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Old Thursday, March 28, 2013
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Default All About Writing An Essay

Essay paper happens to be the nightmare of every CSS aspirant.. I have personally come across candidates who score amazingly well in all the subjects while flunk in English Essay... I therefore present some important points for all those CSS aspirants who need to have a good understanding of the basic concepts of writing an effective Essay....

Outline

Can you imagine a construction manager working on a skyscraper without a set of blueprints? No way! Similarly, writers construct essays using sets of blueprints or outlines to guide them in the writing process. Of course writers don't have to use outlines, but the effect is about the same as a construction worker who "freebuilds."

Drawing up an outline allows you to think before you write. What use is there in writing the entire paper only to realize that, had you done a little more planning beforehand, you would have organized your essay in an entirely different way? What if you realize later, after free-writing the essay, that you should have omitted some paragraphs, restructured the progression of your logic, and used more examples and other evidence?

You can go back and try to insert major revisions into the essay, but the effect may be like trying to add a thicker foundation to a building already constructed. The outline allows you to think beforehand what you're going to write so that when you do write it, if you've done your planning right, you won't have to do as much rewriting. (You will still, of course, need to revise.)

Make your points brief

When you construct your outline, keep it brief. The titles, headings, and points in your outline should be about one line each. Remember that you are only drawing an outline of the forest, not detailing each of the trees. Keep each line under a dozen words. If you can't compress your point into a one-liner, you probably don't have a clear grasp of what you're trying to say.

When you describe the point of each paragraph, phrase the point in a mini-claim. If the point of a paragraph is that soft drugs should be legal because they are relatively harmless, don't just write "soft drugs" as the point of the paragraph in your outline -- it's too brief and vague. Instead, write "drugs should be legal b/c soft drugs are harmlessl." This description is still brief, as it should be (one line or less), but it makes a claim that gives it purpose in the outline

Choose an appropriate arrangement

Drawing up an outline allows you to see at a glance how each of the paragraphs fits into the larger picture. When looking at your paragraphs from this perspective, you can easily shift around the order to see how a reorganization might be better. Remember that each paragraph in the essay should support the position or argument of your paper.

As you're shifting paragraphs around (maybe like you would a Rubic's cube), you will probably begin to wonder what the best arrangement really is. In general, put what you want the reader to remember either first or last, not in the middle. Studies in rhetoric have shown the readers remember least what is presented in the middle of an essay. Hence, the middle is where you should probably put your weaker arguments and counterarguments.

Some writers urge a climactic arrangement, one that works up to your strongest point, which is delivered as a kind of grand finale. Another successful arrangement is the inductive argument, in which you build up the evidence first, and then draw conclusions. A problem-solution format involves presenting the problem first and then outlining the solution — this works well for some topics because it is a soft version of the scientific method. Whatever your choice, choose an arrangement that presents a clear, logical argument.


Introduction

Get the Reader's Attention

The first goal in your introduction is to grab the reader's attention. Wake him or her up and generate some interest about the topic. To grab the reader's attention, you might present . . .
•an interesting fact
•a surprising piece of information
•an exciting quotation
•an intriguing paradox
•an explanation of an odd term
•a short narrative/anecdote (not fiction)
•a provocative question

Jump right into the Issue

In a short essay (under 1,000 words), a lengthy introduction is hardly needed. After getting the reader's attention, just jump right into the issue and begin directly, perhaps describing a specific, concrete situation -- presumably the context of the problem you're exploring. Avoid beginning your essay with broad statements or bland generalizations such as "X is becoming an issue . . . " or "Throughout time man has wondered . . . ." Do not begin so broad and general that the first several sentences could fit nearly any essay in the world. For example:
•Too General: Crime has been an issue throughout time.
•More Specific: The question of the severity of punishments for juveniles is an issue that has garnered attention due to the increasing number of juvenile shootings in the last several years.


•Too General: Man has always wondered about the meaning of information.
•More Specific: The Age of Information brought about through the digital revolution of computers has posed significant questions about the value and worth of this information: Does having instant access to every newspaper and journal blog in the world make us more intelligent, value-based people?

I like how Michele Montaigne, a sixteenth-century essayist, explains how to write an introduction: "For me, who ask only to become wiser, not more learned or eloquent, these logical and Aristotelian arrangements are not to the point. I want a man to begin with the conclusion. I understand well enough what death and pleasure are; let him not waste his time anatomizing them. I look for good solid reasons from the start, which will instruct me in how to sustain their attack. . . . I do not want a man to use his strength making me attentive and to shout at me fifty times "Or oyez!" in the manner of our heralds. . . . These are so many words lost on me. I come fully prepared from my house; I need no allurement or sauce; I can perfectly well eat my meat quite raw; and instead of whetting my appetite by these preparations and preliminaries, they pall and weary it" ("Of Books").

In other words, don't tire your reader with long introductions that fail to get quickly to the point and issue. Begin with specifics and jump right into the problem or conflict you are addressing. When readers see a good conflict, they are likely to take an interest in it.

Present your thesis

The entire introduction should lead toward the presentation of your arguable assertion, or thesis, whereby you take a stand on the issue you are discussing. Deliver your thesis at the end of the introduction so that your reader knows what general position you will take in your essay. You don't need to spell out all the nitty gritty details of your thesis in the introduction, particularly if it would be bulky and unintelligible to the reader who lacks all the ensuing reference and context, but you should give the reader a good idea of what your argument is. As you do this, avoid saying "I will discuss . . ." or "I intend to argue



Paragraphs

Choose a singular focus

Each paragraph should have a clear, singular focus to it. If there is an overriding error students make in writing essays, it is shifting topics within the same paragraph, rather than continuing to develop the same idea they began with. A paragraph is a discrete unit of thought that expands one specific idea, not three or four. If you find yourself shifting gears to start a new topic, begin a new paragraph instead.

Someone once compared the beginning of a new paragraph to the changing angle of a wall. When the angle of the wall changes, a new wall begins. Let your paragraphs be like that wall: running straight along a certain angle, and beginning anew when the angle changes.

Begin with a topic sentence

Nothing will help you keep a tighter focus on your paragraphs than topic sentences. A topic sentence is generally the first sentence of the paragraph, and it describes the claim or point of the paragraph, thus orienting the reader to the purpose of the paragraph. When you use topic sentences, your reader will invariably find it easier to follow your thoughts and argument. As an example, look at the first sentences of each paragraph on this page. The entire paragraph is focused around the stated topic sentence. Additionally, headings are used to make it even clearer and easier to follow. If you're writing a long research essay (10 + pages), you might consider using headings.


Develop the Idea

Invariably students shift topics and lose focus within their paragraphs because they do not know how to adequately develop their ideas. They usually know the paragraph needs to be longer, but they don't know how to expand their idea to fill that length. Indeed a paragraph should be at least half a page long, but usually no more than one page. How, then, if you don't have enough to say, do you fill that paragraph length? Instead of broadening the focus, which will only be another form of topic shifting, try implementing these techniques for development:

•illustrate your idea with examples
•give an authoritative quotation
•anticipate and respond to counterarguments
•back your ideas with more evidence
•offer another perspective to the idea
•brainstorm more insights about the idea
•elaborate on causes/effects, definitions, comparison/contrasts



Conclusion

Recap your main idea

If your essay was long and complex, sometimes difficult to follow, in the conclusion you'll want to recap your ideas in a clear, summarizing manner. You want your readers to understand the message you intended to communicate. However, if your essay was short and simple, don't insult your readers by restating at length the ideas they already understand. Strike a balance according to what you feel your readers need. In a short essay (600 words or less), any recapitulation should be brief (about 2 sentences), and rephrased in a fresh way, not just cut and pasted from the thesis.

Leave a memorable impression

It's not enough just to restate your main ideas -- if you only did that and then ended your essay, your conclusion would be flat and boring. You've got to make a graceful exit from your essay by leaving a memorable impression on the reader. You need to say something that will continue to simmer in the reader's minds long after he or she has put down your essay. To leave this memorable impression, try . . .
•giving a thought-provoking quotation
•describing a powerful image
•talking about consequences or implications
•stating what action needs to be done
•ending on an interesting twist of thought
•explaining why the topic is important

Keep it short

Keep your conclusion short, probably ten lines or less, and avoid fluff. You're just trying to make a clever exit, and presumably all the really important points have been made previously in your essay. You should not introduce any totally new ideas in the conclusion; however, you should not merely repeat your thesis either. This situation -- not presenting anything new, and neither just sticking with the old -- at first seems to be a paradox. However, with a little effort, one of the above six methods will usually yield "a quiet zinger," as John Tribble calls it.



I HOPE THIS HELPS U GUYS... I have tried my very best to compile these important points for U people to better understand the intricacies involved in the tedious process of Essay Writing... May Allah Bless U all with Success...
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Old Thursday, March 28, 2013
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Hello Sir Wassi. Please check my essay and pinpoint my mistakes and plz comment on the sequence of my essay as well as on the introduction. I shall be very thankful to you.

Growing Population is a threat to stable and prosperous Pakistan.

1- Introduction.

2- Facts about population explosion
a- Global Facts
b- Regional Facts
c- Local Facts.

3- Causes of Growth in Population:
a- Lack of seriousness of politicians to address the sensitive issue.
b- Desire of male child.
c- Misrepresentation of Islamic teachings.
d- Illiteracy.
e-Increase in birth rate and decrease in death rate due to advacement in science.
f- Conservative attitude towards Contraceptives.

4- Implications of Population bomb :-
a-Pressure on land.
b-Double digit Inflation rate.
c- Unemployment.
d- Sub standard of living.
e- Poor management.
f- Increase in illiteracy rate.
g- Increase in Crime rates.
h- Environmental degradation.

5- Suggestions to Cope the hazards of population explosion:-

a- Govt should make efforts to control population.
b- Ulemas should issue fatwas that family planning programs are not against Islam.
c- Campaigns should be arranged to aware the common man.
d- Encourage the woman to use birth control pills.

6- Conclusion.

Introduction :-

Population Explosion is nothing but a curse which is damaging the development of a country. Rapid Growth in population is a threat to a stable and a prosperous Pakistan. Population is considered as an asset but it tends to be a burden when it increases exponentially. Population in Pakistan is increasing at a rate of 2.57 percent per annum. Pakistan is experiencing an unwanted growth. The chief factor behind population explosion is the non seriousness of politicians to comprehend the serious implications of growing population. The desire of a male child,misrepresentation of Islamic teachings and lack of awareness among society are important factors that are leading towards explosion of population bomb. There are serious implications of rapid growth of population. It affects the socioeconomic conditions of the country. Unemployment,inflation,sub-substandard of living and environmental degradation are the outcomes of exponential growth of population. It is the need of hour that govt should take concrete steps to address the serious threat that is hurdle in the growth of a country. Only sincere and dedicated efforts are needed to overcome the dragon of overpopulation.
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Old Friday, March 29, 2013
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I'm afraid I wont be able to evaluate you perfectly, yet would try to do justice to your efforts... Im working on an assignment at the moment. Would surely read your work and provide the necessary feedback....
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Old Friday, March 29, 2013
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Thankyou Sir Wassi for your prompt reply. Take your time but i will be pleased if you will evaluate my work.
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Old Friday, March 29, 2013
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@ sir wassie.
sir, kindly help me to clear my concept about usage of vocabulary and sentence structure.
Is it necessary to use high level vocabulary, or simple vocabulary and simple sentence structure will be more than enough in essay, and in others papers as well?
Regards
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Old Saturday, March 30, 2013
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@iranibilly

I highly recommend the use of comprehensive language... Something that would be easy to understand... the use of complex vocabulary in an essay is not recommended... Impress the examiner with your logic and clarity of mind rather than the complexity of your vocabulary... that worked for me and would surely work 4 you as well... InshAllah
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it was my first experience here to post something. i was searching for an exemplary essay and the reading of this made it easy for me to understand the structure and the way how to make outlines. thank you so much.
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Old Thursday, December 19, 2019
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you can search and find different essays on this forum. Just go to the essay thread and you may find numerous essays almost on every type.
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