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Old Tuesday, June 06, 2017
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GOOD GOVERNANCE:

World Bank stated: “governance is power to use the resources of a country to pursue with effective social, economical and political gains”. In the similar fashion, UN’s exposition as: “governance is a mechanism, process and institution through which people orient their rights and articulate their interests. Moreover, governance is a whole institutional pillar on which building of a nation stands in international arena. A failed governance is a reflection of a “failed state” a specific term used in international relations to depict worse states; on the other hand good governance is indicative of flourished nations. Furthermore, good governance is always inclusive of strong and impartial institutions including all the stakeholders-civil, military and private sector- and governmental hierarchy- legislators and executives. Additionally, good governance is an interlocked term adding on good political governance, good economical governance, and good civil governance. Laps in any form of aforementioned governances would have repercussions in negation- denial of justice, class-conflicts, religious and political intolerance, violence against women and children, greedy politicians, putsches, and bad international status. Nevertheless, bad governance would ensue into multifaceted issues at all the three tiers at individual level, national level and international level. Moreover, governance assessment would be very helpful in policy making at the national level and strength of a state at international level. Multiple international stakeholders (WTO, IMF, and ABD, etc.), however, conscious about governance measurement to ensure international affairs of that particular state considering their vested interests. In a nut-shell, good governance- strong institutions, democratic regimes, civil-military interaction, and austerity towards corruption- is a conspicuous indicative of a successful state. Impartial judiciary, independent media, strong institutions, democratic regime ensuring freedom of expression, vigilant masses, ironing out corruption, inclusion of technocrats to ensure good policy making are the very suggestive measures, if take into account along with pragmatic assessments of present scenario would help to enhance governance of a state, hence, prosperity.

As mentioned above, good governance is an extensive terminology. To thoroughly understand this term, once must evaluate the political, economical and civic governances. Notwithstanding the good economical and civic governance, bad political governance could bring chaos and could sabotage the existing economical and social stability. So, precisely, all the above terms separately are indicative of good governance, but all depends on each other to bring forth overall “good governance”. Furthermore, political instability could bring unstable and capricious future economic policies, and that could ensue into unpredictable fiscal repercussions; ultimately end into bad economic governance. For example, Venezvela has world largest Oil and gas reserves, but still its economy has been struggling aspiring stability, the reason behind this short fall is political bad governance. And even if, some country has good economical governance but devoid of democratic norms as essential part of good political governance, would lead state unhappiness in general public. Saudi-Arabia for example has a very perfect combination of stable political regime and good economics but still people are moving out of there considering austerity towards freedom of expression and undemocratic regime. However, main concept behind good governance is to achieve a perfect democratic state having promised social and civil rights.

To achieve this goal, certain essentials for good governance cannot be undermined, and these essentials are considered as pre-requisite. These include: impartial judiciary is the fundamental of good governance; participation of both men and women in the government; struggle towards democracy as explained by Pluto “to cure the bad democracy is more democracy; freedom of expression; free and independent media; vigilant masses; education is one the major essentials for good governance; participation and cooperation by military and establishment; positive role of political parties. The aforementioned essentials are the indication of good governance, and lacking in any one of them would hinder the journey towards “good governance”. Having said that, good governance would ensure civic and social rights to the general public; hence, brings prosperity.

High Human Development Index ( HDI), which is one of the major checks on prosperity in a nation-state, includes education, life span and healthy life, can be attained by good governance. Stable institutions would ensure imparting education to every children, and enhance the public sector health care centres, which would obviously bring HDI. Moreover, strengthened institutions would reduce the Poverty Index and enhance the Prosperity Index. That would help people to invest in business and hence reduce the unemployment from a country. The examples of East Asian nations are explicit exposition of the aforementioned concepts, these nations just ensure the political and economical stabilities and the whole world come to invest in those states. Although considered in third world nations, yet enjoying the amenities of first world. To further understand the governance concept, a concise and precise understanding of political governance, economical governance and civic governance is very important.

Thought these concepts has been touched above to understand their inter-locking concept, yet a lot more is required to be understood. Political governance, however, is the most essential of the rest; other two concepts revolve around good political governance, as well said “just bring the political stability, and economics will be settled automatically”. Political governance can be ensured by a stable constitutional setup. However, unfortunately, in the case of Pakistan, constitutional stability is yet to be achieved. Notwithstanding the chaos of East and West Pakistan till 1971, even 1973 constitution has been amended frequently; from 8th amendment of Zia to the 17th amendment of Mushraf, Islamabad unable to gain a stable constitution which brought vacillating regimes in presidential and parliamentary systems. Furthermore, strong institutions is a very pillar of good political governance, but unfortunately in Pakistan, one of the major institution, judiciary has been showing partiality as has been seen in case of clean chits to coups on the pretexts of national security. In the same way, ECP has been involved in suspicions activities.

Moreover, devolution of power is also a fundamental of good political governance. Examples of Nigeria and Rawanda are conspicuously furnished in that regard. Additionally, provincial autonomy is too imperative considering political governance. In addition to above, participation of minorities and women, impartial judiciary, and understanding between establishment and government are incumbent in that very regard. Every time military toppled ruling regime to ensure democracy, but stayed in power for decades on the behalf of bogus referendums and constitutional amendments. No doubt, corruption and inter-political- parties tussle gave valid reason towards coups on the pretexts of national security, corrupt politicians and political instability; however, those were not “ pretexts” as really the politicians remained corrupt and so do the army generals.

Economical governance is yet another face of governance needs to be explained. Stable and progressive fiscal laws are the indicative of good economical governance. Moreover, bribery, corruption, security and environmental crisis are the imperative parts of economical governance. Furthermore, bureaucratic hurdles has been the business apathetic and people moving out their business aboard to ensure the future. Capricious and whimsical policies have cautioned all the stake holders regarding investment which bring forth unemployment and overall economic crisis. In the case of Brazil and Maxico, both the states are suffering from bad economic crisis despite being big resources, because of ongoing corruption, these states met unfortunate destiny.

Moving ahead towards faces of good governance, good civic governance should also be ensured. Civic governance embraces freedom of expression, free and fair media; example of Saudia Arabia is very important in that regard where freedom of expression is being denied, same is the case with north Korea. For that very reason, both the nation-states are being blamed by whole world’s community; hence, facing international defame. Furthermore, civic governance also take in human rights, well explained concisely by UN declaration on Human Rights 1948, recognized by world community. Nevertheless, secure environment to live (life safety) and secure environment to make investments (safety of investment- reduction in bureaucratic hurdles) are also the essentials for good civic governance. Devoid of any of the above mentioned governance inter-locked concepts would result into severe repercussions and which could end up into a “failed state”.

So, bad governance will have multiple aftermaths at all tiers of individual, national and international level. At the national level, laps in governance could cause corruption and nepotism. Both at the political and institutional level, executives work for their vested interests, because they know that nobody will question their moves considering weak institutional setup and lacking of transparency. This is as depicted in the working systems of courts where even people willingly go with the concepts of bribery; same goes for police. Now who convinced people to bribe in these two major institutions who promised to impart justice? Moreover, most of the big fishes and business tycoons bribe FBR to escape taxes and same is the case for SECP. Furthermore, bad institutional setup and lack of transparency would ever lasting create problems. As an example, if election commission of any state would devoid of transparency, so it would for sure bring corrupt politicians in the system. Now think of crooked and fraudulent executives and legislators in the national assembly and senate. This issue pervade through the whole system even to the local government level while passing through provincial level.

The aforesaid issues at the national level because of bad governance would bring severe problems at the individual and international levels. At the individual level, first of all, people start disbelieving institutional and constitutional powers, and in return they take law in their hands which wreak havoc in a society. Moreover, people are denied education and health facilities because of dishonest leadership, which create a society of junks and ensued into unemployment, robbery, murder and rapes. Furthermore, people avoid investments in their country which would bring unemployment owing to the low business investments.

Bad governance would also carry international level glitches. As mentioned above sufficiently that bad governance results into low HDI and high PI, so it ultimately defame a nation at the international level. These nation-states would have no say at international levels because of their national issues, therefore, most of their legitimate issue could not resolved. In that particular context, kashmire issue of Pakistan is still lingering in UNO even after multiple resolution had been unanimously adopted! Similarly, Greek debt issue with IMF even being a part of EU brought complications for her. Furthermore, low international reputation would lessen the FDI at the national level, which as explained above, would carry unemployment, low tax returns for government hence the public spending, which ensure a sorry state owing to austerity policies at national level. Considering the important of good governance building, certain suggestion, if undertaken, could improve things by ironing out the mentioned concerns.

At the foremost concern, it is imperative to study the issue retrospectively, then analysis the present circumstantial issues, track down these problems, and chalk out a feasible plan by including all the stakeholders- executives, legislators and institutions. Institutional setup is very chief in that regards, proper institutionalisation both at the national and provincial levels could accentuate the bad governance issues. Fixing courts, police system, educational and health centres could bring forth “satisfied people” which will produce vigilant masses. General public is a huge power, which can pushed governments to change their policies, long march in Pakistan and freedom of SCP’s judges is an explicit example in that respect.

Having said strong institutions, independent judiciary, however, should be the most fundamental concern for good governance. Partial judiciary helps corrupt and dishonest incumbents at all levels to gain their vested interest on the behalf of national exchequer. Impartial and independent judiciary could bring unprecedented example to be set for the posterity; recently, suing Park, acting president of South Korea on the allegations of nepotism, can be well furnished here.

Furthermore, devolution of power should be ensured constitutionally. Local government elections plays vital role in addressing the people concerns at the ground levels. It is one of the easiest ways to impart education and health at ground levels. Every one fully understand one’s community and lapses in precincts; hence, could enhance governance at the individual level by provisions of amenities. Devolving power to third tier at local level will make people participation possible in policy making and bridge the gaps between government and people; hence, reduce sense of disregard.

Moreover, inclusion of technocrats on the behalf of institutions in the national and provincial assemblies would help chalking out good policies. Technocrats already have seats in assemblies but no body from the institution in the national or provincial assemblies. Including experts from institutions should be made possible. It would also provide a close interaction between legislators and institutions.

In addition to above, vigilant masses and independent print and electronic media would also be very beneficial in providing good governance. Politician and bureaucrats with the fear of being defamed, void doing corruption. Hence, fair media endeavours should be made pragmatic to counter ongoing corruption which is one of the major cause of bad governance.

Every institutions should publish their reports yearly based. That would help to diagnose the problems in system and help to address the issues at the earliest. As per the constitution of Pakistan, even the national assembly and senate should disseminate their reports on the progress, but unfortunately, this is not being following and there is no one here to question this pause.

Exactly, in the same way, every institutions should publish their future policies and plans, it would assist involved stake holders- business community especially- to plan accordingly. It would also make public aware of the ongoing changes. Publications and disseminating data and policies would be very helpful in enhancing governance.

As part of aforesaid suggestion, institutions should create online suggestion boxes where people can give their feedbacks. It would address their concerns at the foremost by bringing those feedbacks into policy making considering feasibility measurements.

In addition to above, severe anti-corruption laws should be enacted to counter corruption both in political and institutional levels. China is one of the examples, whose austerity measures in that regards helped them to enhance a lot. Regrettably, NAB, Pakistan absolution measure badly disturbed anti-corruption policies, thanks to the parliament to amend this bill and to keep culprits to be tried under law.

Ideological change to counter corruption and nepotism (root causes of bad governance) should also been appreciated and to be instilled in the people at all the tiers. In that very regard, role of religious clerks and civil society worker are very crucial. Seminars should be organized to aware people of the aftermaths of bad governance.

Moreover, imparting international education is also very important to enhance governance. Having said that, most of the educated people in Pakistan, for example, even engineer and doctors, are unaware of global issues like IMF debts and UNO affairs. Because of that, mostly, they are not able to understand the ongoing global issues and therefore unable to play their due role in nation building. Ratcheting up international educational setup will for sure bring good governance by bring awareness to the people by making them more vigilant and out-spoken.

Last but not the least, E-governance should be ramp up in every institutional setups. Especially, regarding third world states like Pakistan, conduction of elections by Election commissions, FBR taxation policies and National data base should be made online to improve governance. MOI and other security agencies should incorporate e-governance to enhance their capabilities. SECP, SCP, FBR, should incorporate e-commerce to improve the economical governance.

As a vehicle is of no use without wheels or fuel, in the same fashion, country devoid of good governance is detrimental to a nation-state. Education, austerity measure against corruption and nepotism, inclusion of women and minorities, democratic regime, vigilant masses, strong institutions, independent media, impartial judiciary, and morality are the essentials for a good governance. Lapse in any of them could bring a country to political, economical and civic bad governance which could bring forth disparity, chaos among people, corruption, nepotism, low HDI, high Poverty Index, low prosperity Index, gender inequalities, denial of social justice, social problems of un-employment and robbery, partial institutions, protagonist media and unawareness among general masses. Furthermore, bad governance is indicative of international defame and multifaceted issues and concerns at international forms, like communication with IMF, WTO, and failed resolution of disputes. In a nut-shell, bad governance ascertain a “circular-corruption” works in similar fashion to circular debt. In that society, for example if doctor is looting a police officer in clinic, that doctor will be looted by police man on roads and these both will be plundered by some other department and it goes on. So, Empirical evaluation of present circumstances; diagnosis, strategy building, execution, institutionalization of whole procedure, impartiality of judiciary and ECs: positive part of judiciary, devolution of power at all the tier, technocrats from public institution into parliament: policy making, vigilant public and media, publication by public institutions and should be made public, dissemination of every future policy change and fiscal law’s amendments, public institutions should take into account the suggestions from people: online suggestion-box system, constitutional reforms: sever anti-corruption laws, morality and ideological change, role of civil society, positive role by religious clerics, Improve the educational setup: international education: understanding towards international institutions and global world, accountability of establishment, government on the equal basis, Incorporation of E-governance, are the measures if properly taken, would get us through the problem of bad governance towards “good governance”.
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Old Wednesday, June 07, 2017
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The very first impression of an essay is its outline which is missing.
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Old Wednesday, June 07, 2017
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Good Governance:
A) Introduction:
1) Perspective of World Bank
2) UN definition on governance
B) Understanding towards Good governance:
1) Political governance
2) Economical governance
3) Civic governance
C) Intentions of Good governance:
Goal of good governance is to strengthen the democratic system and institutionalise the political, economic and social infrastructure. Fruition of good governance will bring hereunder:
1) High Human Development Index
a) Education
b) Health
c) Life
2) Low Poverty Index
a) Illiteracy
b) Shorter Life span
c) Lack of nutrition and water
3) Low world competitive Index
a) Inflated contracts
b) Bureaucratic hurdles
c) Misuse of criminal procedures
d) Bribery
e) Nepotism
f) High payments to Public contracts.
4) High Prosperity Index
a) Education
b) Health
c) Life
d) Freedom
e) Entrepreneurship
f) Social justice
D) Exposition on Good Governance:
1) Good political governance:
a) Transparency
b) Strong constitution
c) Strong institutions
d) Devolutions of power
e) Participation of women and technocrats
f) Devoid of favouritism and nepotism
g) Towards national building instead of personal gains
h) Freedom of expression
i) Independent judiciary and Election commission
j) Provincial autonomy
k) Understanding between establishment and government
2) Good economic governance:
a) FDI
b) Devoid of bribery
c) Easy to do business
d) Devoid of bureaucratic hurdles
e) Institutionalisation of economic systems
f) Strong anti-corruption policies
g) Progressive taxation regime
h) Economic policies and fiscal laws should not be capricious and on equitable basis
i) Economic gains should lack environmental crisis.
j) Predicable rules and policies.
3) Good Civic governance:
a) Provision of basic amenities
b) Human Rights according to the declaration of 1948 on Human Rights
c) Investments of basic infrastructures
d) Life safety
e) Secure environment
f) Empowerment of people
g) Independent media
h) Family life.
E) Impacts of bad governance:
Bad governance would have multiple side-effects inclusive of individual, national and global level repercussions as hereunder:

a) Low investments both FDI and local
b) Nepotism
c) Corruption
d) Unemployment
e) Partial media and judiciary
f) Outsourcing
g) People and government relations badly affected
h) Internal rivals would find chance to target a country for their vested interests
i) Lose International incentives and leverage
j) Secession movements
k) Deprivation of human rights
l) Environmental crisis
m) Urbanization
n) Class conflicts
o) Business limited to some tycoons
p) Poverty towards extremism and terrorism
q) Un-education
r) Crime, violence, child prostitution
F) Why evaluate governance?
Governance evaluation procedures-internationally recognized-are adopted by WB and ADB. These protocols include public administration, civil services, and government stability. Nevertheless, there are other indicative to measure the governance, but aforesaid are the majors that have already include the rest of micro-scales in that regards
a) To check the global status of a state
b) To further the improvements in policy making
c) Enhance the status of human rights
d) Stability of regime and international Law
e) Stakeholders and their concerns includes donors, legislators and business community
G) Suggestion to improve governance- particularly the issue of third world countries.
1) Empirical evaluation of present circumstances; diagnosis, strategy building, execution.
2) Institutionalization of whole procedure
3) Impartiality of judiciary and ECs: positive part of judiciary
4) Devolution of power at all the tiers
5) Technocrats from public institution into parliament: policy making
6) Vigilant public and media
7) Publication by public institutions and should be made public
8) Dissemination of every future policy change and fiscal law’s amendments
9) Public institutions should take into account the suggestions from people: online suggestion-box system
10) Constitutional reforms: sever anti-corruption laws
11) Morality and ideological change
12) Role of civil society
13) Positive role by religious clerics
14) Improve the educational setup: international education> understanding towards international institutions and global world
15) Accountability of establishment, government on the equal basis
16) Incorporation of E-governance
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Old Wednesday, June 07, 2017
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Quote:
Originally Posted by aristotlekhan View Post
The very first impression of an essay is its outline which is missing.
outlines have been posted as suggested, please check now
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Exclamation Brilliant essay , but following point should keep in mind

Over all essay is well framed, better grip over grammar , coherent ,interesting and informative. But it is too much lengthy essay hardly can be completed in 3 hours duration , in my view such outline should be more comprehensive. Time management is first important point for essay writing, if one can not complete essay according to given outline ,it left bad impression for examiner , ultimately failure in essay; one of main causes aspirants fails in Essay.
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Old Wednesday, June 07, 2017
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Sucessconfirmed View Post
Over all essay is well framed, better grip over grammar , coherent ,interesting and informative. But it is too much lengthy essay hardly can be completed in 3 hours duration , in my view such outline should be more comprehensive. Time management is first important point for essay writing, if one can not complete essay according to given outline ,it left bad impression for examiner , ultimately failure in essay; one of main causes aspirants fails in Essay.
thanks a lot. well spotted!
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