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Old Thursday, April 12, 2007
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Default Structure and Written expression

Structure and Written expression

Class # 01

Problem with verbs

Generalizations : Main Verbs

In english , a sentence must have a main verb. A sentence may or may not have an auxiliary verb.

Problem 1 : Missing main verb

Remember that every English sentence must have a subject and a main verb

Quote:
Structure : S + V
Quote:
expression : The sound of the dryer (s) bothers (v) my concentration (o)
Avoid using an-ing form , an infinitive , an auxiliary verb , or another part of speech instead of a main verb.

Examples :

Incorrect : The prettiest girl in our class with long brown hair and brown eyes
Correct : The prettiest girl in our class has long brown hair and brown eyes

Incorrect : In my opinion , too soon to make a decision
Correct : In my opinion , It is too soon to make a decision

Incorrect : The book that I lent you having a good bibliography.
Correct : The book that I lent you has a good bibliography.

Problem 2 : Verb that require an infinitive in the complement

Remember that the following verbs require an infinitive in the complement .

agree
appear
arrange
ask
claim
consent
decide
demand
deserve
expect
fail
forget
hesitate
hope
intend
learn
manage
mean
need
offer
plan
prepare
pretend
promise
refuse
seem
tend
threaten
wait
want

Quote:
Structure : S + V + C (infinitive) + M
Quote:
Expression : We (s) had planned (v) to leave (c) day before yesterday (m)
Avoid using an-ing form after the verb listed . Avoid using a verb word after want

Example :

Incorrect : He wanted speak with Mr . brown
Correct : He wanted to speak with Mr . brown

Incorrect : We demand knowing our status
Correct : We demand to know our status

Incorrect : The didnt intend to buying a car
Correct : The didnt intend to buy a car


Problem 3 : Verbs that require an-ing form in the complement


Remember that the following verbs require an - ing form in the complement :

admit
appreciate
avoid
complete
consider
delay
deny
discuss
enjoy
finish
keep
mention
miss
postpone
practice
quit
recall
recommend
reqret
risk
stop
suggest
tolerate
understand

Quote:
Structure : S + V + C (-ing) + M
Quote:
Expression : He (s) enjoys (v) traveling (c) by plane (m)
Avoid using an infinitive after the verbs listed
Forbid may be used with either an infinitive or an -ing complement , but forbid form is not idiomatic.

Example :

Incorrect : She is considering not to go
Correct : She is considering not going

Incorrect : We enjoyed talk with your friend
Correct : We enjoyed talking with your friend

Incorrect : Hank completed the writing his thesis this summer
Correct : Hank completed writing his thesis this summer

Problem 4 : Verb phrases that require an - ing form in the complement


Remember that the following verb phrases require an -ing form in the complement

approve of
be better off
cant help
count on
do not mind
forget about
get through
insist on
keep on
look forward to
object to
think about
think of

Quote:
Structure : S + V ph + C (-ing) + M
Quote:
Expression : She (s) forgot about (v ph) canceling (c) her appointment (m)
Avoid using an infinitive after the verb phrases listed . Avoid using a verb word after look forward to and object to.

Remember that the verb phrase BE likely does not require an -ing form but requires an infinitive in the complement.

Examples :

Incorrect : She is likely knowing
Correct : She is likely to know

Incorrect : Lets go to the movie when you get through to study
Correct : Lets go to the movie when you get through studying

Incorrect : I have been looking forward to meet you
Correct : I have been looking forward to meeting you








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Old Thursday, April 12, 2007
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Default Class # 2

Problems with Tense

Problem 1 : Irregular past forms

Remember that past forms of the following irregular verbs are not the same as the participles :

Verb Word----------------Past Form----------------Participle

Be --------------------------- was / were ----------------been
Beat ------------------------ Beat -------------------------Beaten
Become --------------------Became --------------------Become
Begin ----------------------- Began ----------------------Begun
Bite --------------------------Bit ----------------------------Bitten
Blow ------------------------ Blew -------------------------Blown
Break -----------------------Broke ------------------------broken
Choose ---------------------chose-------------------------chosen
come ----------------------- came -------------------------come
do ---------------------------- did ---------------------------- done
draw -------------------------drew --------------------------drawn
drink -------------------------drank ----------------------- drunk
drive -------------------------drave ------------------------ driven
eat ---------------------------ate --------------------------- eaten
fall --------------------------- fell ---------------------------- fallen
fly --------------------------- flew -------------------------- flown
forget ----------------------- forgot ----------------------- forgotten
forgive------------------------forgave --------------------- forgiven
freeze -----------------------froze ------------------------- frozen
get ----------------------------got -------------------------gotten or got
give --------------------------gave ------------------------ given
go --------------------------- went ------------------------ gone
grow ------------------------ grew ------------------------ grown
hide -------------------------- hid ------------------------- hidden
know ------------------------knew ----------------------- known
ride -------------------------- rode ----------------------- ridden
run --------------------------- ran -------------------------- run
see -------------------------- saw ------------------------ seen
shake --------------------- shook ---------------------- shaken
show -----------------------showed -------------------- shown
shrink ----------------------shrank --------------------- shrunk
sing ------------------------ sang ----------------------- sung
speak ----------------------spoke ---------------------- spoken
steal ------------------------ stole ----------------------- stolen
swear ---------------------- swore ---------------------- sworn
swim ----------------------- swam ---------------------- swum
take ------------------------ took ------------------------ taken
throw ----------------------- threw ----------------------- thrown
wear ------------------------ wore ------------------------ woven
write ------------------------ wrote ---------------------- written

Irregular verbs

The verbs in roman type are verbs which are not very common in modern english but may be found in literature. When a verb has two possible forms and one is less usual than the other, the less usual one will be printed in roman.

Verb Word----------------Past Form----------------Participle


Abide ------------------------ Abode --------------------- Abode
Arise ------------------------ Arose ---------------------- Arisen
Awake ---------------- Awoke/ Awaked ------------- Awoken / Awaked
Bear ------------------------- Bore ----------------------- Borne
Beat ------------------------- Beat ----------------------- Beaten
Become -------------------Became-------------------- Become
Befall ------------------------ Befell --------------------- Befallen
Beget ----------------------- Begot --------------------- begotten
begin ----------------------- Began -------------------- begun
bend ------------------------ bent ---------------------- bent
bereave -------------------Breaved ------------------ Bereaved / bereft
Beseech ----------------- besought ------------------ Besought
bet ---------------------- betted / bet ---------------- betted / bet
bid (=command)--------- bade ----------------------- bidden
bid (=offer)------------------ bid ------------------------- bid
bind ------------------------- bound ---------------------- bound
bite -------------------------- bit ------------------------- bitten
bleed ----------------------- bled ----------------------- bled
blow ------------------------ blew ----------------------- blown
break ---------------------- broke ---------------------- broken
breed ----------------------- bred ----------------------- bred
bring ---------------------- brought --------------------- brought
build ----------------------- built ------------------------- built
burn ------------------ burned / burnt ------------------ burned / burnt
buy ----------------------- bought ----------------------- bought
cant ----------------------- could ------------------------ be able
catch --------------------- caught ---------------------- caught
choose ------------------- chose ----------------------- chosen
cleave ----------------- clove / cleft ------------------- cloven / cleft
cling ----------------------- clung ------------------------ clung
dare ------------------- dared / durst ------------------ dared / durst
dig ------------------------- dug --------------------------- dug
do -------------------------- did ---------------------------- done
draw ----------------------- drew --------------------------- drawn
dream ------------- dreamed / dreamt --------------- dreamed / dreamt
drive ----------------------- drove ------------------------- driven
fall --------------------------- fell --------------------------- fallen
feel -------------------------- felt --------------------------- felt
find ------------------------- found ------------------------- found
fly --------------------------- flew --------------------------- flown
forget --------------------- forgot ------------------------- forgotten
forsake ----------------- forsook ------------------------ forsaken
girl -------------------- girded / girt --------------------- girded / girt
give ----------------------- gave --------------------------- given
grow --------------------- grew --------------------------- grown
hang ----------------- hanged / hung ----------------- hanged / hung
have ----------------------- had --------------------------- had
hide ----------------------- hid --------------------------- hidden
know ---------------------- knew ------------------------- known
lay -------------------------- laid -------------------------- laid
Lead ----------------------- led --------------------------- led
leave ----------------------- left --------------------------- left
lie --------------------------- lay --------------------------- lain
lose ------------------------ lost -------------------------- lost
make --------------------- made ------------------------- made
may ----------------------- might ------------------------
mean ----------------- meant / ment ----------------- meant / ment
meet ----------------------- met ------------------------- met
ride ------------------------- rode ------------------------- ridden
ring ------------------------- rang ------------------------- rung
run ------------------------- ran ---------------------------- run
saw ---------------------- sawed ------------------------ sawed / sewn
shake ------------------- shook ------------------------- shaken
shall --------------------- should
shoot ---------------------- shot -------------------------- shot
sing ------------------------ sang ------------------------- sung
sit --------------------------- sat --------------------------- sat
sleep ----------------------- slept ------------------------ slept
show ---------------------- showed --------------------- shown
speak -------------------- spoke ------------------------ spoken
spring -------------------- sprang ----------------------- sprung
strive ----------------------- strove ---------------------- striven
swim ----------------------- swam --------------------- swum
take ------------------------ took ------------------------- taken
teach ---------------------- taught ---------------------- taught
tear ------------------------- tore -------------------------- torn
think ---------------------- thought --------------------- thought
throw ---------------------- threw ------------------------ thrown
thread ---------------------- trod ------------------------- trodden / trod
understand ------------ understood ------------------ understood
wake ------------------ waked / woke ----------------- waked / woken
weep ----------------------- wept ------------------------ wept
will ------------------------- would
win ------------------------- won ------------------------- won
write ----------------------- wrote ----------------------- written





Quote:
Structure : S + V (past)
Quote:
Expression : The concert (s) began (v) at eight o ` clock.
Avoid using a participle instead of a past for simple past statements

Examples :

Incorrect : They done it very well after they had practised
Correct : They did it very well after they had practised

Incorrect : Before she run the computer program , She had checked it out with her supervisor.
Correct : Before she ran the computer program , She had checked it out with her supervisor.

Incorrect : My nephew begun working for me about ten years ago.
Correct : My nephew began working for me about ten years ago.
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Old Thursday, April 12, 2007
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Default Class # 3

Modals

Modals are auxiliary , they are used with main verbs to give additional meaning to main verbs .

The most common modals are listed below , along with some of the additional meanings that they add to main verbs .

Can = Possibility , ability , permission
Could = Possibility , ability in the past
may = Probability , permission
might = probability
must = necessity , logical conclusion
shall = future with emphasis
should = advice , obligation , prediction
will = future
would = condition

Problem 1 : Modal + verb word

Remember that a modal is used with a verb word . A verb word is the dictionary form of the verb . In some grammar books , the verb word is called the bare (uncovered) infinitive because it appears without the word to . Verb words are very important in many patterns, they are used most often with modals.

Quote:
Structure : S + modal + verb word
Quote:
Expression : They (s) might (modal) visit (vw) us
Avoid using an infinitive or an -ing form instead of a verb word after a modal.

Examples :

Incorrect : After u show me the way , I can to go by myself
Correct : After u show me the way , I can go by myself

Incorrect : Our friends might stopping to see us on their way to california
Correct : Our friends might stop to see us on their way to california

Incorrect : The flight should to be on time
Correct : The flight should be on time

Incorrect : I would , if there is time , liking to make a phone call.
Correct : I would , if there is time , like to make a phone call.


Problem 2 : Logical conclusion ~ events in the past.

Remember that must is a modal. Must followed by the verb word have and a participle expresses a logical conclusion based on evidence. The conclusion is about an event that happened in the past .

Remember that an observation in the present may serve as the basis for a conclusion about something that happened in the past. for instance , " here is a message on my dest ". It may be concluded that . " my friend must have called me last night".

Quote:
Structure : S + must have + participle + past time
Quote:
Expression : She must have left early in the morning
Avoid using should or can instead of must . Avoid using a verb word instead of have and a participle when referring to events in the past.

Examples :

Incorrect : The streets are wet ; It should have rained last night
Correct : The streets are wet ; It must have rained last night

Incorrect : This pen won`t write ; It can have run out of ink (in the past)
Correct : This pen won`t write ; It must have run out of ink (in the past)

Incorrect : The ring that i was looking at is gone ; someone else must buy it
Correct : The ring that i was looking at is gone ; someone else must have bought it


Problem 3 : Logical conclusion ~ events in the present

Remember that must is a modal. Must followed by be and an-ing form or an adjective expresses a logical conclusion based on evidence. The conclusion is about an event that is happening now.

Quote:
Structure : S + must be + -ing + present time
Quote:
Expression : My friend must be calling now
Quote:
Structure : S + must be + adjective + present time
Quote:
Expression : He must be upset now
Avoid using a verb word instead of an -ing form after must be.

Examples :

Incorrect : The line is busy ; someone should be using the telephone now
Correct : The line is busy ; someone must be using the telephone now

Incorrect : He is talking walk ; he must have felt better now
Correct : He is talking walk ; he must be feeling better now

Incorrect : Sarah must get a divorce (now) because her husband is living in an apartment
Correct : Sarah must be getting a divorce (now) because her husband is living in an apartment

Problem 4 : Logical conclusions ~ events that repeat

Remember that must is a modal. Must is followed by a verb word expresses a logical conclusion based on evidence . The conclusion is about an event that happens repeatedly

Quote:
Structure : S + must + verb word + repeated time
Quote:
Expression : My friend must call often
Avoid using an infinitive or an -ing form instead of a verb word after must .

Examples :

Incorrect : The light is always out in her room at ten o` clock ; she must have go to bed early every night
Correct : The light is always out in her room at ten o` clock ; she must go to bed early every night

Incorrect : Our neighbours must having alot of money because they are always taking expensive trips
Correct : Our neighbours must have alot of money because they are always taking expensive trips

Incorrect : Her english is very good ; she must spoken it often
Correct : Her english is very good ; she must speak it often
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Old Thursday, April 12, 2007
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Default Class # 4

Problem 1 : Knowledge and ability ~ know and know how

Remember that know followed by a noun expresses knowledge

Quote:
Structure : S + know + noun
Quote:
Expression : I know the answer
Avoid using an infinitive after know

Remember that know how followed by an infinitive expresses ability

Quote:
Structure : S + know + how + infinitive
Quote:
Expression : I know how to answer the question
Examples :

Incorrect : If she knew to drive , she would lend her car
Correct : If she knew how to drive , she would lend her car

Incorrect : Do u know to type ?
Correct : Do u know how to type ?

Incorrect : Untill he came to the US to study , he didnt know to cook
Correct : Untill he came to the US to study , he didnt know how to cook

Problem 2 : Past custom ~ used to and be used to

Remember that used to is similar to a modal. Used to with a verb word means that a custom in the past has to continued .

Quote:
Structure : S + used to + verb word
Quote:
Expression : He used to live in the country
Avoid using a form of be after the subject , Avoid using the incorrect form use to.

Remember that BE used to with an -ing form means to be accustomed to

Quote:
Structure : S + BE + used to + -ing form
Quote:
Expression : He was used to living in the country
Avoid using a form to be after used to . Avoid using a verb word instead of an -ing form . Avoid using the incorrect form use to.

Examples :

Incorrect : I used to was studing at the university of southern california before i transferred here
Correct : I used to study at the university of southern california before i transferred here
OR
I was used to studing at the university of southern california before i transferred here

Incorrect : We use to go to the movies quite frequently
Correct : We used to go to the movies quite frequently
OR
We were used to going to the movies quite frequently

Problem 3 : Advisability ~ had better

Had better is similar to a modal. Although had appears to be a past but in case of had better expresses advice for the future .

Quote:
Structure : S + had better + verb word
Quote:
Expression : U had better go to the doctor
Avoid using an infinitive or a past form of a verb instead of a verb word. Avoid using dont instead of not

Examples :

Incorrect : U had better to hurry if u dont want to miss the bus
Correct : U had better hurry if u dont want to miss the bus

Incorrect : We had better made reservations so that we will be sure of getting a good table
Correct : We had better make reservations so that we will be sure of getting a good table

Incorrect : U had better dont go alone
Correct : U had better not go alone

Problem 4 : Preference ~ would rather

Remember that the phrase would rather is similiar to a modal. Although would rather appears to be a past, It expresses preference in present and future time.

Quote:
Structure : S + would rather + verb word
Quote:
Expression : I would rather drive
Negative sense

Quote:
Structure : S + would rather + not + verb word
Quote:
Expression : I would rather not drive
Avoid using an infinitive or an -ing form instead of a verb word

Examples :

Incorrect : She told me that she`d rather not to serve on the committee
Correct : She told me that she`d rather not serve on the committee

incorrect : If u dont mind , I`d rather not going
Correct : If u dont mind , I`d rather not go

Incorrect : Greg would rather has a pepsi than a beer
Correct : Greg would rather have a pepsi than a beer

Problem 5 : Preference for another ~ would rather that

Remember that when the preference is for another person or thing , would rather that introduces a clause . The other person or thing is the subject of the clause.

Although the verb is past tense , the preference is for present or future time

Quote:
Structure : S + would rather + that + S + verb (past)
Quote:
Expression : I would rather that you drove
Avoid using a present verb or a verb word instead of a past verb . Avoid using should and a verb word instead of a past verb.

Negative

Quote:
Structure : S + would rather + that + S + didn`t + verb word
Quote:
Expression : I would rather that u didn`t drive
Avoid using don`t instead of didn`t

Examples :

Incorrect : I`d rather that u dont do that
Correct : I`d rather that u dint do that

Incorrect : The dean would rather that students make appointments instead of dropping by.
Correct : The dean would rather that students made appointments instead of dropping by.

Incorrect : We`d rather that u should come tommorrow
Correct : We`d rather that u came tommorrow

Problem 6 : Negative imperatives

Remember that an imperative is expressed by a verb word.

Quote:
Structure : Please don`t + verb word
Quote:
Expression : Please don`t tell anyone
Avoid using an infinitive instead of a verb word

OR

Quote:
Structure : Would u pleasse not + verb word
Quote:
Expression : would u please not tell anyone
Avoid using an infinitive instead of a verb word . Avoid using dont after would u please.

Examples :

Incorrect : Would u please dont smoke
Correct : please dont smoke
OR
Would u please not smoke

Incorrect : Would u please not to be late
Correct : Please dont be late
OR
Would u please not be late
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Old Thursday, April 19, 2007
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Default Class # 5

Causative

Causatives are main verbs that cause people or machines to do things or cause things to change

They are listed below in order of the most forceful to the least forceful

make
get
have
let
help


Problem 1 : Causative " Make "

Remember that make can be used as a causative. In a causative , a person does not perform an action directly . The person causes it to happen by forcing another person to do it.

Quote:
Structure : S + make + some one + verb word
Quote:
Expression : His mother made him take his medicine
OR

Quote:
Structure : S + make + some thing + verb word
Quote:
Expression : I made the machine work
Avoid using an infinitive or an -ing form instead of a verb word after a person or thing in a causative with make.

Examples :

Incorrect : She made the baby to take a nap
Correct : She made the baby take a nap

Incorrect : Prof rogers didn`t make us typed up our lab reports.
Correct : Prof rogers didn`t make us type up our lab reports.

Incorrect : Patsy makes everyone doing his share around the house.
Correct : Patsy makes everyone do his share around the house.

Problem 2 : Causative "GET"

Remember that GET can be used as a causative. In a causative , a person does not perform an action directly.
GET has less force and authority than MAKE.

Quote:
Structure : S + get + some one + infinitive
Quote:
Expression : Let`s get ralph to go with us
OR

Quote:
Structure : S + get + some thing + participle
Quote:
Expression : Let`s get our car fixed first.

Avoid using a verb word instead of an infinitive after a person in a causative with GET.
Avoid using a verb word instead of an participle after things in a causative with GET.

Examples :

Incorrect : Do u think we can get karen takes us to San Diego ?
Correct : Do u think we can get karen to take us to San Diego ?

Incorrect : Noor got her mother`s wedding dress to alter so that it fit perfectly .
Correct : Noor got her mother`s wedding dress altered so that it fit perfectly .


Problem 3 : Causative " HAVE "

Remember that HAVE can also be used as a causative. In a causative . a person does not perform an action directly.
Have has even less force and authority than Get.

Quote:
Structure : S + have + some one + verb word
Quote:
Expression : My english teacher had us give oral reports
OR

Quote:
Structure : S + have + some thing + participle
Quote:
Expression : I want to have this book renewed please.
Avoid using an infinitive or an -ing form instead of verb word after a person in a causative with HAVE. Avoid using verb word or an infinitive instead of participle after a thing in a causative with HAVE.

Examples :

Incorrect : Shazia had a tooth fill
Correct : Shazia had a tooth filled

Incorrect : They had their lawyer to change their will
Correct : They had their lawyer change their will

Incorrect : I like the way u had the beautician done your hair
Correct : I like the way u had the beautician do your hair


Problem 4 : Causative " LET "

Remember that Let can also be used as a causative. In a causative . a person does not perform an action directly.With Let , a person gives permission for another person to do it.

Quote:
Structure : S + Let + some one + verb word
Quote:
Expression : His sister let him go to school
OR

Quote:
Structure : S + Let + some thing + verb word
Quote:
Expression : I am letting this machine cool
Avoid using an infinitive or an -ing form instead of verb word after a person or thing in a causative with LET.

Examples :

Incorrect : Prof Shah let us to write a paper instead of taking a final exam.
Correct : Prof Shah let us write a paper instead of taking a final exam.

Incorrect : When i was learning to drive , my dad let me using his car
Correct : When i was learning to drive , my dad let me use his car

Incorrect : Don`t let that bothers you
Correct : Don`t let that bother you


Problem 5 : Causative " HELP "



Remember that HELP can be used as a causative. In a causative . a person does not perform an action directly. With Help , a person assists another person to do it.

Quote:
Structure : S + Help + some one + verb word / infinitive
Quote:
Expression : He is helping me type / to type my paper.
Avoid using an -ing form instead of a verb word or infinitive after a person in a causative with HELP.

Examples :

Incorrect : Her husband always helps her that she does the laundry.
Correct : Her husband always helps her do / to do the laundry.

Incorrect : My teacher helped me getting this job
Correct : My teacher helped me get / to get this job
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Default Class # 6

Conditionals

Conditionals are statements with if or unless. They are opinions about the conditions (circumstances) that unfluence results, and opinions about the results.

There are two kinds of conditionals . In most grammar books , they are called real or factual conditionals and unreal or contrary-to-fact conditionals. Factual conditionals express absolute , scientific facts , probable results , or possible results. Contrary-to-fact conditionals express improbable or impossible results.

Problem 1 : Factual conditions ~ absolute , scientific results

Remember that absolute conditionals express scientific facts. Will and a verb word expresses the opinion that the results are absolutely certain.

Quote:
Structure : If + S + V (present) + , + S + V (present)
Quote:
Expression : If a catalyst is used , the reaction occurs more rapidly
OR

Quote:
Structure : If + S + V (present) + , + S + will + verb word
Quote:
Expression : If a catalyst is used , the reaction will occur more rapidly
Avoid using will and a verb word instead of the present verb in the clause after if.

Examples

Incorrect : If water freezes , it has become a solid
Correct : If water freezes , it becomes a solid
OR
If water freezes , it will become a solid

Incorrect : If light strikes a rough surface , it diffused
Correct : If light strikes a rough surface , it diffuses
OR
If light strikes a rough surface , it will diffuse


Problem 2 : Factual conditionals ~ probable results for the future

Remember that will and a verb word expresses the opinion that the results are absolutely certain. In order of more to less probable , use the following modals:
Will , Can , May.

Quote:
Structure : If + S + V (present) + , + S + will / may / can + verb word
Quote:
Expression : If we find her address , we will write her
OR

Quote:
Structure : S + will / may / can + verb word + if + S + V (present)
Quote:
Expression : We will write her if we find her address.
Avoid using the present verb instead of a modal and a verb word in the clause of result.

Examples :

Incorrect : If u put too much water in rice when u cook it , it got sticky
Correct : If u put too much water in rice when u cook it , it will get sticky
OR
It will get sticky If u put too much water in rice when u cook it .


Problem 3 : Factual Conditionals ~ possible results

Remember that although a past verb is used , the opinion is for future time . In order of most possible to least possible, use the following modals :
would
could
might

Quote:
Structure : If + S + V (past) + , + S + would / could / might + verb word
Quote:
Expression : If we found her address , we would / could / might right her
OR

Quote:
Structure : S + would / could / might + verb word + If + S + V (past)
Quote:
Expression : We would / could / might write her if we found her address
Avoid using would and a verb word instead of a past verb in an "if" clause.

Examples :

Incorrect : If Jim`s family meet karen , I m sure that they would like her
Correct : If Jim`s family met karen , I m sure that they would like her
OR
I m sure that they would like karen If Jim`s family met her.

Incorrect : If she would eat fewer sweets , she would lose weight
Correct : If she ate fewer sweets , she would lose weight
OR
She would lose weight If she ate fewer sweets.


Problem 4 : Factual Conditionals ~ probable changes in past results

Remember that the speaker or writer is expressing an opinion about the results of the past under different conditions or circumstances. In order of the most to the least probable , use of the following modals :

Would
Could
Might

Quote:
Structure : If + S + had + participle + , + S + would / could / might + have + participle
Quote:
Expression : If we had found her address , we would / could / might have written her
OR

Quote:
Structure : S + would / could / might + have + participle + If + S + had + participle
Quote:
Expression : we would / could / might have written her If we had found her address
Avoid using would have and a participle instead of had and a participle . Avoid using have as a participle.

Examples :

Incorrect : If we had the money , we would have bought a new stereo system
Correct : If we had had the money , we would have bought a new stereo system
OR
We would have bought a new stereo system If we had had the money

Incorrect : If her mother let her , Annie would have stayed longer
Correct : If her mother had let her , Annie would have stayed longer
OR
Annie would have stayed longer If her mother had let her


Problem 5 : Contrary-to-fact conditionals ~ impossible results were

Remember that the verb BE is always were in contrary-to-fact conditionals.

Quote:
Structure : If + S + were
Quote:
Expression : If the party were on Friday , we could go
Avoid changing were to agree with the subject in contrary-to-fact statements.

Examples :

Incorrect : If Barbara was really my friend , she would call me once in a while
Correct : If Barbara were really my friend , she would call me once in a while

Incorrect : This appartment be perfect if it were a little larger
Correct : This appartment would be perfect if it were a little larger
OR
if this appartment were a little larger , it would be perfect


Problem 6 : Contrary-to-fact conditionals ~ changes in conditions unless

Quote:
Structure : S + V + unless + she + V
Quote:
Expression : Laila won`t return unless she gets a scholarship

Remember that there is a subject and verb that determines the change in conditions after the connector unless

Avoid deleting unless from the sentence ; avoid deleting either the subject or the verb from the clause after unless.

Examples :

Incorrect : I can`t go I don`t get my work finished
Correct : I can`t go unless I get my work finished

Incorrect : They are going to get divorce unless he stopping drugs
Correct : They are going to get divorce unless he stops taking drugs
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Default Class # 7

Wishes

Wishes are desires, usually for change. The verb is used before a clause that expresses the desired change.



Problem 1 : Wishes ~ events in the past

Remember that although the verb WISH is in present tense , this pattern refers to desires in the past.

Quote:
Structure : S + Wish (present) + that + S + had / could have / would have + participle
Quote:
Expression : I wish that you had / could have / would have called yesterday
Examples :

Incorrect : Sam and tanya wish that they not gotten married so young.
Correct : Sam and tanya wish that they had not gotten married so young.
OR
Sam and tanya wish that they would not have gotten married so young


Incorrect : I wish that I subscribed to a newspaper a long time ago.
Correct : I wish that I had subscribed to a newspaper a long time ago.
Or
I wish that I would have subscribed to a newspaper a long time ago.
Or
I wish that I could have subscribed to a newspaper a long time ago.





Problem 2 : Wishes ~ events in the present and future

Remember that although the verb WISH is in present tense, this pattern refers to desires for present and future events. Remember that would expresses choice. Could means that there are conditions that influence the choice

Quote:
Structure : S + Wish (present) + that + S + Could / would + verb word
Quote:
Expression : I wish that u could / would call tommorrow
Avoid using will instead of could and would.


Examples :

Incorrect :We wish that u will change your mind about leaving tommorrow
Correct : We wish that u would / could change your mind about leaving tommorrow

Incorrect : She wishes that they are having another baby next year.
Correct : She wishes that they would / could have another baby next year





Problem 3 : Contrary-to-fact wishes ~ events that repeat


Remember that although the verb WISH is in the present tense , this pattern refers to desires for customs and events that repeat.

Quote:
Structure : S + Wish (present) + that + S + V (past)
Quote:
Expression : I wish that u called everyday
Avoid using this pattern to express desires in the past.


Examples :

Incorrect : I wish that we see the Rileys more often
Correct : I wish that we saw the Rileys more often
(we do not see Rileys often)

Incorrect : Susie wishes that she goes to school with her big brother
Correct : Susie wishes that she went to school with her big brother
( Susie doesnt go to school with her big brother)






Problem 4 : Contrary -to-fact Wishes ~ impossible results were

Remember that the verb BE is always were in wishes that are impossible.

Quote:
Structure : S + Wish (present) + that + S + were
Quote:
Expression : I wish that the party were on friday
Avoid changing were to agree with the subject.

Examples :

Incorrect : I wish that it was true
Correct : I wish that it were true
(it is not true)

Incorrect : She wishes that the trip is over
Correct : She wishes that the trip were over
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Default Class # 8

Subjunctives

Some verbs , nouns and expressions require a subjunctive. A subjunctive is a change in the usual form of the verb. A subjunctive is often a verb word in english.



Problem 1 : Importance ~ Subjunctive verbs

Remember that the following verbs are used before that and the verb word clause to express importance

ask
demand
desire
insist
prefer
propose
recommend
request
require
suggest
urge



Quote:
Structure : S + V + that + S + verb word
Quote:
Expression : Mr. Ali prefers that she speak with him personally
Avoid using a present or past verb instead of verb word. Avoid using a modal before the verbword

Note : The verb insist may be used in non-subjunctive patterns in the past tense. For instance : He insisted that I was wrong

Examples :

Incorrect :The doctor suggested that she will not smoke
Correct : The doctor suggested that she not smoke

incorrect : She insisted that they should give her a receipt
Correct : She insisted that they give her a receipt





Problem 2 : Importance ~ nouns derived from subjunctive verbs

Remember that the following nouns are used in this pattern :

demand
insistence
preference
proposal
recommendation
request
requirement
suggestion


Quote:
Structure : noun + that + S + verb word
Quote:
Expression : The recommendation that we be evaluated was approved
Avoid using a present or past verb instead of a verb word. Avoid using a modal before the verb word,

Example :

Incorrect : He complied with the requirement that all graduate students in education should write a thesis.
Correct : He complied with the requirement that all graduate students in education write a thesis.

Incorrect : She ignored the suggestion that she gets more exercise.
Correct : She ignored the suggestion that she get more exercise.





Problem 3 : Importance ~ impersonal expressions

Remember that the following adjectives are used in impersonal expressions

essential
imperative
important
necessary


Quote:
Structure : It is + adjective + infinitive
Quote:
Expression : It is important to verify the data
OR

Quote:
Structure : It is + adjective + that + S + verb word
Quote:
Expression : It is important that the data be verified
Avoid using a present verb instead of a verb word. Avoid using a modal before the verb word.

Examples :

Incorrect : It is not necessary that u must take an entrance examination to be admitted to an american university
Correct : It is not necessary to take an entrance examination to be admitted to an american university
or
It is not necessary that u take an entrance examination to be admitted to an american university

Incorrect : It is imperative that u are on time
Correct : It is imperative to be on time
or
It is imperative that u be on time
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Default Class # 9

Infinitives

An infinitive is to + the verb word

Problem 1 : Purpose ~ infinitives

Remember that an infinitive can express purpose. It is a short form of in order to.

Quote:
Structure : S + V + C + infinitive (purpose)
Quote:
Expression : Sara takes vitamins to feel better
Avoid expression purpose without the word to in the infinitive. Avoid using for instead of to.

Examples :

Incorrect : Wear several layers of clothing for keep warm
Correct : Wear several layers of clothing to keep warm

Incorrect : David has studied hard the succeed
Correct : David has studied hard to succeed
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Default Class # 10

Passives

A Passive changes the emphasis of a sentence. Usually in a passive, the event or result is more important than the person who causes it to happen

For Instance : Why? Because the person born, the person known , and the person or thing left are the important parts of the sentences.




Problem 1 : Passives ~ word order

Remember that in a passive sentence the actor is unknown or not important. The subject is not the actor.

Passive sentences are also common iin certain styles of scientific writing

Quote:
Structure : S + Be + Participle


Quote:
Expression : State university is located at the corner of college and third


Examples :

Incorrect : My wedding ring made of yellow and white gold
Correct : My wedding ring is made of yellow and white gold
( It is the ring , not the person who made the ring , that is important )

Incorrect : References not used in the examination room.
Correct : References are not used in the examination room.
( It is references , not the persons using them , that is important )





Problem 2 : Passives ~ Agent

Remember that in a passive sentence , the actor is unknown or not important. The subject is not the actor

The actor in a passive sentence is called the agent

Quote:
Structure : Passive + by + person / machine


Quote:
Expression : This report was written by Phil
Avoid using for or from instead of by


Examples :

Incorrect : The decisions on cases like this are made from Administrator
Correct : The decisions on cases like this are made by Administrator

Incorrect : The car was inspected for customs
Correct : The car was inspected by customs






Problem 3 : Necessity for repair or improvement ~ NEED

Remember that NEED may express necessity for repair or improvement

Quote:
Structure : S + Need + -ing form


Quote:
Expression : This paragraph needs revising
Avoid using an infinitive instead of an -ing form

Quote:
Structure : S + Need + to be + Participle
Quote:
Expression : This paragraph needs to be revised
Avoid using an -ing form iinstead of a participle


Examples :

Incorrect : His car needs to fix
Correct : His car needs fixing
or
His car needs to be fixed


Incorrect : The rugs needs cleaned before we move in
Correct : The rugs needs cleaning before we move in
Or
The rugs needs to be cleaned before we move in





Problem 4 : Believe and Knowledge ~ anticipatory it

Remember that an anticipatory it clause expresses belief or knowledge. Anticipatory means before. Some it clauses that go before main clauses are listed here.

It is believed
It is hypothesized
It is known
It is said
It is thought
It is true
It is written


Quote:
Structure : Anticipatory it + that + S + V


Quote:
Expression : It is believed that all mammals experience dreams


Avoid using an -ing form , a noun , or an infinitive instead of a subject and verb after an anticipatory it clause .


Examples :

Incorrect : It is generally known that she leaving at the end of the year
Correct : It is generally known that she is leaving at the end of the year

Incorrect : It is believed that a horse shoe bringing good luck
Correct : It is believed that a horse shoe brings good luck
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