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  #11  
Old Thursday, May 10, 2007
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Default Class # 11

Have + Participle

Have, has or had + participle express duration of time






Problem 1 : Duration ~ have + participle

Remember Have + participle means that the activity is extended over a period of time. Have + participle is especially common with adverb of duration such as since and for.


Quote:
Structure : S + Have + participle + duration
Quote:
Expression : The english language has changed since Shakespeare`s time


Avoid usin the participle instead of Have + participle. Avoid using a verb word or a past form instead of a participle.

Examples :

Incorrect : We have live in seattle for five years
Correct : We have lived in seattle for five years

Incorrect : I have took this medication since 1985
Correct : I have taken this medication since 1985




Problem 2 : Duration ~ have + been + participle


Remember that have + been + participle means that a recently completed activity was extended over a period of time

Remember that it is a passive. The actor is not known or not important

Quote:
Structure : Have + been + participle


Quote:
Expression : She has been accepted to state university
Avoid using Have + participle instead of have + been + participleiin a passive pattern. Avoid using been + participle


Examples :

Incorrect : The party has planned for two weeks
Correct : The party has been planned for two weeks

Incorrect : We been taught how to cook
Correct : We have been taught how to cook




Problem 3 : Prediction ~ will have + participle

Remember that will have followed by a participle and a future adverb expresses a prediction for a future activity or event.

Quote:
Structure : adverb (future) + S + will have + participle
Quote:
Expression : By the year 2009, researchers will have discovered a cure for cancer


Avoid using will instead of will have


Examples :

Incorrect : You will finish your homework by the time the movie starts
Correct : You will finished your homework by the time the movie starts

Incorrect : Jamil will left by five o` clock
Correct : Jamil will have left by five o` clock




Problem 4 : Unfullfilled desires in the past ~ had hoped

Remember that had hoped expresses a hope in the past that did not happen

Quote:
Structure : S + had hoped + that + S + would + verb word


Quote:
Expression : We had hoped that she would change her mind


Avoid using incorrect pattern

Examples :

Incorrect : We had hoped him staying longer
Correct : We had hoped that he would stay longer

Incorrect : His father had hoped that he go into business with him
Correct : His father had hoped that he would go into business with him
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  #12  
Old Tuesday, May 22, 2007
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Default Class # 12 (part A)

Pronouns



Problem 1 : Subject pronouns

Remember that personal pronouns used as the subject of a sentence or clause should be subject case pronouns.

Quote:
Structure : pronoun (subject) + V
Quote:
Expression : If the weather is good , Ellen and I will go to the beach


Remember that the following pronouns are subject pronouns :

I
You
She
He
It
We
They

Avoid using an object pronoun as a subject

Examples :

Incorrect : When he comes back from vacation , Bob and me plan to look for another apartment
Correct : When he comes back from vacation , Bob and I plan to look for another apartment

Incorrect : Frank and us are going to join the same fraternity
Correct : Frank and we are going to join the same fraternity




Problem 2 : Subject pronouns is complement position

Remember that in complement position after the verb BE , a subject pronoun must be used.

Quote:
Structure : It + Be + pronoun (subject)
Quote:
Expression : It is he whom the committee has named


Avoid using an object pronoun instead of a subject pronoun after the verb BE.


Examples :

Incorrect : It was her whom everyone wanted to win
Correct : It was she whom everyone wanted to win

Incorrect : Is it them at the door again
Correct : Is it they at the door again




Problem 3 : Object pronouns

Remember that personal pronouns used as the complement of a sentence or clause should be object case pronouns.

Quote:
Structure : S + V + pronoun (object)
Quote:
Expression : They asked us , Jane and me , whether we were satisfied.
Remember that the following pronouns are object pronouns :

me
you
her
him
it
us
them

Avoid using a subject pronoun as an object.

Quote:
Structure : Let + Pronoun (object) + V


Quote:
Expression : Let us (you and me) try to reach an agreement.


Avoid using a subject pronoun after let.

Examples :

Incorrect : He always help my wife and I with our tax returns.
Correct : He always helps my wife and me with our tax returns.

Incorrect : The bus leaves Ted and she at the corner.
Correct : The bus leaves Ted and her at the corner.





Problem 4 : Object pronoun after prepositions

Remember that personal pronouns used as the object of a preposition should be object case pronouns.

Quote:
Structure : preposition + pronoun (object)
Quote:
Expression : I would be glad to take a message for her
Remember that the following prepositions are commonly used with object pronouns :

among
between
for
from
of
to
with


Avoid using a subject pronoun instead of an object pronoun after a preposition.


Examples :

Incorrect : Among we men, It was he who always acted as the interpreter.
Correct : Among us men, It was he who always acted as the interpreter.

Incorrect : Just between you and I , this isn`t a very good price.
Correct : Just between you and me , this isn`t a very good price.
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  #13  
Old Wednesday, May 23, 2007
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Default Class # 12 (part B)

Problem 5 : Possessive pronouns before -ing forms

Remember that possessive pronouns are used before -ing forms.

The following are possessive pronouns :

my
yourr
her
his
its
our
your
their

Quote:
Structure : S + V ph / V + pronoun (possessive) + -ing form


Quote:
Expression : We can count on her helping us OR He regretted their misunderstanding him


Avoid using subject or object pronouns between the verb and the -ing form

Examples :

Incorrect : We don`t understand why you object to him coming with us
Correct : We don`t understand why you object to his coming with us

Incorrect : He is suprised by you having to pay for the accident
Correct : He is suprised by your having to pay for the accident






Problem 6 : Possessive pronouns before parts of the body

Remember that possessive pronouns are used before nouns that identify a part of the body

Quote:
Structure : pronoun (possessive) + noun (part of body)
Quote:
Expression : He hurt his arm


Avoid using the other forms of pronoun instead of a possessive pronoun.

Examples :

Incorrect : How did you twist the ankle ?
Correct : How did you twist your ankle ?

Incorrect : Does Alice color the hair ?
Correct : Does Alice color her hair ?






Problem 7 : Relative pronouns that advert persons and things

Remember that who is used to refer to persons , and which is used to refer to things.

Quote:
Structure : Someone + who
Quote:
Expression : She is the secretary who works in the international office


Avoid using which instead of who in reference to a person

Quote:
Structure : Something + Which


Quote:
Expression : This is the new typewriter which you ordered
Avoid using who instead of which in reference of a thing

Examples :

Incorrect : The student which receives the highest score will be awarded a scholarship
Correct : The student who receives the highest score will be awarded a scholarship

Incorrect : Who is the man which asked the question ?
Correct : Who is the man who asked the question ?





Problem 8 : Relative pronouns that refer to persons

Remember that both who and whom are used to refer to persons. Who is used as the subject of a sentence or a clause. Whom is used as the complement of a sentence or a clause. Whom is often used after a preposition as the object of the preposition.

Quote:
Structure : Who + V


Quote:
Expression : Everyone who took the tour was impressed by the paintings
Avoid using whom as the subject of a verb

Quote:
Structure : Whom + S + V


Quote:
Expression : He was the only Pakistani whom I saw at the conference.
Avoid using who instead of whom before a subject and a verb.

Examples :

Incorrect : I asked him who he was calling
Correct : I asked him whom he was calling

Incorrect : I know the candidate whom was elected.
Correct : I know the candidate who was elected.





Problem 9 : Reflexive pronouns

Remember that reflexive pronouns may be used when both the subject and the complement refer to the same person or thing. Reflexive pronouns are used as the complement of a sentence or a clause or as the object of a preposition.

Quote:
Structure : S + V + pronoun (reflexive)
Quote:
Expression : Some language learners can correct themselves
Avoid using object pronouns or possessive pronouns instead of reflexive pronouns.

Examples :

Incorrect : Be careful or you will hurt to you
Correct : Be careful or you will hurt yourself

Incorrect : I had to teach me to swim
Correct : I had to teach myself to swim.





Problem 10 : Reciprocal pronouns

Remember that the reciprocal pronoun phrase each other may be used when the plural subject and complement refer to the same persons or things, and they are performing a reciprocal (mutual) act.

Quote:
Structure : S + V + pronoun (reciprocal)
Quote:
Expression : His sister and he visits each other about once a week
Remember that each other is used to express mutual acts for all persons. one another is also correct .


Examples :

Incorrect : Family members love to each other
Correct : Family members love each other

Incorrect : They will never find each another at this crowded airport.
Correct : They will never find each other at this crowded airport.
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  #14  
Old Friday, June 01, 2007
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Many good wishes and prayer for people like u. I is a 12 days perfect course.
keep it up.
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  #15  
Old Thursday, June 07, 2007
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@ Hayat

Thank u very much bro, Ur prayers worth alot to me. MOreover, Course has not accomplished yet. It will be consist of 35 classes.

Take care,
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  #16  
Old Tuesday, June 12, 2007
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Default Class # 13 (part A)

Noun


Problem 01: Count nouns

Remember that count nouns have both singular and plural forms. Plural numbers can precede count nouns but non-count nouns.

There are several categories of count nouns that can help you organize your study. Some of them are listen here.

1. Names of persons, their relationship , and their occupations:

One boy ------------------------ two boys
One friend -------------------- two friends

2. Name of animals , plants , insects :

One dog ------------------------ two dogs
One flower --------------------- two flowers

3. Name of things with a definite , individual shape :

One car ------------------------- two cars
One room ---------------------- two rooms

4. Units of measurement :

One inch ------------------------ two inches
One pound --------------------- two pounds

5. Units of classification in society :

One family --------------------- two families
One language --------------- two languages

6. Containers of non-count solids , liquids , pastes and gases :

One bottle ----------------------- two bottles
One tube ------------------------- two tubes

7. A limited number of abstract concept :

One Idea ------------------------ Two ideas
One invention ---------------- two inventions




Quote:
Structure : Number (plural) + Noun (count-plural)
Quote:
Expression : Sixty years

Avoid using a singular count noun with a plural number.


Examples :

Incorrect : We have twenty dollar left
Correct : We have twenty dollars left

Incorrect : The temperature has been risen ten degree in two hours.
Correct : The temperature has been risen ten degrees in two hours.



Problem 02 : Non-count nouns


Remember that non-count nouns have only one form. They are used in agreement with singular verbs. The word ' the ' does not precede them.

There are categories of non-count nouns that can help you organize your study. Some of them are listed here.

1. Name of food staples that can be purchased in various forms :

Bread
meat
butter

2. Name of construction materials that can change shape , depending on what is made :

Wood
Iron
Grass

3. Name of the liquids that can change shape , depending on the shape of the container :

Oil
Tea
Milk

4. Name of the natural substances that can change shape , depending on natural laws :

steam , water , ice
smoke , ashes
oxygen

5. Name of the substances with many small parts :

rice
sand
sugar

6. Name of groups of things that have different sizes and shapes :

Clothing (a coat , a shirt etc)
furniture (a table , a bed etc)
luggage (a suitcase , a trunk etc)

7. Name of the languages :

Arabic
French
Spanish

8. Name of abstract concepts , often with ending -ness , -ance , -ence , -ity

Beauty
ignorance
peace

9. Most -ing forms :

learning
shopping
working



Quote:
Structure : noun (non-count) + verb (singular)
Quote:
Expression : Friendship is important
Avoid using the before a non-count noun. Avoid using a plural verb with a non-count noun.


Examples :

Incorrect : Nazia speaks the punjabi at home
Correct : Nazia speaks punjabi at home

Incorrect : Bread are expensive in the grocery store on the corner.
Correct : Bread is expensive in the grocery store on the corner.
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  #17  
Old Monday, June 18, 2007
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Default Class # 13 (Part B)

Problem 3 : Nouns with count and non-count meanings

Remember that some nouns may be used as count or as non-count nouns depending on their meanings. Materials and abstract concepts are non-count nouns, but they may be used as count nouns to express specific meanings.


Count noun ------------- Specific meaning ------------- Non-Count noun -------------- General meaning


an agreement ------------ an occasion or --------------------- agreement --------------------- abstract concept
agreements ---------------- a document --------------------------------------------------------------- all agreement

a bone ----------------------- a part of a ------------------------------ bone ----------------------------- Construction
bones ------------------------- skeleton ---------------------------------------------------------------------- material

a business ------------------ a company --------------------------- business ----------------------- abstract concept
businesses ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- all business transactions

a cloth / cloths-------------- a piece of cloth --------------------- cloth -------------------------- Construction material

a fire/ fires --------------------- an event ------------------------------- fire ----------------------------- material

a light / lights ----------------- a lamp -------------------------------- light ------------------------- the absense of darkness

a success ----------------- an achievement --------------------- Success ----------------------- abstract concept
Successes ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- all success

a thought ----------------------- an idea ------------------------------ thought ------------------------ abstract concept
thoughts -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- all thought

A war / wars ----------------- a specific war ---------------------- War ------------------------- the general act of war



Quote:
Structure 1 : a document

Expression : I have a paper due monday

Structure 2 : Construction material

Expression : Let`s use paper to make the present
Avoid using count nouns with specific meanings to express the general meaning of non-count nouns.


Examples :


Incorrect : She needs to find a work
Correct : She needs to find work. (employment)

Incorrect : A war is as old as mankind
Correct : War is as old as mankind. (the act of war)






Problem 4 : Count and non-count nouns with similar meanings

Remember that there are pairs of nouns with similar meanings, but one is a count noun and the other is a non-count noun.


Count noun ---------------------------------------- Non- count noun


a climate ----------------------------------------------- Weather
climates

a laugh ------------------------------------------------- laughter
laughs

a human being -------------------------------------- humanity
human beings

a job ----------------------------------------------------- work
jobs

a man -------------------------------------------------- mankind
men

a person ---------------------------------------------- people
persons

a sunbeam ------------------------------------------ sunlight
sunbeams ------------------------------------------- sunshine

a snowflake ----------------------------------------- snow
snowflakes



Quote:
Structure : a + noun (count)

Expression : The shape of a snowflake is unique
Avoid using a with a non-count noun instead of a singular count noun.


Examples :


Incorrect : California has a good weather.
Correct : California has good weather.
Or
California has a good climate.


Incorrect : A laughter is the best medicine
Correct : Laughter is the best medicine
Or
A laugh is the best medicine




Problem 5 : Non-count nouns that are count nouns in other language


Remember that many nouns which are count nouns in other languages may be non-count nouns in English. Some of the most troublesome have been listed for you here.

Advice
anger
courage
damage
equipment
fun
homework
ignorance
information
knowledge
leisure
luck
money
music
news
patience
permission
poetry
progress
poverty



Quote:
Structure : Noun (non - count)

Expression : Did you do your homework ?
Avoid using a or an before non - count nouns.


Examples :


Incorrect : Do you have an information about it ?
Correct : Do you have information about it ?

Incorrect : A news was released about the hostages.
Correct : News was released about the hostages.




Problem 6 : Singular and plural expression of non-count nouns


Remember that the following singular and plural expressions are idiomatic .


a piece of advice ------------------------------------------------- two pieces of advice
a piece of bread -------------------------------------------------- two pieces of bread
a piece of equipment ------------------------------------------- two pieces of equipment
a piece of jewelry ------------------------------------------------ two pieces of jewelry
a piece of luggage ----------------------------------------------- two pieces of luggage
a piece of mail ---------------------------------------------------- two pieces of mail
a piece of music ------------------------------------------------- two pieces of music
a piece of news -------------------------------------------------- two pieces of news
a loaf of bread ---------------------------------------------------- two loaves of bread
an ear of corn ----------------------------------------------------- two ears of corn
a bar of soap ------------------------------------------------------ two bars of soap
a bolt of lightning ------------------------------------------------ two bolts of lightning
a clap of thunder ------------------------------------------------- two claps of thunder
a gust of wind ----------------------------------------------------- two gusts of wind


Quote:
Structure : a + singular + of + noun (non-count)

Expression : A folk song is a piece of popular music

OR

Structure : number + plural + of + noun (non-count)

Expression : I ordered twelve bars of soap
Avoid using the non-count noun without the singular or plural idiom to express a singular or plural.


Examples :


Incorrect : Each furniture in this display is on sale for half price .
Correct : Each piece of furniture in this display is on sale for half price .

Incorrect : This is a limit of two carry-on luggages for each passenger.
Correct : This is a limit of two pieces of carry-on luggages for each passenger.
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Old Wednesday, June 27, 2007
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Default Class # 13 (Part C)

Problem 7 : Classification ~ kind and type

Remember that kind and type express classification.


Quote:
Structure : kinds / types + of + noun (plural & non-count)

Expression : Cable TV has many different kinds of shows

OR

Dr. Idress gives several types of homework

AND

Structure : one + kind / type + of + noun (singular & non-count)

Expression : one kind of show is news

OR

One type of homework is a lab report


Avoid using kind of and type of with a plural count noun. Avoid using kind and type without of.


Examples :

Incorrect : There are two kind of Coke now.
Correct : There are two kinds of Coke now.

Incorrect : Are you looking for a special kinds of car ?
Correct : Are you looking for a special kind of car ?






Problem 8 : -ing and infinitive subjects

Remember that either an -ing form or an infinitive may be used as the subject of a sentence or a clause.


Quote:
Structure : S (ing) + V

Expression : Reading quickly and well requires practice

AND

Structure : S (infinitive) + V

Expression : To read a foreign language is even more difficult.

Avoid using a verb word instead of an -ing or an infinitive in the subject.Avoid using to with an -ing form .


Examples :


Incorrect : The sneeze spreads germs.
Correct : To sneeze spreads germs.
OR
sneezing spreads germs.


Incorrect : Shoplift is considered a serious crime.
Correct : To shoplift is considered a serious crime.
OR
Shoplifting is considered a serious crime.






Problem 9 : Qualifying phrases with -ing nouns


Remember that an -ing form may be used as a noun. In some grammar books, this -ing form is called a gerund.

We have already classified most -ing forms as non-count nouns, but there is one pattern in which the is used with a non-count -ing noun. When a prepositional phrase qualifies the noun, that is, adds specific information, the may be used with an -ing noun subject.




Quote:
Structure : the + -ing + of noun (qualifying phrase)

Expression : The reading of technical material requires knowledge of technical terms.

Remember that -ing forms are usually non-count nouns adn that non-count nouns are not preceded by the unless followed by a qualifiying phrase.



Examples :

Incorrect : Correcting of errors in a language class can be embarrassing.
Correct : The correcting of errors in a language class can be embarrassing.


Incorrect : Direct dialing of overseas numbers is now common.
Correct : The direct dialing of overseas numbers is now common.




Problem 10 : Nominal that clause


Remember that sometimes the subject of a verb is a single noun. Other times it is a long noun phrase or a long noun clause.

One example of a long noun clause is the nominal that clause. Like all clauses, the nominal that clause has a subject and verb. The nominal that clause functions as the main subject of the main verb which follow it.



Quote:
Structure : Nominal that Clause S + V

Expression : That Vitamin C prevents colds is well known.


Examples :

Incorrect : It is that we need to move is sure.
Correct : That we need to move is sure.

Incorrect : That is not fair seems obvious.
Correct : That it is not fair seems obvious.

Incorrect : That it is that she has known him for a long time influenced her decision.
Correct : That she has known him for a long time influenced her decision.
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Default Class # 14

Class # 14


Adjectives


Adjectives and adjective phrases describe nouns. They may be used to descrbe quantity (number or amount) ; sufficiency (number or amount needed) ; consecutive order (order in a sequance) ; quality (appearance) ; and emphasis (importance or force).

Most adjectives and adjective phrases have only one form in English. They do not change forms to agree with the nouns they describe.




Part # A

Determiners

Determiners are a special kind of adjective. Like other adjectives , determiners describe nouns. But unlike other adjectives, determiners must agree with the nouns they describe. In other words, you must know whether the noun is a singular count noun or a plural count noun or a non-count noun before you can choose the correct determiner. the noun determines which adjectives form you use.




Problem 1 : Determiners ~ a and an

Remember that both a and an mean one. They are used before singular count nouns. A is used before words that begin with a consonant sound. Where as An is used before words that begin with a vowel sound OR you can consider An used before words that begin with a word sounds Ah.


Quote:
Structure : A + consonant sound

Expression : A foriegn student must have an I-20 form

Structure : An + Vowel sound

Expression : An international student must have an I-20 form



Avoid confusing vowel and consonant spellings with vowel and consonant sounds. U is a vowel spelling, but it has the consonant sound Y in words like use, universal , usual, etc. H is a consonant spelling, but it has a vowel sound in words like historical, hour, and honor, but not in words like history and horror.





Examples :

Incorrect : It is a big decision to choose an university.
Correct : It is a big decision to choose a university.


Incorrect : Do you have an use for this empty box ?
Correct : Do you have a use for this empty box ?










Problem 2 : Non-count nouns with qualifying phrases ~ the

Remember the is used with count nouns. You have also learned that the can be used before an -ing noun and a qualifying phrase.

In addition, the can be used before a non-count noun with a qualifying phrase.





Quote:
Structure : The + non-count noun + Qualifying phrase

Expression : The art of the Middle ages is on display.


Examples :

Incorrect : Poetry of Carl Sandburg is being read at the student union on Friday.
Correct : The poetry of Carl Sandburg is being read at the student union on Friday.


Incorrect : Science of genetic engineering is not very old.
Correct : The science of genetic engineering is not very old.









Problem 3 : meaning all

Remember that no article before a non-count or a plural count noun has the same meaning as all.



Quote:
Structure : all + noun (non-count) + verb (singular)

Expression : All art is interesting

OR : Art is interesting

Structure : all + noun (count-plural) + verb (plural)

Expression : All trees prevent erosion

OR : Trees prevent erosion

Avoid using the before the noun to express all.



Examples :

Incorrect : I like the music
Correct : I like music


Incorrect : The mathematics is easy for me
Correct : Mathematics is easy for me






Problem 4 : No meaning not any

Remember that no meanss not any. It may be used with a singular or plural count noun or with a non-count noun.



Quote:
Structure : no + noun (count singular) / (count plural) + verb (singular) / (plural)

Expression : No tree / trees grows above the tree line / grow above the tree line

Structure : no + noun (non-count) + verb (singular)

Expression : No art is on display today
Avoid using the negative not or none intead of no. Avoid using a singular verb with a plural count noun.




Examples :

Incorrect : There is not reason to worry
Correct : There is no reason to worry.


Incorrect : We have not a file under the name Shahzeb
Correct : We have no file under the name Shahzeb


Incorrect : None of cheating will be tolerated
Correct : No cheating will be tolerated.










to be continued
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Old Saturday, June 25, 2011
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Kindly elaborate it


Quote:
Problem 2 : Verb that require an infinitive in the complement
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