
Indescribable: That which cannot be described
Indivisible: That which cannot be divided
Inimitable : That which cannot be imitated
Infallible : One who cannot make a mistake
Inevitable: That which is bound to happen
Insoluble : That which cannot be dissolved
Invincible : That which cannot be conquered
Insolvent : One who is unable to pay his debts
Linguist : One who is skilled in many languages
Maiden speech: A speech made for the first time
Manuscript :A paper written by hand
Mercenary :One who fights for the sake of money
Omnipotent :One who is all powerful
Optimist :One who always looks at the bright side of things
Panacea : A remedy for all animals
Parasite : One living on another
Pessimist : One who always looks at the dark side of things
Pedestrian: One who walks on foot
Philanthropist: One who does good to one’s fellow men
Posthumous: One who is born after the death of his father
Veteran : One who is well experienced
Portable : That which can be easily carried about
Simultaneously: Occurring at the same time
Sanatorium: A place for invalids and convalescents
Honorary : An office with salary but no work
Spokesman : One who speaks for others
Suicide : Killing of one’s own self
Teetotaler: A person who abstains from alcoholic drinks
Transparent: That which can be clearly seen through
Wardrobe : A place where clothes are kept
Turn-coat: A person who changes sides
Unanimous: Decision arrived at by the votes of all
Vegetarian: One who lives on vegetable
Verbose : Full of words
Voluntary : Of one’s own freewill
Waterproof: A material through which water cannot pass
Stale : That which is not fresh
Widower : A man whose wife is dead
Widow : A woman whose husband is dead
Fatal : A disease or accident which ends in death
Honorary : Office for which no salary is paid
Gratis : Without payment or recompense
Ignorant : One who lacks knowledge
Illegal : That which is contrary to law
Hospitable: One who entertains his guests well
Unsocialable: One who does not mix freely with others


Gynecologist :The doctor treating the ailments peculiar to women alone
Obstetrician: The doctor who helps in the delivery of babies
Pediatrician: The doctor who specializes in the treatment of children’s diseases
Oculist : The doctor who specializes in the treatment of eye diseases
Dermatologist: The doctor who specializes in the treatment of skin diseases
Orthopaedist: The doctor who specializes in the treatment of various
deformities of the body and bone
Cardiologist: The doctor who specializes in the treatment of heart diseases
Neurologist: The doctor who specializes in the treatment of nervous system
Psychiatrist: The doctor who specializes in the treatment of disorders
of mind and emotional disturbances
Internist : The doctor who specializes in the internal organs
Podiatrist : The doctor who specializes in the treatment of corn
Optometrist: The specialist who is not a doctor but examines the eye
for the sole purpose of prescribing spectacles and fitting eye glasses
Optician : The person who specializes in the manufacture, making
and selling of eye glasses, lenses, binoculars
Orthodontist: The person who specializes in straightening of crooked teeth
Intern : The medical graduate serving as an apprentice in a
hospital taking medical training


Anthropologist: One who studies the history of development of mankind
Entomologist: One whose field of study is insects
Botanist: One whose field of study is the life of plants
Philologist: One whose field of study is language
Geologist: One who specializes in the study of earth & its composition
Semanticist: One who specializes in the study of psychological effects of words
Astronomer: One studies the planets and the heavenly bodies
Zoologist: One whose field of study is animals of all type
Biologist: One whose field of study is all living organisms
Sociologist: One who specializes in the field of social relationship


Last edited by Princess Royal; Friday, September 05, 2008 at 02:50 PM.
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Old Saturday, September 06, 2008
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Thumbs up Important Words About The Nature Of Men

Loquacious: To talk a great deal
Taciturn: To keep silent as a habit
Dexterous: To be expert in using hands
Maldroit: If clumsy with one’s hands
Sanguine : If a person has red blooded buoyant disposition
Despondent: If a person has a gloomy nature
Indefatigable: If a person never tires
Indolent: If a person is lazy and likes to avoid exertion
Amiable : If a person has a sweet and friendly nature
Irascible: If a person is easily annoyed
Erudite: If a person has an extensive knowledge
Illiterate: If a person is not educated
Veteran: If a person is well experienced
Punctilious: If a person is very formal in etiquettes
Literate: If a person is educated
Unceremonious: If a person is rather informal
Pacifical: If a person is inclined to make peace with the people
Bellicose: If a person is always looking for fight
Compunctions: If a person is feels sorry for a wrong he has done
Obdurate : If a person is too stubborn to admit his errors
Magnanimous: If a person is generous and has exalted soul

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Thumbs up Synonyms

Abandon leave, quit, vacate
Abandoned Deserted, vacant
Abdicate Give up, vacate
Ability Capacity, aptitude, capability
Abnormal Unusual, unnatural
Abound Plentiful, overflow
Abrupt Sudden, hasty
Absorb Assimilate, merge
Absurd Silly, ridiculous
Abundant Ample, plentiful
Accelerate Quicken, hasten, speed up
Active Alert, agile, alive
Acute Keen, piercing, sharp
Adjust Regulate
Admirable Excellent, commendable, praiseworthy
Admit Own, concede, acknowledge, accept
Agree Concur, consent, assent
Aimless Random, wandering, purposeless
Allow Grant, admit, permit
Amateur Volunteer, novice
Ambition Aspiration, longing, zeal
Anger Arouse, inflame, annoy, provoke
Appetite Want, hunger, longing, passion
Apt Suitable, qualified, appropriate
Artistic Beautiful, graceful, chagrined
Assist Help, support
Atrocity Outrage, enormity, brutality
Average Middling, medium, ordinary, fair
Awkward Clumsy, ungainly, ungraceful, embarrassing
Base Vile, low, mean, ignoble, unworthy
Bashful timid, shy, diffident, constrained
Beautiful Pretty, lovely, graceful, handsome, charming, elegant
Beg Implore, beseech, crave, ask, solicit
Benevolent Generous, philanthropic, charitable
Bogus Sham, counterfeit, supurious, false
Bold Courageous, fearless, daring, dauntless
Breathe respire, inhale, exhale
Bright Lustrous, luminous, radiant, glowing, sparkling
Burning Flaming, raging, blazing, ardent
Callous Hardened, insensitive, stiff
Calm Impassive, placid, serene, peaceful, cool-headed, tranquil
Candid Frank, open, outspoken, sincere, truthful
Chaos Confusion, disorder
Cheat Defraud, swindle, dupe, deceive
Cold Frigid, cool, chilly, frosty, indifferent, reserved
Confidence Reliance, faith, dependence
Conjecture Guess, speculation, inference, surmise
Contemptible Despicable, despised, vile, mean, low
Control Direct, manage, regulate, master
Covet Long for, want, desire, crave
Cruelty Brutality, barbarity, persecution, torture
Cut Hew, chop, carve, slit, slash, divide, curtail, reap
Damage Loss, harm, injury, hurt, impair
Dangerous Hazardous, perilous, unsafe
Defend Protect, shield, guard, safeguard, support
Dear Cherished, precious, costly, valuable
Derisive Sarcastic, contemptuous, scornful, mocking
Determined Resolute, resolved, decided, firm
Detest Loathe, abhor, despise
Dignified Stately, lofty, august, noble, majestic
Dim Dusky, dull, dingy, hazy, vague
Disfigure Impair, deface, mar, mutilate
Disinterested Indifferent, detached, unconcerned
Dogmatic Bigoted, opinionated
Distasteful Unpalatable, unsavory, bitter
Distinguished Celebrated, famous, eminent, illustrious, renowned, noted
Dreadful Frightful, horrible, shocking
Durable Lasting, permanent, stable, enduring
Eager Ardent, careful, thrifty, saving
Economical frugal, careful, thrifty, saving
Eminence Distinction, importance
Empty blank, vacant, void, hollow
Enormous Huge, vast, immense, colossal, gigantic
Essential Indispensable, necessary
Examine test, inspect, scrutinize, review
Expedient Advisable, desirable, advantageous, suitable, proper
Expensive Costly, dear, high-priced, prodigal
Extravagant Lavish, excessive, visionary, absurd
Fair Beautiful, comely, spotless, unblemished
Fantastic Grotesque, bizarre, odd, strange
Fear Timidity, diffidence, apprehensiveness, dread, fearfulness
Fit Appropriate, expedient, suitable, proper
Formal Conventional, ceremonious, ritualistic
Fragrant Aromatic, balmy, scented, perfumed
Frail Fragile, infirm, feeble
Free Unconfined, unchecked, unhindered, liberal
Friendly Amicable, sociable, cordial, warmhearted
Furious Angry, fuming, raging, turbulent, wild, blithe,
lively, merry, jolly, bright, ma gnanimous,
nselfish, liberal, lavish,
Genuine Sincere, frank, unaffected, real, honest, sterling, authentic
Glad Pleased, gratified, happy, joyful
Greedy Grasping, avaricious, rapacious
Habitual Customary, usually, routine, frequent, permanent
Grief Sorrow, affliction, anguish, tribulation, distress, bereavement
Hallucination Illusion, delusion, mirage
Hamper Obstruct, impede, restrict
Harmful Injurious, detrimental, damaging
Hasty Quick, speedy, expeditious, swift, rapid, hurried
Helpful Useful, cooperative, assisting
Honest Open, sincere, frank
Horrible Dreadful, appalling, frightful
Humble Poor, low-born, plain, simple, meek, modest
Hypocritical Insincere, affected, sanctimonious
Idle Unemployed, inactive, lazy
Illegal Unlawful, illegitimate, illicit
Imaginative Original, inventive, creative, idealistic, romantic, fantastic
Immoral Corrupt, licentious
Impossible Unlikely, unreasonable, incredible, unfeasible, out of question
Impure foul, dirty, filthy, debased, mixed, lewd, unchaste
Incapable Incompetent, unable, unfit
Incredulous Sceptical, distrusrful, doubtful
Industrious Diligent, busy, hard-working
Ingenuous Frank, open, native, candid
Insignificant Petty, unimportant, trivial, small
Intellectual Mental, scholarly, learned, well-informed, intelligent
Intemperance Excess, unrestraint, dissipation
Interesting Exciting, alluring, fascinating
Iota Jot, bit, particle, speck, grain
Irritable Ill-humoured, pleasure
Jealous Envious, distrustful, suspicious
Jolly Delight, pleasure
Just Honest, upright, honorable, fair
Justify Defend, prove, vindicate, exonerate
Juvenile Youthful, immature, undeveloped, young
Keen Piercing, penetrating, cutting, quick, eager
Kind Benign, gracious, obliging, considerate, type,
sort, character, nature
Kindle Ignite, set on fire, light, stir, arouse
Laborious Toilsome, hard working, industrious
Lasting Enduring, permanent, continuing
Lazy Indolent, idle
Liable Subject to, open to, exposed to, accountable
Loathe Despise, abhor, detest, hate
Loquacious Talkative, chatter box
Lucid Plain, clear, understandable
Lurid Ghastly, grim, gruesome, pale
Luxuriant Lush, lavish, profuse, fertile
Mad Crazy, insane, frenzied, wild
Marvelous Wonderful, incredible, miraculous
Meek Mild, submissive, humble, modest
Merciless Ruthless, unfeeling, relentless, pitiless
Miserable Wretched, forlorn, worthless, poor
Mitigate Lessen, alleviate, soften, abate
Monotonous Humdrum, tedious, tiresome, unvaried
Mysterious Obscure, occult, incomprehensible, hidden
Narrate Relate, tell, recite, describe
Neat Tidy, trim, spick and span, orderly
Nimble Quick, agile, alert, brisk
Novel New, different, unusual, unique
Nuisance Annoyance, bother, pest, bore
Oath Pledge, sworn, statement
Objectionable Obnoxious, offensive, undesirable
Obsolete Out of date, outworn, disused, antiquated
Obstinate Tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, dogmatic
Old Aged, elderly, ancient, antique, obsolete
Ostentatious Pretentious, showy, dashing, glaunting,
glittering, splendid, magnificent
Outrage Insult, injury, wrong, affront, abuse
Overlook Oversee, skip, miss, forget
Paralyse Disable, incapacitate, cripple, unnerve
Pathetic Touching, sad, pitiful, distressing, heartrending
Pensive Melancholy, meditative, reflective
Pernicious Harmful, detrimental, ruinous, sinister
Philosophical Calm, rational, imperturbable, deliberative, speculative
Pious Religious, devout, holy, reverential
Pithy Brief, terse, succinct, forceful, powerful
Placid Calm, peaceful, gentle, serene
Pleasure Delight, gladness, joy, enjoyment
Poisonous virulent, deadly, toxic, venomous
Proficient Expert, adept, masterly, dexterous, adroit
Proper Right, just, equitable, meet, suitable
Prudent careful, wary, heedful, cautious, discreet, circumspect
Quack Impostor, charlatan, empire
Qualified Fit, capable, able, accumpl9shed, eligible
Quick Prompt, alert, ready, rapid, keen, intelligent
Queer Quaint, strange, odd
Quiet Meek, mild, motionless, calm
Radiant Bright, brilliant
Rapid Swift, speedy, quick, fleet, fast
Rash Incautious, indiscreet, hasty, wild, foolhardy
Reasonable Cheap, low-priced, moderate, fair, credible, plausible
Refined Cultivated, cultured, well-bred
Reliance Assurance, confidence, credence, trust
Remarkable Distinguished, noteworthy, rare, uncommon, unusual
Rival Competitor, contestant, antagonist, adversary
Robust Strong, hardy, seasoned, tough, sound
Romantic Idealistic, fanciful, poetic, imaginary, sentimental
Ruthless cruel, pitiless, merciless, restless
Sacred Holy, divine, hallowed, blessed
Sad Pensive, gloomy, woeful, melancholy, mournful
Sarcastic Satirical, cynical, biting, ironical
Scanty scarce, infrequent, insufficient, meager, limited
Scrupulous Strict, precise, careful, conscientious
Secret Clandestine, hidden, confidential, unrevealed,
undisclosed, disguised
Sensational Lurid, exciting, stirring
Sentimental Romantic, emotional, maudlin
Shake Tremble, flutter, quiver, quake, vibrate
Sham Imitation, counterfeit, make-believe, spurious
Shame Disgrace, dishonor, humiliation, ignominy
Shun Avoid, evade, elude, eschew
Solitary Lonely, isolated, sole, lone
Sorry Grieved, sorrowful, remorseful, apologetic
Strenuous Energetic, ardent, zealous, persevering,
Superfluous speedy, quick, fleet
Tale Story, yarn, anecdote, fable
Tedious Dull, dry, wearisome, uninteresting
Tepid Lukewarm, warm, mild
Tidy Neat, spruce, trim methodical
Trifling Trivial, unimportant, frivolous
Tyranny Despotism, absolutism, cruelty
Ugly Unlovely, coarse, pain, shapeless
Uncouth Ungainly, clumsy, rough, rude, unpolished
Unique Sole, lone, unusual, rare, unparalleled, unsurpassed
Unmistakable Certain, sure, positive, clear
Urbane Polite, courteous, civil, mannerly
Vague Obscure, ambiguous, confused
Valiant Brave, valorous, undaunted
Vessel utensil, jar, vase, bowl, sailing vessel, ship
Vigilant Cautious, heedful, chary, prudent, alert,
attentive, wary
Vindictive Revengeful, resentful, avenging, evaluative.
Vivacious Sprightly, animated, lively, gay, brisk
Voluble Talkative, fluent, glib, loquacious
Wane Decrease, decline, abate, subside, ebb fail
Want Wish, crave, covet, lack, need
Wanton Capricious, wayward, perverse, unchaste, immoral
Wily Crafty, artful, sly, subtle
Witty Clever, smart, humorous
Wordy Verbose, prolix, diffuse, digressive
Worldly Earthly, mundane, carnal
Wretched Sod, pitiable, unhappy, miserable, mean, contemptible
Wreck Ruin, destroy
Yearn Crave, desire
Young Youthful, juvenile, childlike, immature
Yield Surrender, submit
Zeal Eagerness, passion, fervour, enthusiasm
Zenith Summit, pinnacle, top
Zest Gusto, enjoyment, enthusiasm, exhilaration

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Old Thursday, September 18, 2008
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Absurd : rational, sensible, judicious, san
Active : passive, ideal, indolent
Abundance : Scarcity
Advantages : Disadvantages
Addicted : Averse, disinclined
Adequate : Inadequate, deficient
Admire : Loathe, despise
Adorn ; Disfigure, deform
Adversity ; Prosperity, felicity, bliss
Amiably ; surely, displeasing
Afraid ; fearless, bold, cool, confident
Anger ; Forbearance, patience
Alarm ; Composure, calmness
Ancestor ; Descendant
Alike ; Different, distinct, separate
Appetite ; distaste, surfeit
Alive ; Dead, insensible
Arrive ; depart, leave
Alleviate ; Aggravate, embitter, heighten
Assemble ; Disperse, adjourn
Allow ; Disallow, deny, inhibit
Attack ; Defence
Amplify ; Abridge, condense
Beautiful ; Ugly, repulsive
Arrest ; Liberate, release, set free.
Begin ; End, conclude, stop
Associate ; Separate, divide, avoid
Belief ; Disbelief
Attraction ; Repulsion
Bluff ; Polite, suave, smooth
Awkward ; Skilful, graceful
Benevolent ; Malevolent
Brave ; Cowardly
Bind ; Loose, set free
Bleak ; Cheerful, bright, sheltered
Calm ; Stormy, boisterous
Bright ; Dim, dark, dull, stupid
Cavity ; Bulge, protuberance
Bottom ; Top
Country ; Town
Candid ; evasive, foxy, tricky
Concord ; Discord
Clean ; Defile, soil
Cooperate ; Counteract, nullify
Confess ; Deny, renounce
Criminal ; Innocent, moral
Contempt ; Respect, esteem, reverence
Danger ; Safety
Courtesy ; Rudeness
Day ; Night
Cunning ; Artless, Naïve
Delightful ; Distressing, horrid
Dark ; Bright, lucid
Defeat ; Victory
Delicious ; Bitter, nauseous
Despair ; Hope
Delay ; Haste
Difficult ; Easy, obliging
Demolish ; Construct, restore
Drunk ; Sober, temperate
Difference ; Resemblance, likeness, identity
Economy ; Extravagance
Discourage ; Encourage, hearten, cheer
Egoism ; Altruism
Docile ; Ungovernable, headstrong
Entrance ; Exit
Doubt ; confidence, trust
Fact ; Fiction
Endure ; Perish, reject
Falsehood ; Truth
Enemy ; Friend, ally, champion
Fame ; Shame, dishonor
Excess ; Deficiency, dearth
Formidable ; Weak, helpless
Failure ; Success
Gain ; Loss
Faithful ; Faithless, untrue
Greatness ; Smallness
Fickle ; Constant, steady, reliable
Harmony ; Discord, conflict
Fortunate ; Unfortunate, disastrous
Idle ; Busy
Generous ; Stingy, ignoble
Hurry ; Delay
Glory ; Shame
Knowledge ; Ignorance
Help ; Hinder, hamper, weaken
Likely Unlikely, dubious
Hypocrisy ; Sincerity, frankness, candor
Loss ; Profit
Impotent ; Unimportant, obscure
Maximum ; Minimum
Join ; Separate, sever, disconnect
Major ; Minor Servant
Justice ; Injustice, inequity
Merit ; Demerit
Large ; small, little, petty
Optimist ; Pessimist
Light ; Darkness, shade
Pleasure ; Pain, displeasure
Love ; Hatred
Peace ; War
Loyalty ; Disloyalty
Old ; Young, new, recent
Safety ; Danger
Solid ; Liquid, hollow
Memory ; Forgetfulness, Oblivion
Open ; Shut, closed
Motion ; Rest
Prose ; Poetry
Native ; Alien, Foreign
Pride ; Humility, modesty
Punishment ; Reward
Rear ; Front
Normal ; Abnormal, Anomalous
Summit ; Base
Presence ; Absence
Take ; Give
Positive ; Negative
Terse ; Diffuse, wordy
Permission ; Prohibition, refusal
Use ; Abuse
Persuade ; Dissuade, discourage, impede
Venerate ; Despise
Plentiful ; Scanty, scarce, meager
Virtue ; Vice
Polite ; Impolite, crude, boorish
War ; Peace
Power ; Weakness, impotence
Weal ; Woe
Progress ; Retrogress, halt, stop
Win ; Lose, miss
Prohibit ; permit, allow, sanction
Smile ; Frown
Queer ; Common, usual, regular
Victory ; Defeat
Real ; Unreal, apparent, imaginary
Recovery ; Relapse
Reluctant ; Eager, avid, desirous
Renounce ; Assert, maintain
Restrain ; Incite, impel, loose, liberate
Talkative ; Silent
Savage ; Tame, civilized
Liberty ; Restraint
Skillful ; Unskillful, clumsy, inept
Severe ; Tolerant, lenient, lax
Slow ; fast, alert, lively
Stop ; Start, begin, initiate
Stupidity ; Intelligence, acuteness, keenness
Supernatural ; Natural, usual, commonplace
System ; Chaos, disorder, confusion
Ignorant ; Wise, learned, aware, informed
Transient ; Perpetual, permanent, lasting
Truth ; Untruth, lie, falsehood
Union ; Separation, division, divorce
Verbosity ; Conciseness, terseness
Voluntary ; Involuntary, coerced, forced
Wealth ; Poverty, indigence, destitution
Wholesome ; Unwholesome, noxious
Wit ; Dullness, stolidity, stupidity
Happiness ; Sadness, unhappiness, adversity
Care ; Neglect, carelessness, indifference, needlessness
Conscious ; Unconscious, unaware, oblivious.
Comfortable ; Uncomfortable, miserable, cheerless
Eager ; Listless, apathetic, phlegmatic
Grief ; Comfort, solace, joy, exultation
Meek ; Arrogant, Domineering, Proud, blustering
Object ; Acquiesce, Assent, Applaud
New ; Old, Familiar, Common, Obsolete
Neat ; Filthy, Disorderly, Slovenly
Permanent ; Temporary, transient, transitory
Modest ; Immodest, Ambitious, Indecent, Conceited
Praise ; Blame, denounce, censure, decry
Prudence ; Imprudence, folly, indiscretion
Rebellious ; Submissive, acquiescent, conforming, docile
Rest ; Bustle, motion, commotion, disturbance
Sensibility ; Insensibility, deadness, numbness

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