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Old Wednesday, June 26, 2013
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Solved Papers CSS 2013 ESSAY

Modern-Day Communication Via Social Network Ends True, Sincere Relationship



1. INTRODUCTION
2. SOCIAL NETWORKING REDEFINING INTER - PERSONAL
COMMUNICATIONS AND
RELATIONSHIPS
3. WAYS IN WHICH SOCIAL NET- WORKING HAS PUT AN END TO TRUE AND SINCERE RELATIONSHIP
Creating trust deficit
Vulnerability to infatuation
Dependence on impersonal forms of communication
Sabotaging personal communication through dreadfully-little conversation
Sensationalism and decay of moral values
Making a private matter public
Creating scope for suspicion and infidelity
Eliminating personal space
Superficiality behind 'virtual faces'
Projecting false perceptions of 'awesome lives' and 'happening social geeks'
Disconnecting us through more connections
Accentuated generation gap

4. NEED OF ADAPTATION TO KEEP E-INTERACTIONS REAL

5. CONCLUSION

Impact of social networking on human relationships in the present-day modern life invites mixed responses from various sections of society. Some deem it a healthy and positive factor which has improved human relationships; while there are others who think that social networking has made the relations devoid of truth and sincerity. There is no denying the fact that social networking has done a great work in improving the social consciousness and awareness. It has also brought people together by giving them a chance to find and interact with others having same interests, attitudes and goals through various web-based communities. But as far as intimate human relations are concerned, the social networking has created isolation and alienation. In the present-day globalized world, where socialization through social networking has acquired the status of a necessity, the basis of relationships is more on appearances than truth and sincerity. The core values driving an intimate relationship, like trust, fidelity and sincerity, have been put to test because of the over-mechanization of human life. The relationships which develop in the due course of time often culminate into mature and trusted companionships. This was possible in an age where the relationships were more intimate and depended on direct interaction. But nowadays, the social networking has made communication possible without having a face-to-face interaction. Thanks to social networking, now there are three parties in a relationship; social networking sites/mobile being the third party. This intrusion of technology has greatly affected human relationships. Where it has introduced ease and accessibility in relationships, it has also created a room for deceit and dishonesty in the relationship. The seemingly greater access to personal information is in fact a controlled reach at filtered information only. It has made it difficult to understand a person in entirety. What people say and how they appear means more than what people are and how they behave in person. The social networking has penetrated to such a level that it has started hurting the health of human relationships.

The advent of social media has transformed the way we communicate. From business and organizational communication to interpersonal communication, and from socio-political interactions to leisure activities, communication in every walk of life has been drastically redefined by this new form of communication. Text messages, emails, tweets, direct voice calls, and personal messages on social forums, to mention a few have become new drivers of communication having enormous effects on our interpersonal relationships. Social media has gained this power for its ability to fulfil the basic need of people: the need to be heard, engaged, and involved in processes they had always wanted to participate in. Now communication is often multidimensional that has impacted interpersonal relationships the most. It has created new communities and relationships based on mutuality of interests, attitudes and goals. Being nearby is no more required to be near to someone. This erosion of the need of being together in person in order to be close to someone has affected our relationships. The truth and sincerity of relationships can no more be ascertained through these virtual communication tools.

The social networking has affected the development of a true and sincere relationship. The first and foremost thing necessary for a true and loyal relationship is the presence of mutual trust. With the advent of social networking sites and mobile phones, the mutual trust and harmony has decreased. When both the partners in a relationship interact on any social networking sites, their mutual relationship gets susceptible to mistrust and suspicion. Most of the issues creep up between the partners/lovers due to the inherent nature of social networking sites. The most common instances of such issues are befriending such persons which the other partner does not like, reluctance to share passwords and sharing information with others.


The relationship which has its birth owing to the social networking has an inkling of immaturity and is mostly because of infatuation. Most of such relationships are formed in the teenage when the thinking patterns of the youth are derived more of passions and less of reason. Such relations are made more fickle by the social networking where updates are provided for every minute detail. Updating status, uploading pictures and the com ments by friends create confusions and jealousy.

One of the biggest issues with the modern-day relationships is that they are far too much dependant on impersonal forms of communications like social networking sites and mobile phone. It is impossible to build a stable and healthy relationship online or on mobile phone. Face-to-face interaction is very necessary for the development and growth of a sound relationship. But the modern-day relationships based on social networking are dependent on impersonal forms of communication lacking face-to-face interaction.

Moreover, relationships based on social networking are devoid of truth and depth of understanding essential for a sincere relationship. People get to know a lot about each other but that depends on what information is shared. Mostly, those traits and aspects of one's life are shared that are more likely to appeal or excite interest of the other party. Chatting is mostly centred on areas of common interest and not to gauge the personality of the person. That is the reason why there is little of scope of testing the veracity of shared information and statements.

Moral decay is also among the issues encircling the modern-day relationships. Values like dedication, fidelity, sincerity and truthfulness find no place in the technology based relationships. Appearances, sensuality and verbosity seem to play a greater role in making new relationships. The unchecked access to information available on web disinhibits immoral behaviours and puts to test our real relationships. Increasingly we find posts, comments or even pictures that are inappropriate to be shared in public. Many of these posts relate to our relationships thus making a private matter public. Matters pertaining to the emotional life have become the subject of gossip at the social networking sites. Traditionally, such issues as those of relationships on verge of breakups were resolved by elders within confined sacred boundaries of home. Now there is nothing confined; hardly any concept of sacred; and virtually no boundaries. Personal differences are shared and discussed publicly. Ironically, we get 'likes' and 'comments' from those hardly concerned.

Interacting on Facebook or twitter has another problem. It brings one closer to too many possible 'matches' that your partner becomes naturally suspicious. Given the still-existing social dynamics and values of our society, such interactions always lead to disagreements. The thin line between complimenting and flirting has been worn away by too many interactions. Many a time these suspicions are not unfounded. Thus, a spontaneous and casual attitude in social networking creates scope for suspicion and infidelity.

Contrarily, many a relations are now disturbed by a compulsion to share too many things with one's fellows that one otherwise would have kept to oneself. One has to disclose one's leisure activities and hangouts against one's wishes. It becomes an obligation to sign-in and inform whenever one is around thus eliminating one's personal space. It leads to frustration and disappointment which often proves fatal for relations.

Anonymity or little access to true information makes social media unpredictable. Because people control what they share, social media gets dicier. Anyone who is technologically moderately literate can project whatever image of him he/she wants. One can hide behind the texts, emails, tweets, comments or status-updates. No one has access to the 'real one'. Thus there is little scope for sincere relationships.

One of the hallmarks of social media is sharing of minute details and pictures with virtually everyone around. Over a million pictures are uploaded on Facebook every day. People use this medium to broadcast their social lives projecting their awesome lives and company of happening social geeks. These false perceptions often become basis of new relationships premised on expectations that are never fulfilled. Thus breakups are even more common than forming of new relationships.

Most of our time spent on socialization is now consumed by social networking where we meet our virtual friends and fellows. Apart from seeing anonymous people and indulging in fake relationships, it markedly reduces the time we spend with our near and dear ones waiting for our attention. We communicate more with our web-friends thousands of miles apart and ignore those sitting next door. Even siblings who are considered to be closest to each other are now being considered infringing on personal space. Thus, rather than improving our connections, social media has snatched our dear relationships.


Social media has also widened the generation gap as technologically illiterate older generations find it difficult to reconcile with social media dynamics. The so-called Generation Y, that grew up with fast computers, instant internet, mobile phones and digital media is more comfortable with tools of social media interacting with their communities of friends and peers. They have become more and more distant and isolated from other segments of society. Thus, our relations with affectionate and loving elders have been affected by this social media.

Given the drastic consequences of social media on human relations, there is a constant realization to fix this problem. We need to learn to live with this new phenomenon and adapt to its requirements. There is a need to check what and with whom we are sharing and its possible implications on our relations. Also, significance of face-to-face communication cannot be overestimated. We should resort to direct communication whenever electronic communication fails or puts us in a fix. Moreover, communication must be a two-way process. Simply texting someone should not mean that our message has been conveyed. We need to get to recipient's feedback to ensure that they understood our message. Furthermore, rosy pictures and eloquent speeches are often made on social media without realizing that we have to live up to the expectations arising from those statements. Social media thus requires extra care in communication so that it doesn't disturb our relationships.

To conclude, advent of social media has revolutionized our ways of communication and interpersonal relationships. Like any other scientific change, this social media can destroy our social structure if left unchecked. We must adapt our habits to ensure that our e-interactions are real and meaningful. We need to learn ways to reap benefits of these advanced technological means of communication and socialization without compromising on our true personal and professional relationships.


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  #22  
Old Saturday, June 29, 2013
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The Suffering Soul in the Scientific Age

“Our scientific power has overturned our spiritual power. We have guided missiles and misguided men.” — Martin Luther King, Jr


There can be no two opinions about the veracity of the statement that the Modern Age is the age of science. Science undoubtedly has revolutionised the world. Everyday there are new inventions, may that be in medicine, electronics, space sciences, nuclear technology and so on. Everything that modern man is using in this contemporary age has been given to him by the scientific advancement. He cannot live without science even for a single day. Science has given eyes to the blind, ears to the deaf and limbs to the crippled. It has made man fly in the sky like birds, swim in the water like fish. It has achieved wonders and thus has brought about irreversible changes in the world. Science, however, is perceived both as a blessing as well as a curse. Apart from bringing uncountable blessings in the lives of human beings, it also has turned out to be course and has resulted into human sufferings which have now assumed horrible proportions and are beyond human control.

It is said that modern civilization is a scientific civilization. It is true as far as the material aspects of civilization are concerned, man lives in great comfort today. He enjoys cinema, radio and television. He can talk with his friends thousands of miles away from by telephone. Science has increased human comfort and lessened human drudgery. He has no longer to travel on foot. He can travel comfortably without any fatigue in cars, air-conditioned trains, buses, etc. he has no longer to bear the hardships of weather. In summer, he can cool his house by electric cooler and in winter, get heat by electric heaters. Day and night make no difference to him, for night can turn into day by electric lights.

He does not work hard like his forefathers. He does not follow barbarous practice of having slaves. Science has given him slaves of a new kind, which do all work for him. Machines are the slaves of modern scientific civilization. These slaves do all the work for him while he himself lives like a lord. They cook his food for him and even serves it to him. They manufacture everything that he uses from morning till night. They plough fields for him, sow seeds and reap crops for him.
Human pain and suffering have been lessened by science. Modern civilized man has not to suffer like his forefathers. Many diseases have been eliminated or have become curable, and surgeries can be performed without inflicting pain to the patients. Many wonderful drugs have been discovered and man's life on this earth has become longer and happier. Man lives in comfort like the lord and master of nature. He has conquered even outer space, mastered weather and all other living creatures.

But there is another side also to this picture. Science affects only the material aspects and makes man materialistic. Radio, television, cinema and costly furniture and dresses are all symbols of this artificial civilization. But civilization has material as well as spiritual elements. Science helps only the growth of the material aspects and has no influence on the spiritual element. Science has made man morally bankrupt. It has degraded him. He is no longer inspired by noble ideas. He thinks only of the body and not the soul. Science has created distance between man and religion. He has lost faith in God. He is no longer truth-loving and self-sacrificing. In order to satisfy his wants and desires, he uses dishonest means. By hook or by crook, he wants to possess the luxuries provided to him by science. No moral considerations influence his actions or his thoughts.

Art and literature are also essential aspects of civilization, but science does nothing to promote them. Rather it has an adverse effect on the growth of art. There is inherent opposition between art and science. Science is utility, observation and experiment, reason and good sense, while art is the worship of beauty. It is an inspiration. Science has killed the artistic sense of man and has made him a worshipper of worldly wealth. He now dissects and kills objects of nature instead of enjoying their beauty. To quote from poet William Wordsworth, man now murders to dissect, and perhaps he would botanize even on his mother's grave. His emotions and passions have all dried up and he has become a monster guided by reason alone.

No doubt science has given man the powers used to be attributed to the mythological gods alone, but it has not increased his wisdom or his morality. It has given him weapons. It has given him machines, but machines are now becoming his masters. Man today does not know when to save and when to kill. He has got the atomic energy but he does not know how to use it for his own good and wellbeing. In this way, science has brought human civilization to the verge of disaster.

Much has been said and talked about the importance of science and technology. However, as the saying goes, every rose has its thorns. Science also has added to the human sufferings owing to the adverse impacts it has on the environment. Environmental issues are the biggest concerns the planet earth is facing, let that be in the form of global warming, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes etc. Moreover, no doubt, medical science is no less than a blessing to mankind. Medicines produced all over the world are perceived to be a foolproof cure to a person's illness. However, there is some negativity associated with medical science too.
Today, excessive consumption of drugs can lead to death. Moreover, incorrect dosage may lead to fatal maladies. Where medical science has advanced to an unbelievable extent, it carries with itself perils of all kinds, and just a slight ignorance may prove to be a matter of life and death.

Technology has provided ease of all kinds to man. However, it has made us too busy to even see our loved ones in person. Technology might have made our daily life easier, but it has rendered health issues as well. Tremendous reliance and dependence on electronic gadgets, appliances, and most importantly, computer technology has made human life so lethargic that people are experiencing old age much before they actually grow old. With almost zero physical activity, science might have proved its mettle as an amazingly efficient service to its users, but has got the world adversely hooked to it!

There are no qualms in accepting the fact that science is the biggest revolution ever happened to planet Earth. However, a normal human being has no idea to what extent has this field advanced today.

Technology can actually harm society if one chooses to. Competition between companies or even cities can sometimes make our lives even worse. When a city builds more roads to attract tourists, the result is more traffic load. Even things we take for granted such as the automobile have negative effect on us. Because the automobiles cause pollution and that can surely harm us slowly. Technology is making one so busy that he can't even find time to spend with our closed ones. It would be surprising to know that people are in contact through chat and online messaging though they are in same city, because they think it's faster and effective but they forget that meeting personally can never replace online chatting.

Before the advent of television and internet, people had ways of having fun together every day. Many of these traditional methods of fun have almost disappeared in the modern world. People used to talk with each other, they would play games, but now they play games on computer giving no reaction that people are drifting away from one other.

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Old Saturday, June 29, 2013
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PLEASURES OF READING (CSS-2011)


OUTLINE:
1. The common factor in most reading is escapism.
2. This factor lasts even into later life.
3. Humorous novels are quite amusing and relaxing.
4. Most educated people have a balanced reading diet.
5. People with interest in politics crave for a historical perspective.
6. The classics provide the best comprehensive source of pleasures.
7. Poetry – a great source of pleasure.
8. Fiction – the most entertaining form of reading.
9. Conclusions.

Reading is a welcome escape from the dullness of daily routine. It is an excellent recreation which rich and poor alike can afford as most books are not very costly. Moreover, in these days the large number of public libraries makes reading cheaper and easier than ever before. A man who has developed a taste for reading asks nothing more of life if, besides the means of physical well-being, he is provided with books and the leisure to read them. Mathematics, scientific theories, doctrines of philosophy and religion are taxing to the brain. But the reading of newspapers, history, biography, accounts of travel and exploration, drama, verse and above all, fiction, is a source of keen delight. Millions of men and women nowadays find a delight in reading.

The quantity and variety of reading material available to us are really enormous. There are books of all kinds books discussing topical matters, books on sex and marriage, books on health and hygiene and books on personalities of the times, as well as purely literary books including drama, poetry and prose fiction. The variety and number of magazines and periodicals are equally amazing. Story magazines, picture magazines, film journals, literary periodicals, magazines on fashions in dress, political magazines ----- there is no end to them. Each of these types has its admiring readers who would rather miss a meal than their favourite weekly, fortnightly or monthly.

Let us analyse the cause of the pleasure which results from reading the printed matter that we buy from the book-stalls or borrow from the libraries. The common factor in most reading is that one can pick up a book of his choice and escape from the humdrum into a new world of excitement, sometimes identifying with the hero or the heroine. Girls tend to favour school stories with a touch of romanticism and later, magazine romances and romantic novels, taste for the latter often lasting well into adult life.

The attraction of escapism, modified of course by experience, lasts into later life. Most adults enjoy a detective story for relaxation. The murder or crime concerned is rarely dealt with psychologically. It is merely the peg on which to hang the clues leading to the final solution. The best of such stories also develop character to some extent and reflect the social background of the years in which the novel is set. Thus, the pleasure of reading, says Agatha Christie, is partly nostalgia and partly mental exercise. Emotion plays a negligible part.

Another genre of books written for pleasure and relaxation is the humorous novel, represented by P G Wodehouse, Mark Twain and Stephen Leacock. Here, the amusement lies in comedy of situation, turn of phrase, and very clever plotting. Again, they are period pieces, in the case of Wodehouse evocative of the idle young rich of the 30s, and entirely without social comment. Humour draws the sting from inequality.

Then books are read for pleasure, relaxation and a good laugh. However, most educated people have a balanced reading diet which develops over the years as a result of specialization in one subject or another. Most of us have developed a general interest in politics and current events, and in democratic countries these are well covered in the responsible press and in specialized ranging from agriculture to car maintenance. In these contexts, the pleasure of reading is derived from interest in the subject.

Interest in politics and current events leads to the development of a historical perspective, and hence interest in the past. This is well catered for in an immense body of historical and biographical literature. Social history is necessary to the understanding of current trends. Historical romances often provide a good read, and the best of them are very informative about the events of past times.

However, the classics provide the best all-round sources of pleasure. It is one thing to have to study texts for one's A or 0 Levels. That can be hard work. It is quite another to read them for pleasure in later life. They offer a more sophisticated source of interest than can be obtained from any other genre; development of character, social and political comment, action and reflection, humour, pathos, sometimes tragedy. The appeal of poetry should not be ignored. The best of it requires the ultimate in the command of language.

Poetry can provide the richest satisfaction of all. It is the purest form of literature and its rhythm, melody and music give it an additional charm. The lyrical flights of Shelley, the sensuousness of Keats, the lavish and colourful imagery of Tennyson, imaginative intensity of Coleridge, the beautiful description of nature by Wordsworth ----- all these enchant the reader. The very diction of poets like Rossetti, Bridges, and Arnold has great appeal. The readers of Urdu poetry are not less fortunate in this respect. There is a great treasure of rich and fascinating poetry in Urdu. Look at Ghalib! Who can match the flight of his imagination! Then there are Iqbal, Faiz, Meer, Akhtar Shirani, Majeed Amjad. Fraz and many others. The beauty of "Ghazal" form is a joy forever.
Most adults enjoy a detective story for relaxation. The murder or crime concerned is rarely dealt with psychologically. It is merely the peg on which to hang the clues leading to the final solution.
The designation 'novel' covers a very wide spectrum of literature. It comprises the classic works of fiction of all countries. By definition, a novel is a prose piece of over 60,000 words. Many are much longer. Anything shorter is a 'novella'; if much shorter, a short story. The genre grew up independently in many countries, particularly those of Europe.

Fiction of course is not limited to the classics, which form a relatively small part of it, for at least three centuries the bookshops have always been full of the more ephemeral kinds of prose; the American 'block-buster', the J Arthur Clarke type of space fiction, the ghost story, the detective `who dunnit?, the story, the war story. The list is endless.

It is quite possible to become `hooked' on novel reading and this has two dangers. To read novels when you should be doing something else, eg study, or practical chores, is indeed a waste of time. And it is never courteous to have one's nose in a novel when visitors arrive! Secondly, there are some people who find in a novel a means of escape from reality. This has other dangers. Too much relapse into fantasy may destroy one's ability to face facts.

If reading novels can be a waste of time, reading bad novels is always a waste of time and can be positively harmful. A really bad novel is not easy to define, but for anybody with intellect it has some, or even all of the following features: unreality in characterization and situation, poor construction, concentration on sex and violence for the sake of it, bad sentence construction, a boring approach, expletives and bad language generally a biased attitude to people, situations and issues and stereotyping of characters.

That said, to read anything is arguably better than read nothing, or sinking out the bottom line, mindless television watching. At least the capacity to read demonstrates that one is literate. In Britain today, there is an alarming number of school-leavers from the state system who can neither read nor write.

The case for reading the classics need hardly be made. Their characters live, and are of their time. Descriptions of town and country engross the reader. Stories and therefore plots, seem to grow out of the characters. Often, great national events, wars and revolutions provide the background, but are integral at the same time. Characters and great events affect each other. The same process is seen in the good political, maritime or war story. The classical novel provides a window on another world; good contemporary novels offer new insights into our own world. The reader will inevitably gain in knowledge and understanding from this class of literature. Such reading supplies valuable background material for other studies; history, sociology, politics, psychology and economics.

However, life is not all self-improvement, or shouldn't be. Reading for pure relaxation can do the reader nothing but good. The poor, ugly girl may find a therapeutic escape in a romantic novel. Just such a person as she is may be picked up by a dark, handsome, rich, even aristocratic stranger and transported into new worlds of delight. Why not? It will never happen, but there is no harm in dreaming. And there is the comfortable, stately world of the `country house murder', where death is relatively bloodless, and the culprit turns out to be the colonel, the butler, or a rogue vicar. Pitting one's wits against the author's is a good form of relaxation. So, to the English reader, are the novels of P G Wodehouse, which open windows on the life of the idle rich in England I the 20s, contain absolutely no social comment on the rigid class system of the time, are brilliantly constructed, and contain laughs on every page. Therefore, no sane person could say that reading novels is a waste of time.

The world wide popularity of novels tends to support this view. It is interesting that the spread of television has had little or no effect on the sale of books and that the use of lending libraries is as great as ever. Admittedly most of the books borrowed are novels of one sort or another. In a descending order of popularity they are love stories, crime thrillers and spy novels, space fiction, historical novels, biographies and classical literature. Though related to life, and sometimes dealing with its harsh realities, novels feed the human imagination. They allow us to escape from a life which may be humdrum or unpleasant, and live for a time in a world of imagination. So novels are escapist, but is escapism necessarily wrong? The novel transports the reader to another world, gives heightened emotion to those who lack excitement, and tranquility to those whose lives are too busy and active. Good novels of whatever description have a beneficial effect on the reader. After all, because one may live in a dream world for a time it does not follow that this will have any adverse effect on a person's approach to real life. Quite the opposite may well be the case. Wisdom can be gained in living other people's lives vicariously through books and mistakes avoided. People read for all kinds of reasons, and all kinds of people are readers. For many, reading the classics is their best form of relaxation. For some, the motive is intellectual stimulation, and for these the most popular categories are history, biography, philosophy and theology, sociology, archeology and anthropology. There is in addition a whole range of books special to the interests of the individual, ranging from the professions to every sporting and leisure activity imaginable. These promote interest and increase knowledge, so can hardly be described as "escapist", though taking the reading public as a whole it has to be said that serious and factual books cater for the minority.

Poetry can provide the richest satisfaction of all. It is the purest form of literature and its rhythm, melody and music give it an additional charm.

The great variety of reading matter makes it possible for men of all tastes and temperaments to draw pleasure from it. For the serious and reflective types of readers, there is plenty of tragic and sentimental literature. For those of lively temperaments, there is a rich store of comedies, amusing episodes, witty dialogues, humorous skits and tit*bits. For those more interested in actual life there are countless biographies, autobiographies, histories and daily newspapers. Indeed, the pleasure of reading should not be missed by any educated person. Everyone ought to cultivate the reading habit. Reading lifts us out of our personal circumstances. We can forget our private worries and anxieties, fears and responsibilities while reading an interesting book. Not only that. Reading adds to our knowledge, and the feeling that our knowledge has increased and our understanding of life become deeper affords us a keen pleasure. Whether we are journeying by train, or we are sitting in a park, or we are at home, reading is an excellent recreation.


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Terrorism The Biggest Threat to Pakistan


By Irshad Ali Sodhar (FSP)

1. Introduction

2. History of Terrorism in Pakistan: An Overview

3. Pakistan Faces Various Forms of Terrorism

a. Ethnic / Sectarian
b. Nationalist / Separatist
c. Jihadi / Islamist

4. Causes of Terrorism in Pakistan

a. Augmenting Illiteracy
b. Increasing Social Injustice
c. Swelling Poverty
d. Derailing Democracy
e. Heightening Religious Intolerance
f. Unending Afghan War
g. Crippling Economy

5. Is Terrorism a Great Threat to Pakistan: YES

I. To Democracy
II. To Sovereignty
III. To Economy
IV. To Governance
V. To Progress
VI. To National Security
VII. To National Integrity

6. Recommendations:

I. Using the Influence of Religious Leaders
II. Utilizing Civil Society
III. Employing Media Effectively
IV. Revamping Education System
V. Achieving Peace in Afghanistan
VI. Ensuring Competent Intelligence
VII. Dealing Effectively with Militants
VIII. Economic Recovery & Poverty Alleviation
IX. Ensuring Speedy & Affordable Justice

7. Conclusion

Essay


Terrorism is second to none amongst the threats faced by Pakistan. The cost it has incurred, overweighs the losses bore in any other turmoil in history of the country. The complexity of this multifaceted menace lies in the fact that it is caused by multitude of factors ranging from internal situation to external developments. It has been damaging not only the economy, political stability, social sector and social fabric of the country but also national security and integrity. The country's image abroad and its foreign relations are severely affected, as well. Moreover, the risk of being termed as a failed state was born out of the implications of no other problem but terrorism. Nevertheless, the increasing realization and resolve of the political, civil and military leadership to combat this threat with iron hands harbingers a strong action to eradicate terrorism. However, this problem will not go away easily given the isolated responses from state institutions. A comprehensive and integrated counter-extremism and counter-terrorism strategy is need of the hour. The emerging clarity among institutions and political consensus among major stakeholders is a positive sign in this regard.

The origin of terrorism in Pakistan can be traced back to two important events that brought obscurantism, intolerance and resultantly terrorism in Pakistan. Before 1980s, religion has never been a controversial issue in Pakistan. The sectarian militants emerged in Pakistan after the 1979 Iran Revolution which transformed the nature and magnitude of sectarian violence in Pakistan.

Besides, Soviet occupation of Afghanistan was the most critical event leading to the spread of militancy. A fundamental change that altered the very character of society in Pakistan occurred after the outbreak of Soviet-Afghan war. However, the real damage was exposed only after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, when there emerged weaponization and violence in Pakistan. Lately, in the wake of US attack on Afghanistan, and Pakistan's entry into War on Terror as an ally, the extremism and terrorism soared.

With its multifarious nature, the magnitude of terrorism has become greater. Ethnic, sectarian; nationalist, separatist; and jihadi terrorism are some forms of it.

Ethnicity has been haunting Pakistan since its emergence as an independent state. This was the ethnicity factor that led to dismemberment of the country in 1971. Arson, bombings, assaults, vandalism and even murder have been some aspects of this nuisance.

Separatist terrorism is another threat to Pakistan. The Balochistan province has been facing the intermittent guerilla wars. The tribal militants, allegedly patronized by foreign powers especially India, carry out heinous acts of terrorism and even resort to target killings to advance their separatist agenda.

The so-called jihad is another form of terrorism that is most widespread nowadays. This type of terrorism emerged with Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the late 1970s. After the Soviet withdrawal, this armed struggle transformed into a sort of civil war, and later Afghanistan became a breeding ground for terrorists.

Furthermore, after 9/11 attacks, when Pakistan entered in war against terrorism, some of these sham Jihadi groups turned their guns against Pakistan.

This violent phenomenon has become complex in nature due to multitude of the causes. The situation in Pakistan is more complicated due to its underdevelopment, strategic location, diverse cultures and religious orientation of society. The first and foremost cause is widespread illiteracy in Pakistan. Pakistan ranks 113th among the 120 nations in the literacy rate index. Since, people lack the knowledge of the true teachings of Islam; they are easily carried away by the emotional and sentimental speeches of religious fanatics.

Secondly; injustice or lack of justice is also one of the core causes of terrorism. People are suffering from many social injustices including, but not limited to, unequal resource distribution, restricted access to quality education, the elite's hegemony in political system, lack of basic health facilities, and non-availability of necessary commodities to major portion of the population. There is plethora of examples in history when deprived and marginalized people rebelled and even resorted to violence to gain their rights. In Pakistan, the underprivileged and depressed class is prone to be exploited by the terrorists.

Thirdly; poverty is also a major cause of terrorism. According to a study conducted by the Sustainable Development Policy Institute, every third Pakistani is living below the poverty line i.e. 58.7 million out of 180 million are living in abject poverty. A survey conducted by Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) revealed that around 45.7% population of Pakistan is poor. These people, caught in the vicious cycle of poverty, join terrorists for monetary benefits.

Fourthly; derailing of democracy by military dictators also contributed to the spread of terrorism in Pakistan. History of the country manifests that these were the decisions of military rulers that put Pakistan in this quandary. It was Zia's decision to involve Pakistan in war against Soviets in Afghanistan. Again, it was Gen Pervez Musharraf's decision to become a frontline US-ally in war against terrorism.

Fifthly; the ever-growing religious intolerance in Pakistan also fosters terrorism. In recent past, more than 100 Shiites were killed in Quetta in one attack. In addition, many Sunni/Shia processions were attacked and churches were set ablaze.

Sixthly; Pakistan's participation in Afghan War has also plagued the country with terrorism. Pakistan still ails from the disease it acquired during Soviet-Afghan war. Now, those militias have become so unbridled that they even challenge the writ of the government in various parts of the country.

Seventhly; the crippling economy also gives rise to terrorism. The faltering economy has increased inflation, poverty and unemployment. Almost 50% of the Pakistani workforce is unemployed, reveals the survey released by the Pakistan Economy Watch (PEW). Miseries compel people to find additional sources of income and the terrorists lure these marginalized people. Thus, economic frailty makes recruitment for terrorists easier.

Terrorism is the biggest threat to a viable state. The first and foremost threat, it poses, is to democratic system of the country. Pakistan has had only a wobbling democracy. Proper democratic transition is taking place for the first time in the country's history. However, the elections were marred by terrorist attacks on election campaigns. If the environment of insecurity prevails, democracy would never flourish and people will lose trust in the democratic process.

Terrorism also threatens the sovereignty of Pakistan. The presence of terrorists invites drone attacks which is a serious challenge to the country's sovereignty.

One of the major reasons behind the crippled economy of Pakistan is terrorism. The terrorist activities in Pakistan have led to flight of capital and investors. The investors are reluctant to invest here due to law and order situation. The estimated losses are around $70bn. Moreover, tourism industry of Pakistan is also in a dying state. Furthermore, the threat of terrorism also compels the government to divert resources to security spending.

Terrorism also hampers the prospects of good governance. The government finds itself hapless to improve the law and order situation in the country. The schools are bombed and demolished which deprives people of the light of knowledge. The proponents of education are attacked; the case of Malala Yousafzai is an example in this regard.

Terrorism thwarts the progress of the country as well. Pakistan couldn't make any progress in the last decade rather all the economic and human development indices show a considerable fall. Pakistan ranks 145th on the Human Development Index. The country has spent more than $20 billion on war against terror and is compelled to increase its defence budget. Resultantly, the spending on the social development has seen new lows. Hence, terrorism causes underdevelopment which leads to increase in miseries of the masses.

Terrorism endangers the national security as well. A fleeting look at the current situation reveals that the country is suffering from worst security crisis. Terrorists carried out, successfully, attacks even on most secure and strategically important places. The attacks on GHQ, Mehran Naval Base and Kamra Air Base are testimony to this fact. The magnitude of losses can be gleaned from the fact that only one Saab-2000 aircraft fitted with an Airborne Early Warning & Control System (AWACS) destroyed at Kamra was worth $250 million.

Terrorism, lastly, is a great threat to national integrity. It is threatening the very roots and fabric of the society. Pakistanis are being divided into small sub-nations fighting to assert their existence and separate identity.

Despite the above-mentioned facts, Pakistan has all the capacity and potential to eradicate terrorism. All it requires is a comprehensive and coordinated strategy.

First of all, religious leaders and scholars can play a vital role in this regard. They should use speeches and writings to preach the message of peace.

Two; the civil society also needs to come forward and play its role in sorting out the problems face by the nation. Moreover, a huge campaign is required to defeat the ideologies of terrorists. This campaign or mass movement can be used very effectively with collaborative efforts.

Three; uniform system of education can play a viable role in eradicating terrorism. The curriculum should be free of all the biases, religious bigotry and fanaticism. It shall include religious and modern education in equal proportions. The minds of younger generation need to be washed of all the rigidness; then only peace will prevail in society.

Four; media can be the most effective tool in eliminating terrorism. Media can be used to educate people and bring them on board about challenges faced by the country. Soft corner for militancy in the general public can only be eradicated by well-organized media effort.

Five; peace in Afghanistan is one of the prerequisites for curbing terrorism in Pakistan. Presence of Nato and Allied Forces in Afghanistan is a major cause of instability in the region.

Sixth; an effective strategy to counter militant and extremist groups hinges in the capability to gain timely and accurate intelligence. The local intelligence needs to be strengthened in terms of organization, equipment, training and coordination. The intelligence agencies should be made completely free of political interference.

Seventh; a coherent strategy on using force as last resort should be evolved. The foreigners cannot live among the locals unless they are sufficiently motivated to support these militants. The local tribesmen should be taken into confidence and must be encouraged to stand up against the foreign elements.

Eighth; economic and social disparity leads to increase in recruitment of terrorists. Economic recovery should be given the top priority, especially in the underdeveloped areas. Comprehensive plans to ensure revival of industry to generate economic activity and jobs should be devised.

Lastly, there is, undoubtedly, a need for providing speedy and affordable justice to poor masses. As 'Justice delayed is justice denied', the people feel themselves alienated from society. The performance of lower judiciary has resulted in loss of trust of general public in courts and thus the Taliban-type speedy justice system attracts public support in certain areas. Therefore, justice system should be reviewed to ensure that people get speedy and affordable justice. Moreover, the prosecution needs to be made effective in order to curtail the large acquittal ratio of terrorists.

There is no denying the fact that Pakistan is facing great threat of terrorism. It's a country which is plagued with multifarious terrorism caused by several intricate problems. It poses threat to essential ingredients of the state, from democracy to national security and integrity of the country. However, combating terrorism is not an insurmountable task for this resilient nation. The enormity of the challenge has led to the momentum that is underway with regard to building of consensus on the policy to combat terrorism. This would lead to a conclusive strategy to eliminate this menace. The policy accompanied with political resolve is bound to win this war and achieve the stability and prosperity in the country.
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THE INCIVILITY & UNSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR ON SOCIAL MEDIA


Outline: Social Media in the limelight Advent of social media Empowerment of people Arab Spring – manifestation of its power Community–building tool–a case of Shahzeb

Issues with social media users
Incivility and immorality reign
Anonymity and mob-mentality
Fake profiles of leaders/journalists
Keyboard Jihadists – informal e-brigades of political parties
Elections 2013 – campaigns and reactions
No effective control mechanism
Swift action from PTA on fake profiles and abusive posts
Our responsibility


The advent of social media has revolutionized the modern-day means of communication. Facebook, Twitter along with blogging sites have provided us with new avenues to communicate and disseminate our views and thoughts to a larger audience that was once a prerogative of politicians and journalists only. These blogs and forums, commonly referred to as "Social Media", when hit the internet world, they became the voice of public within no time. The primary reason behind the immense popularity and surge of the social media was that both electronic and print media – newspapers, radio and TV channels – failed to give due space to voices who dissented the authorities or governments. It befuddled many governments and societies through its community-building capacity.

However, as true with other scientific inventions, poor and irresponsible use of social media in our society has turned it into a bane rather than a boon for our social values. Civility is being ebbed away as 'Unsocial attitudes' of so-called warriors on social media are infecting our moral values. Social Media abounds with fake profiles which are involved in spreading misinformation and levelling false and often unfounded accusations against popular leaders, journalists, public figures and even civil servants. This dilemma reveals that the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) is incapable of checking this misuse of technology. Do we need to learn to live with this idiocy and senselessness? This remains a burning question for all the concerned and responsible citizens, social scientists and thinkers. As far as our government is concerned, the main concern for it is to decide whether it should also take the lead of Gulf governments by penalizing the people behind these fake IDs for these clear acts of slander and defamation or not?

Before this social media crept into our lives, people used various means of communication but all of those were different in their nature and in their respective impacts on society. Means of communication used prior to the advent of social media were direct in nature as the parties involved in communication knew each other and there was no scope of anonymity involved anywhere. Because the identities were known to everyone, it was important for everyone to remain within limits of civility. In case of political debates, our leaders, writers, columnists and political analysts used to express their opinion and dissent through newspapers and readers could comment on those views through letters to the editor. The newspapers kept a check on the views expressed by general masses through their editorial policy. Social media removed these barriers and gave people direct access to such forums where there were no explicit checks. By making wrong use of right to free speech, they started enjoying unbridled power and passing comments and expressing opinions about their leaders, public figures and celebrities. The very nature of social media is such that imposing checks and applying filters in order to assess the veracity of opinions is almost impossible.

This new and greater access, no doubt, led to empowerment of people where everyone had equal access to show his/her sentiments and opinions. The main intent behind the progression of social media was to provide people with such forums where they could express their ideas and opinions with a relative ease and freedom. It also meant that the ones who used to sway the public opinion could no longer assert their views with impunity without being challenged by their audience. It made all public statements issued by political leaders, observations and rulings of the courts, columns as well as comments from journalists and news-anchors subject to instant criticism by an active audience at social media.

This vibrant new society surprised everyone with the power of community-building by organizing people with different races and communities under one common cause. Its greatest manifestation was the Arab Spring where dissenting youth used Twitter and Facebook to unite the like-minded people and to quickly disseminate information in order to plan and organize massive countrywide protests. Even autocratic governments in Gulf had to give in to the pressure of protestors demanding change.

Social media also filled in the vacuum of electronic media where, for vested interests or want of commercial value, the latter ignored just voices of the aggrieved and dejected people. This aspect became evident in Shahzeb murder case from Karachi where electronic media didn't highlight this issue until a massive movement started on social media. It built so much pressure that the apex court had to intervene and suspects were brought to the book.

Where this emergence of powerful social media proved panacea for many ills, it has created bigger problems than those it had solved. Without going into the details of how social media has affected our relationships and how wasting billions of hours purposelessly on social media has made us actually antisocial, let's examine its impacts on our socio-political lives.

The biggest problem with social media is that anyone can say anything to any audience irrespective of the basic norms which ought to be followed while speaking or commenting in public. Ours is a society where dissent is not encouraged in any institution and where argumentation is limited to debate competition on annual functions. Majority of population gets no training as to what should be the conduct during a public debate. In such a scenario, getting unbridled power of indulging in debate and expressing opinions is playing havoc with the moral and social ethos of our society.

Couple this fact with the kind of argumentation we witness every evening on mushrooming commercial current affairs programmes on news channels. Our leaders, unfortunately, are made to demonize each other in these programmes like an act. Ironically, at the end of programme, they greet each other and move to another channel for the similar act. All this nonsense has crept into minds of our untrained youth equipped with keyboards and modem. With such intellectual pollution constantly fed to them, all they learn is inept arguing and incivility which they reflect while interacting on social media.

The most dangerous aspect of this issue is the ability to hide one's identity and pretend to pose as one likes. It doesn't require any identity except an email which may well be a fake one. Thus, you can be anyone from Roger Federer to Imran Khan, and from Nawaz Sharif to the Chief Secretary of a province. From these foundations, emerges the anonymity and mob-mentality where one gets into a position to bash anyone as one likes without a slightest fear of one's real identity being disclosed.

Because there is no effective control mechanism devised by regulatory bodies, what we find on social media is an educated but abusively aggressive youth. They would vehemently tongue-lash anyone they dislike ignoring the civilized limits. Many politicians, sportsmen and journalists face the wrath of these Keyboard Jihadists who believe they are the beacons of moral values, and rationalize coming down hard on any famous person.



Unfortunately, most of the political parties have hired these Tech-warriors in order to wage a 'war' against their opponents. The weapon of this war is propaganda by disseminating misinformation and levelling false accusations against opponents. These social media warriors or e-brigades have become a nuisance for the society as many politicians and journalists find themselves in an embarrassing situation due to “unsocial campaigns” and they have no option but to issue clarifications and tender apologies for no fault of theirs.

The height of this nonsense was observed during the General Elections 2013. Some techno-jingoists used every unfair means to propagate for their parties. But ironically, majority of such campaigns were based on falsehood, fabricated videos, half-truths and fake accounts. From these fake profiles of renowned scholars and leaders, they issued statements in favour of their parties. Ironically, their slogan was 'free and fair' elections. Election results came as a surprise for many; more so for these e-superheroes. Driven by rigging complaints in a few constituencies, these warriors created a chaotic atmosphere trying to sabotage the whole process.

This growing peril demands a swift action from those at the helm of affairs as well as from civil society. Surely, a crackdown against social media, like in case of Youtube, won't be a wise option. Unlike Gulf States, where courts have sentenced people for dissent on social media, we need a crackdown against these fake profiles. Facebook and Twitter may be asked to link user accounts on these sites to mobile numbers used in Pakistan by these users. It would remove the anonymity and facelessness from these warriors and at least they would realize that their real identities are known to everyone and they will have to face the music for their 'shares'.

All the political parties and their leadership should tighten their filter against fake profiles and abusive posts. Political parties especially need to denounce and condemn in clear words any such e-Brigades that are tarnishing their names as well. It is their responsibility to cultivate in their workers a sense to abide by the moral and ethical values and societal norms while professing their political agendas. Moreover, as a society we need to teach our youth that argumentation doesn't imply fighting rather it's a constructive debate based on empirical evidence, objective analysis and logical reasoning. We also need to realize the implications of 'sharing' a post without checking its authenticity. Social media and internet are meant to be a boon. Let us not make it a bane for our society.
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Thanks for valuable post. Can anybody please post any material related to Oil politics and it's far reaching impacts?

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Arrow how is By Irshad Ali Sodhar (FSP)?

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Originally Posted by Arain007 View Post
Global Zero: World without Nuclear Weapons


By Irshad Ali Sodhar (FSP)

Outline
1. Introduction
2. Brief history of nuclear weapons
3. Perils of nuclear weapons
4. Need to eliminate nuclear weapons
5. Global zero initiative
6. Is this goal achievable? Yes:
a. Historical support
b. Political will
c. Strong public support
d. New leadership
7. How to achieve it? Procedure/Strategy:
a. Ratification of NPT/CTBT
b. Reduction by the US and Russia
c. Elimination by all nuclear states
d. Follow up: control mechanism
8. Creation of International Nuclear Fuel-Bank
9. Advantages of nuclear zero
10. Conclusion

“This is the moment to begin the work of seeking the peace of world without nuclear weapons” (Barak Obama)

Man has achieved tremendous progress in developing scientific technology for the welfare and well-being of humanity, but simultaneously, he has also developed weapons for his own destruction. To acquire power–the most flagrant of all passions–he created weapons including explosive, chemical, biological and nuclear. Among them, the nuclear weapons are the most destructive causing mass destruction. Though, these have been used once in history during the World War-II, these have created a perpetual fear of annihilation among all humans. Now, with the evolving of a multi-cultural globalised world, there is an increase in momentum to develop a consensus for achieving Global Zero- elimination of all nuclear weapons. To succeed in this initiative, the need is to sit together, contemplate, devise a strategy and agree to divert this capability from weapons to welfare of humanity. The most resounding argument, generating urge to achieve this surpassable task lies in the brief history of apocalyptic perils of nuclear weapons.

The perils of atomic weapons were manifest as the two cities of Japan were wreaked when the bombs were dropped on them. In Hiroshima, some 75,000 people were immediately killed by blast, fire and radiation. Another 70,000 died by the end of 1945. Three days later in Nagasaki, plutonium bomb killed about 40,000 people immediately, another 75,000 died by the end of 1945. Five days after Nagasaki’s flattening, Japan surrendered. But the impact didn’t stop there. Thousands people died in following years due to radiation. Tens of thousands became disabled. Not only the people present at the time suffered but the ‘unborn’ as well. Thousands others were born with deformities and genetic disorders due to which successive generations have suffered.

The Americans and Japanese learned different lessons from these bombings. “The Americans lesson was; the nuclear weapons win wars, and therefore have value. The Japanese learned that human being and nuclear weapons cannot co-exist.” (David Krieger, President Nuclear Age Peace Foundation). However, the danger posed by nuclear weapons today is far greater than the destruction they caused in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Today, the number of nuclear weapons around the world is about 30,000 bombs with far greater weight and destruction power. Even a fraction of these weapons could put an end to human as well as other species on our planet. It is clear that if we don’t achieve ‘Global Zero’, our planet is always at risk, of being converted into a ‘Ground Zero’. This could happen not only due to a deliberate act but also accidental incident. Therefore, there is a strong reason that ‘these weapons must be abolished before they abolish us’.

The need to eliminate nuclear weapons is not only because these can be used for destruction in war but also because they pose equal danger in times of peace. There have been “Close Calls” to annihilation in various occasions. [In 1995] President Boris Yeltsin was informed that a nuclear missile was speeding towards the heart of Russia. Russian nuclear forces, already on hair-trigger alert, were put in even higher alert. Russian policy called for a “launch on warning”. The fate of the planet hung in the balance. Yeltsin wisely waited. And within those moments, the alarm declared false. “An unimaginable nuclear disaster had barely been avoided”, declared America’s Defense Monitor, Center for Defence Information, December 26, 1999.

Another, important incident took place in the US on August 31, 2007. Air Force crew loaded six live nuclear warheads onto a 8-52 Bomber and flew from ‘Minot Air Force Base’ in North Dakota to ‘Barksdak Air Force Base’ in cruising over the country’s heartland (Around 15 states). Each warhead was 10 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In analysis report, America’s Defence science Board (DSB) revealed that ‘six of the planet’s most powerful weapons were missing and no one noticed until they had landed in Louisiana after flight of 3 ½ hours.’ The report concluded that ‘human error was at the heart of the incident.’

This incident underscores the risk of accidental nuclear explosion threat due to ‘human error’ even in the country of its origin and in the ‘peace times’. It is important to note that this incident occurred in the US, which claims to employ world’s best safety standards for nuclear weapons. While the US itself keeps expressing concern over the safety of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal.

It is learnt from these incidents that the humanity is at the risk of just single human error, if the nuclear weapons exist in the world. Therefore, wisdom calls for elimination of all nuclear weapons in order to make the future of humanity—our generation and our future generations – safe and secure.

In addition, the Cold War which was the pushing force behind nuclear race has ended two decades ago. Also due to the interdependence of states in the current scenario, there is unlikeness of revival of such conflicts.

Moreover, the presence of nuclear weapons in some states provides reason and pretext for other ambitious nations to acquire the same status. This unwise race has itself caused devastating effects on economy and human development, particularly in developing countries.

One of the major world powers, the USSR too, collapsed under the heavy burden of extraordinary defence spending on economy. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, and North Korea also joined the race. They did succeed in acquiring nuclear weapons but their poor population is suffering from abject poverty. A country like Pakistan, which is merely surviving at the edge of economic insolvency, could gain much economic growth, had the resources been utilised for the welfare of people. Iranians are bearing the sanctions imposed by western powers through the UN for pursuing nuclear technology, which according to them, is aimed at acquiring weapons.

Besides, the argument to possess nuclear weapons to maintain deterrence capability has also lost its ground. More the states acquire ‘nukes’, more the risk of their use builds-up. Moreover, the presence of nukes always poses risk of slipping into the hands of terrorists. Admiral Noel Gayler, a former commander-in-chief of the Pacific Command of US Navy, asks, “Is difference of nuclear weapons still possible?” He answers, “No”. He also questions, “Does nuclear disarmament imperil our security?” He answers, “No, it enhances it.” As human – beings are fallible, deterrence is not a perfect system. It can be failed by human error, accident, miscalculation or simply miscommunication. “Does it make sense to risk the future of our cities and even the human species on an unprovable theory?”, David Krieger, founder of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation.

This is why, fortunately, the initiative of achieving peace of the world without nuclear weapons is gaining support among both the senior military and the political leaders of the world. The increasing number of leaders have realised what Abraham Lincoln said, “We must think anew and act anew.” Recently many world leaders have expressed willingness to move towards this goal. British Prime Minister Gorden Brown said in March 2008 that the UK was ready to work for “a world that is free from nuclear weapons.” On December 5, 2008, Nicholas Sarkozy, the French President, while holding EU Presidency, wrote a letter to UN General Secretary, outlining an EU plan to advance global progress toward nuclear disarmament.

In order to seize this positive trend, to achieve the commitment of the entire international community, and to re-energise effort for complete nuclear disarmament, a new initiative “Global Zero” was launched on December 9, 2008, in Paris. The initiative was endorsed by 100 international political, military, business and civic leaders across the world. The signatories included former US President Jimmy Carter, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, former British Foreign Secretary Margaret Becket, Queen Noor of Jordan, Ehasnul Haq, former Joint Chief of the Staff committee (JCSC) of Pakistan, former Indian National Security advisor Brajes Mishra.

Global Zero envisages eliminating nuclear weapons through phased and verified reduction over a period of years. Key steps include:

• Massive reduction in Russian-US arsenal.
• Complete elimination to zero by all states.
• Establishing verification system to keep check.
• International management of the fuel cycle.

There are many positive indicators which indicate why this goal is achievable. First; there is a strong historical support. Throughout the nuclear age, even at the height of the Cold War, leaders foresaw a day when the world could be free of nukes. In 1986, Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev and US President Ronald Reagan agreed that: “A nuclear war could never be won and must never be fought.” In 1999, Chinese President Jiang Zemin stated: “There is no reason why nuclear weapons should not be comprehensively banned and completely destroyed.”

Second; as Jiang Zemin had emphasised in his statement, ‘What it takes to reach this objective is no more than a strong political will.’ The world leaders agree with the idea of a world without nukes and have the means to achieve it. What they only need is the ‘Political will’. Some analysts argue that even if the major world powers agree to eliminate nuclear weapons, country like Iran might not agree to abandon its ambition. Though Iran’s nuclear weapon ambitions is a fallacy, there is a strong reason why Iran would follow the course. “If there is growing support by nuclear powers and public opinion worldwide, I think it becomes harder for any government, including Iran, to cross that barrier”, said Richard Burt, who was Washington’s Chief negotiator in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) talks in the early 1990s. Naturally, no country can afford to be on the one side and whole of the world on the other.

Third; there is a strong support among majority of the people around the world. A poll of 21 countries conducted by Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), USA, shows that global public opinion is overwhelmingly in favours of an international agreement for eliminating all nuclear weapons. 76 per cent of respondents, across all countries polled, favour such an agreement. As the public opinion tends to direct the policies of governments, it is likely that the leaders would come to the table.

Fourth; at this time particular, there is a new and great opportunity. US President Barak Obama and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin have signalled to work on nuclear disarmament. The former declared, “This is the moment to begin the works of seeking the peace of a world without nuclear weapons.” Similarly, Russian Prime Minister Putin expressed in a speech in September 2008 to “Close this Pandora’s Box”.

This new and unprecedented political support from the heads of the world’s most important governments’ for zero nuclear weapons has made this goal possible. This moment offers both the possibilities and dangers. Possibilities; because of new leadership in the US which appears to support the goal of nuclear abolition. Dangers; because, if this moment passes without action, then the nuclear-race could quickly gather pace with many more states acquiring weapons and the risk of weapons falling into the hands of terrorists would increase.

This opportunity must be seized. It is the time for a new beginning to achieve a world free of nuclear weapons. This moment calls for embracing possibilities and dispelling dangers. The phased and verifiable elimination of nuclear weapons is possible. Here are some of the steps needed to achieve this goal:

Firstly; the ratification of Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The NPT, which was sponsored by the US, UK and the USSR, was aimed “to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapon technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament”. The treaty was signed by 187 states and was ratified in 1975. However, the US, its sponsors, did not ratify it. Other four countries which have not signed it are: India, Pakistan, Israel and Cuba. Similarly, CTBT, introduced in 1995, has not been ratified by many states, including the US. It is strongly felt that if the US ratifies these treaties, others would follow the course. “Early the US ratification would do much to encourage the few remaining states to follow suit,” wrote David Miliband, UK’s former Foreign Secretary, in The Washington Post on December 8, 2008.

Secondly; negotiations between Washington and Moscow should start to cut back nuclear stockpiles to minimum. According to moderate estimates, the US and Russia have about 26000 of total 27000 weapons in the world. As both these states possess largest stockpiles—96 per cent of all the nuclear weapons in the world—they should reduce their arsenal in the first step. “Process needs to start with American and Russian leaderships”, argues Richard Burt.

This is an absolutely insensible approach to accumulate that much big arsenal that fraction of which can destroy the whole world. “When a country can be destroyed by a dozen weapons, its own possession of thousands of weapons gains no security”, says Admiral Noel Gayler. The huge possession of nukes itself puts larger responsibility on the US and Russia to initiate the process of disarmaments up to minimum level. The successful conclusion of ‘START NEW’ between both powers strengthens the possibility of reaching an agreement on nuclear disarmament.

Thirdly; following the reductions by the US and Russia, the rest of the countries can be brought on board for complete abolition of nukes. It would not be a difficult task. Once the powerful countries lead the course, rest will follow them. Perhaps others seem poised to welcome such move. The willingness of China, the UK and France has already been mentioned. The two South Asian countries India and Pakistan are also ready to shun the nukes. Last June, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, backed the same goal, saying that: “The only effective form of nuclear disarmament and elimination of nuclear weapons is global disarmament.” President Zardari has also talked of “nuclear weapon-free South Asia”. North Korea is already on-board in six-party talks and has also committed to abolish nuclear weapons for economic incentives. The only country which has stayed silent is Israel which is undeclared nuclear state. But given the leverage, Washington enjoys over it, Israel will have to be part of the process.

Once this process sets in momentum, the weapons could be delivered to a single and common remote place in oceans for dismantling under the supervision of skilled scientists. The nuclear material could be returned to the donors for use in the energy sector or disposal.

Lastly, having achieved the complete and verified elimination of nuclear weapons from the world, all the countries will have to conclude a joint treaty at the UN platform banning any development of nuclear weapons and technology. As Queen Noor of Jordan told BBC, “We have to work on de-legitimising the status of nuclear weapons.” This is vital for making the elimination of nukes irreversible. This would require establishing many mechanisms to constitute an eventual regime for overseeing the global ban.

It is also important to realise that advantage of use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes is too great to be ignored. The NPT also underscores ‘to promote cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy’. And, every country has the right to acquire nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. But given the element of conflict in international affairs and atmosphere of mistrust, all the countries can’t be trusted as reliable for not pursuing the ambitions of acquiring nuclear weapons again. This situation warrants a new approach, which would allow the use of nuclear energy and deny the weapons technology.

The Global Zero initiative envisages ‘international management of the fuel cycle to prevent future development of nuclear weapons.’ “An agreement on a new International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) led system that would help states wishing to develop a civil nuclear energy industry to do so without increasing the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation” says David Miliband. Creation of such international fuel bank would also end the conflicts in the world like Iran Nuclear Issue. This proposal was also forwarded by IAEA’s former head Muhammad Elbradi as early as in 2003, that: “all production and processing of nuclear material be under international control”. This novel idea has attracted the EU and an American billionaire ‘Warren Buffett’ for financing the project.

In this way, the world could not only be safe from destruction and the humanity from annihilation, but the tremendous energy potential of the nuclear resources could also be utilised for the welfare of people. The resources that go into weapons would help keep people safe and healthy and to give them opportunities. Not only the world is facing energy crisis due to depletion of fossil fuels, but with their emissions our environment is being damaged severely. Nuclear power possesses tremendous energy and simultaneously it is clean energy. It is important for health purposes as it is used in the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. Its use in agriculture enhances crop yield which would help mitigate the food crisis.

Global Zero offers two–pronged benefits: achieving safety by eliminating nuclear weapons and to achieve prosperity by using nuclear energy. The leaders of world have the greatest moral responsibility to seize the opportunity for the welfare of the living and the future generations of mankind. As Benazir Bhutto said, “We owe it to our children to build a world free of the threat of nuclear annihilation.”
you share notes thanks for this .who is By Irshad Ali Sodhar (FSP)?is this csp outlines and writing?
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you share notes thanks for this .who is By Irshad Ali Sodhar (FSP)?is this csp outlines and writing?
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yes dear he is a csp
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Good one but cannot distinguish the essay with the topic "Good governance in Pakistan and Crisis Of Good Governance in Pakistan
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