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Old Friday, October 10, 2014
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Default Structure of tenses

STRUCTURE OF TENSES


1. INDEFINITE TENSES

(a) Present Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + V1(s,es) + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + do/does not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Do/Does + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?

(b) Past Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + V2 + O + P.M.R.T.+ (MPAs).
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + did not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. +(MPAs).
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) Did + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?

(c) Future Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh....) Will/Shall + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?

2. CONTINUOUS TENSES

(a) Present Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + is/am/are + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + is/am/are + not + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Is/Am/Are + S + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)

(b) Past Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + was/were + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + was/were + not + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Was/Were + S + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)

(c) Future Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will be/shall be + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + be + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S + be +V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)

3. PERFECT TENSES

(a) Present Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + has/have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + has/have + not + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Has/Have + S + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)

(b) Past Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + had + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + had + not + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Had + S + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)

(c) Future Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S + have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)

4. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

(a) Present Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + has/have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + has/have + not + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Has/Have + S + been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.

(b) Past Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + had been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + had + not + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Had + S + been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.

(c) Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S + have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS LESSON
S = Subject (I, We, You, He, She, It, They, Name, Names)
L.V. = Linking verb (is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, will, shall)
H.V. = Helping verb (is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, will, shall, can, could, may, might, etc)
V1 = First form of verb (go, write, eat, drink, walk, read, sleep, listen, etc)
V2 = Second form of verb (went, wrote, ate, drank, walked, read, slept, listened, etc)
V3 = Third form of verb (gone, written, eaten, drunk, walked, read, slept, listened, etc)
O = Object (me, us, you, him, her, it, them, Name, Names)
P = Place (where)
M = Manner (how)
R = Reason (why)
T = Time (when)
MPAs = Mid-position adverbs (usually, often, never, ultimately, probably, definitely, etc)

EXERCISE
Answer the following questions. Each answer should consist of at least ten sentences.
(i) What do you do everyday?
(ii) What did you do yesterday?
(iii) What will you do tomorrow?
(iv) What are you doing right now?
(v) What were you doing at this time yesterday?
(vi) What will you be doing at this time tomorrow?
(vii) What have you done since morning?
(viii) What had you done before you went to sleep yesterday?
(ix) What will you have done before you go to sleep today?
(x) What have you been doing since morning?
(xi) What had you been doing since yesterday?
(xii) What will you have been doing since today?

NOTES PREPARED BY: PROF. SHAHBAZ ASGHAR
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Old Monday, October 20, 2014
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Default General Structure of Tenses

4. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF TENSES


Tenses are an attribute of verbs that tell us about time. There are four aspects of tenses;
1. Indefinite Tenses
2. Continuous Tenses
3. Perfect Tenses
4. Perfect Continuous Tenses


1. INDEFINITE TENSES

The indefinite tenses are used to describe actions but do not state
whether the action is complete or on-going.

(a) Present Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + V1(s,es) + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
Examples
(i) I/We/You/They/Students write a letter.
(ii) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha writes a letter.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + do/does not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
Examples
(i) I/We/You/They/Students do not write a letter.
(ii) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha does not write a letter.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Do/Does + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?
Examples
(i) Do I/we/you/they write a letter?
(ii) Does he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha write a letter?
(iii) Why do I/we/you/they write a letter?
(iv) When does he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha write a letter?
(b) Past Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + V2 + O + P.M.R.T.+ (MPAs).
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students wrote a letter.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + did not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. +(MPAs).
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students did not write a letter.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) Did + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?
Examples
(i) Did I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students write a letter?
(ii) Why did I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students write a letter?
(c) Future Indefinite Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
Examples
(i) I/We shall write a letter.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will write a letter.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall not + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs).
Examples
(i) I/We shall not write a letter.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students/ will not write a letter.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh....) Will/Shall + S + V1 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)?
Examples
(i) Shall I/we write a letter?
(ii) Will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students write a letter?
(iii) Why shall I/we write a letter?
(iv) When will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students write a letter?
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

2. CONTINUOUS TENSES

The continuous tenses are used to describe the actions that are on-going.

a) Present Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + is/am/are + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I am writing a letter.
(ii) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha is writing a letter.
(iii) We/You/They/Students are writing a letter.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + is/am/are + not + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
(i) I am not writing a letter.
(ii) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha is not writing a letter.
(iii) We/You/They/Students are not writing a letter.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Is/Am/Are + S + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) Am I writing a letter?
(ii) Is he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha writing a letter?
(iii) Are we/you/they/students writing a letter?
(iv) Why am I writing a letter?
(v) Why is he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha writing a letter?
(vi) To whom are we/you/they/students writing a letter?
(b) Past Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + was/were + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I/He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha was writing a letter.
(ii) We/You/They/Students were writing a letter.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + was/were + not + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I/He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha was not writing a letter.
(ii) We/You/They/Students were not writing a letter.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Was/Were + S + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) Was I/he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha writing a letter?
(ii) Were we/you/they/students writing a letter?
(iii) Why was I/he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha writing a letter?
(iv) When were we/you/they/students writing a letter?
(c) Future Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will be/shall be + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I/We shall be writing a letter.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha students will be writing a letter.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + be + V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) I/We shall not be writing a letter.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/students will not be writing a letter.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S + be +V1 + ing + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) Shall I/we be writing a letter?
(ii) Will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha students be writing a letter?
(iii) When shall I/we be writing a letter?
(iv) Why will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students be writing a letter?
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

3. PERFECT TENSES

The perfect tenses are used to describe the actions that have been completed.

(a) Present Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + has/have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha has written a letter.
(ii) I/We/You/They/Students have written a letter.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + has/have + not + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha has not written a letter.
(ii) I/We/You/They/Students have not written a letter.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Has/Have + S + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs)
Examples
(i) Has he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha written a letter?
(ii) Have I/we/you/they/students written a letter?
(iii) Why has he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha written a letter?
(iv) When have I/we/you/they/students written a letter?
(b) Past Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + had + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students had written a letter before the teacher came.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + had + not + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students had not written a letter before the teacher came.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Had + S + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Past Indefinite Tense)
Examples
(i) Had I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students written a letter before the teacher came.
(ii) How much letter had I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students written before the teacher came.
(c) Future Perfect Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)
Examples
(i) I/We shall have written a letter before the teacher comes.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will have written a letter before the teacher comes.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)
Examples
(i) I/We shall not have written a letter before the teacher arrives.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will not have written a letter before the teacher comes.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S + have + V3 + O + P.M.R.T. + (MPAs) ..........+ (Present Indefinite Tense)
Examples
(i) Shall I/we have written a letter before the teacher comes?
(ii) Will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students have written a letter before the teacher comes?
(iii) How much letter shall I/we have written before the teacher comes?
(iv) How many letters will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students have written before the teacher comes?
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

4. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

The perfect continuous tenses are used to describe the continuation of an action, its incompleteness or interruption, and its connection to the temporal point of reference.

(a) Present Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + has/have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha has been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) I/We/You/They/Students have been writing a letter since morning.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + has/have + not + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) He/She/It/Aslam/Ayesha has not been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) I/We/You/They/Students have not been writing a letter since morning.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Has/Have + S + been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) Has he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(ii) Have I/we/you/they/students been writing a letter since morning?
(iii) Where has he/she/it/Aslam/Ayesha been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(iv) Why have I/we/you/they/students been writing a letter since morning?
(b) Past Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + had been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students had been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + had + not + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
I/We/You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students had not been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Had + S + been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) Had I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(ii) Why had I/we/you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students been writing a letter since morning?
(c) Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(i) For Positive Sentences
S + will/shall have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) I/We shall have been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will have been writing a letter since morning.
(ii) For Negative Sentences
S + will/shall + not + have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) I/We shall not have been writing a letter for twenty minutes.
(ii) You/He/She/It/They/Aslam/Ayesha/Students will not have been writing a letter since morning.
(iii) For Interrogative Sentences
(Wh...) + Will/Shall + S + have been + V1 + ing + O + since/for + time/duration.
Examples
(i) Shall I/we have been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(ii) Will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students have been writing a letter since morning?
(iii) Why shall I/we have been writing a letter for twenty minutes?
(iv) Where will you/he/she/it/they/Aslam/Ayesha/students have been writing a letter since morning?
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS LESSON
(i) S = Subject (I, We, You, He, She, It, They, Name, Names)
(ii) H.V. = Helping verb (is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, will, shall, can, could, may, might, etc)
(iii) V1 = First form of verb (go, write, eat, drink, walk, read, sleep, listen, etc)
(iv) V2 = Second form of verb (went, wrote, ate, drank, walked, read, slept, listened, etc)
(v) V3 = Third form of verb (gone, written, eaten, drunk, walked, read, slept, listened, etc)
(vi) O = Object (me, us, you, him, her, it, them, Name, Names)
(vii) P = Place (where)
(viii) M = Manner (how)
(ix) R = Reason (why)
(x) T = Time (when)
(xi) MPAs = Mid-position adverbs (usually, often, never, ultimately, probably, definitely, etc)

EXERCISE
Answer the following questions. Each answer should consist of at least ten sentences.
(i) What do you do everyday?
(ii) What did you do yesterday?
(iii) What will you do tomorrow?
(iv) What are you doing right now?
(v) What were you doing at this time yesterday?
(vi) What will you be doing at this time tomorrow?
(vii) What have you done since morning?
(viii) What had you done before you went to sleep yesterday?
(ix) What will you have done before you go to sleep today?
(x) What have you been doing since morning?
(xi) What had you been doing since yesterday?
(xii) What will you have been doing since today?
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

Last edited by Inerrant Inamorata; Sunday, October 26, 2014 at 04:45 PM.
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