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Old Friday, May 17, 2013
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Arrow ABC of Essay Writing-with Examples ad Intros

Essay paper is the First Over in the Innings of CSS-Match.

How to write an essay in CSS.

A step-wise guide is given as under:-

What can we include in an essay?

Daily Life Observations
Literary Reflection
Personal Reflection
Historical Events
Contemporary Events
Imaginations
Facts and Figures
Table / Diagram (Max 1 or 2 if required or applicable)
Description
Arguments

How to select a topic in CSS Essay paper?.

It is very crucial point to select the right topic out of given 10 topics because once you select it you will have to write an essay of at least 2500+ words on the same topics.

Step 1

Brain Storm your mind about the topics and judge how much relevant data have you in your memory to write it down.

Step 2

Never opt a topic in which you do not know the meaning of even a single word.

Step 3

Do not go through the paper too quickly. You can cause yourself unrest and that will reduce your confident and that is surely not required on the day. Read the topics slowly and try to evaluate the meaning of 1st topic to the best of your abilities and then move on the next and then the next. Keep your calm and hold your nerves and if you feel a bit nervous take some deep breaths and remove your eyes for a moment or two and see around to make yourself comfortable. Never reach a decision that Ohhhhhhhhhhhh it too difficult and my CSS has ended or Oh Wowww i can write all the topics and i know every essay. In both the conditions, you have to keep a check yourself whether you are too early onto it. Both perception are wrong and can be lethal and prove a death blow.

Step 4

If you come the assesment that you can wirte an essay on more than one topic or even more than select your essay as under

Make a Rough Brain Storming Outline of both the essays which you think have a tie and then opt the one which you think better. Do it on Page 25 of your answer sheet.

Step 5
Make a outline and start writing essay.

Now you should close your Question Paper because it sometimes happens that students feel obstruction of thoughts at the mid of the paper. That is very normal. To write an essay of 2500+ words without making a single stroke of pen dwindled out of the scope of the topic can make you OUT of the competition. So you can have your moments during the essay paper. Obstruction of brain occurs sometimes because you are surely in a pressure. If at this crucial time, your question paper is open and you find that Oh My God..........! I opted the wrong topic and i should have slected that topic. That is very dangerous situation. More dangerous than the obstruction of thoughts. So close the question paper of fold it such that only your selected topic remains to your eyes. This should be like Burning the boats behind.


Finding the Key word in a topic

Evaluate each topic regarding

Geographical Scope
Time / Era Scope
Segment of society of scope


For example

"Future of democracy in Pakistan is bright"

Here Time is Future
Segment of attention is all the democratic institutions / Govt / other state organs

Geographical Scope is Pakistan

So you would write the essay about the future of democracy in Pakistan. There is no need to mention all the Govts since 1947 upto now. Your focus is Future (Time Scope). You can give brief account in your expansion that how furture of Democracy is going to be bright. You can argue that in past Military intervened etc etc but no need of writing 4-5 pages of history of democracy. It can ruin your essay.

If the Topic is

"democracy in Pakistan"

Now time scope is not given
Geographically Pakistan

So here you can discuss as to why democracy in Pakistan is not so strong ans then also lead the essay from past to future but keep a balance between both.



Outline

How to Brain Storm


Find answers of

What?
Why?
How?
about every point in your point which you are going to include in the outline.

For example
Is Future of democracy in Pakistan is bright? (What?)

Answer Yes

The ask yourself How??

Independent Judiciary
Fair Media
Public Opinion
Maturity
Young Voter
New Leadership
Literacy Rate
International Environment

etc etc etc etc you can brain storm and make points this way.


After making many points you have to connect it to the Essay.

How to Connect it to the Essay?

For Example your essay is
" Effects of Energy Crisis in Pakistan"
and you have made a point in your outline that "Frustration in Public"

You can connect it to the essay in Expansion as under :-

Ten years ago, long ques of people and vehicles on petrol pumps were seldom found. Now its a routine matter. People have to run generators for electricity and it has caused increased cause in usage of oil. People are frustrated of these long ques. Students cannot study at night and people can not have a good sleep at night which has caused public frustration. Even the ladies find it difficult to cook which makes the situation more worse. (its an example. Surely you can write much better than this).

Before adding a point in your essay make sure you know how to connect it to the Essay topic.

For example in essay "Independence of Judiciary"

You can say that "Justice; if administered properly, establishes peace and makes sure a civilized society. It is not important for the people that by which system of Government they are being ruled. The thing important to them is the access to justice. Mughal King Akbar was a monarch but his people were pleased with him because he ensured proper administration of justice. etc etc etc ..........

But you can not say it as such in an essay on importance of democracy. So this is how you will connect your outline points to the essay.


About Essay it is said that you can also say that a crow can be white. But how you will have to give the examiner solid reasons.

You can say that genetic engineering has developed so well. Its an era of Cloning, cross-breeding and test-tube babies. It is no surprise to imagine a white crow now. etc etc etc. (But please if you are a genetic engineer, donot give too many details so that the examiner gets frustrated).


Essay is a paper of English. This is your test how you convey your thinking on page and what skills have you got and how clearly can you make your point.

Its not a paper of Knowledge.

Your points should be coherent and logical and should be seemingly connected to the topic.


Outline

Maximum Size 2.5 Pages
Minimum Size 1.5 Pages

Your outline should be strictly adhered to the topic so that if one reads your Outline without knowing the topic he should reach the topic himself. This is the mirror test of a good outline.

You can use Headings and Sub Headings but keep it in mind make it as lengthy as manageable within time. Too long outline will require time for expansion and closure. You can trim you essay outline if it is too lengthy. But is should not be too short as well.


Your Outline has an effect on the examiner about you.




Topic of the essay(with marker)

Outline (Marker)
1. Introduction (pen) : -------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------
(this introduction is introduction of the outline of the essay. Should be
2-3 lines. Just opening sentences.)

2. Heading
3. Heading
a) Sub Heading
b) ----------
c)-----------
d)----------
4. Heading
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Conclusion.-----------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------. (2-3 lines only and here your outline should be concluded and essay topic may be re-confirmed).


After the Outline

Write with Marker


Essay

and from now onward there is no need to use marker. Now only use blue pen and all the quotes and verses should be given with blue pen only.

An essay doesnot contain headings in it. Essay goes straight. Giving Headings in between the essay makes it like a report writing rather than an essay. However its your own choice anyhow essay should not contain headings in the main body.



Introduction

First 2 pages should be introductory. The examiner determines what the candidate is going to write in the whole essay.

There are many methods of making introductions.

1 Direct Style
2. Indirect Style

Direct Style

You will open up with the topic lines or start it directly and then expand it a bit. It should be like Start to End. It is like starting directly from the topic and diverging it.

Indirect Style

Here you can make start from any relevant argument and then connect the things to your essay topic. It is just like End to Start. It is like Converging towards the topic.

You can start with a very little brief history 2-3 lines, a quotation, a question, case study, or from the key word of the essay topic and then ending the introductory paragraph on the essay topic.


For example an indirect introduction of the essay

" Brains, like hearts go where they are appreciated"

Brain and heart are two major and vital body organs. Brain can be considered to be the chief executive of the body whereas heart; although it pumps blood to all the body, is thought to be the generator of emotions and desires. They are often thought to be working in opposition to each other but this perception is not supported generally. Rather, there is a unique combination between the two which regulates the bodily functions and the behavior. Both organs are responsible for developing perception about everything in life. If it is accepted that heart works in opposition to brain, then a person should jump from an aeroplane on the sight of a beautiful waterfall or any place of his choice. But it never happens because of the threat involved. So the brain and heart work coherently and only those actions are carried out which have appreciation. Appreciation can be in any form and its meanings vary from person to person. Appreciation determines the pathway followed by us. Men of brain and scholars migrate to more developed countries in pursuit of appreciation in the form of sky-scrapping salaries. Great military geniuses of history were found to carry their military expeditions for land, wealth and authority. Brain gives a key importance to appreciation in the interpersonal relations as well. Despite strong desires to advance to a very beautiful, charming and graceful person, appreciation by that person on this advancement will be given due consideration. Thus appreciation attracts the brain and brains, like hearts go where they are appreciated.


In the above introduction, indirect style has been adopted which opens with the key words of the topic Brain and Heart and from their physiologic importance, a chain of arguments connect the three words Brain, Heart and Appreciation and in the end the introduction ends by confirming the topic of the essay.

I have one thing to share that surely all of you can write much better than the above para. I am just trying to share my meager knowledge.


Main Body of the Essay


After your introduction, you will move on to the Expansion of your essay.

Step - 1

Start by expanding the first heading of the outline.

Step - 2

One heading may have length as long as you can manage it within the time. For example you have 7 main headings in your heading then, you can give 2 to 2.5 pages (depends upon the size of your writing and words per page as well). And also if you have very strong arguments about a certain heading you can elongate it too. And for those arguments where you feel like lacking the depth knowledge, then it is better to write less and be superficial rather than incorporating a wrong justification. Only slightly touch it.

Step-3

Try to explain all the headings by arguments in your essay step wise. It will be more beautiful if you keep the order of te outline. It will make your essay coherent.

Step-4

In this way you will unlock all the headings of the outline and then step-wise
lock them back. It should be such that if you start writing one argument, discuss it, narrate it, expand it to the required length, justify it with solid reasons and then re-confirm it and then move towards the next heading.


Step-5

You must arrive at the conclusion of the essay after having discussed all the outline headings (ideally) when there are 20 minutes left at the least. If you feel like running out of time, then you can shorten some of the arguments of your essay. But be aware, without conclusion, your essay stands no where.

Step-6

Conclusion

Conclusion is not Suggestion.
Always remember it.

In conclusion, no new argument should be added. You will just sum up the arguments and justification to support your stance in the conclusion and here your justifications should resonate the essay topic and should re-confirm it. This is must part of essay. You can give your own perception as well. But never add something new in the conclusion. Conclusion never means suggestions. Here you just re-confirm your essay topic or the stance you have maintained in the essay. Here you will support all your essay. This is a backdoor of the essay from where you exit.

Its length should be ideally less than introductory para more ideally one half of your introduction in length. It should be concise and to the point.

In conclusion, you show the examiner that you are confident on yourself and you re-confirm yourself.

Before starting your conclusion, do write the words, "in the end", "to conclude" etc etc.


Also it is inappropriate to start your conclusion suddenly. It should be smooth in the essay. It should not look like in essay that you were arguing and justifying and abruptly you realized that oh my God......! only five minutes are left. And you stop your arguments and right after that para you straight away write "To conclude"...........just like a car was moving at the speed of 40Km/hour and suddenly it stopped and took a 180 degree U-Turn.

You will bring the reader of the essay slowly towards the end of the essay. Your outline should be such that your last 2 or at least one heading is like a closure of the essay. It would help you keeping to the track. You will systematically move to the conclusion yourself. The reader will assess himself that its now heading towards the closure.

Transition from Essay Body to Conclusion should be smooth, coherent, in order and must come as a gradual step in essay. It should feel like gradually going the stairs instead of a jump from the top of the roof. It should look like a part of the essay and a part of gradual descending towards the conclusion. It should not be like a misfit brick in the wall.


How to make arguments?

Each headline has to be discussed as an argument developing. Your argument should ideally be Justified, logical, solid, relevant and comprehensively connected with the essay topic. It can be justified with references to any surveys if possible and if general in form should consist of solid reasons.

How to make an argument?
Approach should be from General to Specific.

For example, You are writing an essay on " Causes of Terrorism" and in an argument you want to tell the examiner that how terrorism is caused by injustice to people. , you can say that

" Its a rule of thumb that true administration of justice brings peace in society".

It is a general Opening of the Heading "Injustice" in the Essay "Causes of Terrorism". This is a general statement and not a quote or saying. You can carve it on your own. Now you will connect it to the Essay topic. You can say

"ts a rule of thumb that true administration of justice brings peace in society. Justice brings the people under the ambit of law. The powerful become accountable for their deeds and when the powerful is answerable to law, a unique harmony prevails on such a society. The rich and the poor, the powerful and the powerless become equal.When they become equal in the eyes of law, reasons for any conflict are minimized because any deed of a person or group of persons to subjugate others is checked by the law. When such a justice is administered, people respect the law and they tend to obey laws as much as possible. When a weaker person gets his right from the court, he would never like to take guns and grenades in his hand and become a criminal to take revenge at his own. This only happens in those societies where conflicts arise due to non-existence of law and non-provision of proper justice. For example, (here give examples of some countries where human rights have been violated and terrorism is common). So no justice means no peace and no peace means war and war of the powerless against the powerful for his legitimate rights has been defined as the Terrorism in the modern world.Hence, non-provision of justice is a main cause of terrorism."


(Surely my English and knowledge is not that good. You can surely write more comprehensive than this). You can give justifications by quoting examples of those countries where justice exists and terrorism is not found and vice versa to strengthen your argument.)


You can use any kind of expansion which you think appropriate for you. The main aim was to share my meager knowledge about making arguments in an essay.




Gender Equality is a myth


1. Gender Equality
a. Physiological Perspective
b. Psychological Perspective
2. Creation of Adam and Eve
a. Who was created first?
b. Had Adam any priority over Eve?
3. How gender discrimination started?
a. Physiological superiority of male gender
b. Lawlessness
4. Status of genders in ancient times
a. Roman Laws
b. Mosaic Law
c. Hinduism
5. Change in status of gender in late 19th Century
6. Status of gender in West
Gender equality to liberalism
Anti-Islam philosphy and its impacts
Vulgarity
Deterioration moral values

7. Status of gender in Islam
Social
Political
Spiritual
8. Is gender equality a myth or a reality?
9. How to implement gender equality?
10. Conclusion. Both the genders have been created by God of the same nature. The word mate has been used and both genders are equal in the eyes of law. They have different roles in society due to their biological differences.



What should not be done in an essay?

Do not try to insert heavy words at the cost of scope of the essay. Some time we know a heavy word and intend to FIT it forcefully in the essay even it is not necessary. Then to insert such a word we often carve a sentence to FIT that word. Sometimes it affects the spirit of the essay and instead of making a good impact, they; being misfit, annoy the reader. Examiner very quickly spot such efforts of inserting heaving words.

Be simple and natural. Do not try to stuff your essays with heavy words. Essay is a test of writing skills of English whether you are able to convey your thoughts through pen or not. Insertion of heavy words is not the requirement. Yes, if your English is that good and advanced and you are well equipped with vocabulary, your writing style will tell itself to the reader and then it will be coherent.
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  #2  
Old Saturday, February 13, 2016
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Dear brother you have mentioned all those points which really an essay has. Your points are more than expectations. I say with guarantee if someone follow your stated points then no one can prevent them from success.
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Old Saturday, February 13, 2016
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I believe Its Sir Nafees style. Isn't it?
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Try a little harder to be a little better
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Very well explained everything. I am sure it will help a lot beginner as well those who have lack of expertise in essay writing.
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Thank you soo much for the guidance. This is really awesome. It will surely helpful in essay writting.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Chintoo2010 View Post
Essay paper is the First Over in the Innings of CSS-Match.

How to write an essay in CSS.

A step-wise guide is given as under:-

What can we include in an essay?

Daily Life Observations
Literary Reflection
Personal Reflection
Historical Events
Contemporary Events
Imaginations
Facts and Figures
Table / Diagram (Max 1 or 2 if required or applicable)
Description
Arguments

How to select a topic in CSS Essay paper?.

It is very crucial point to select the right topic out of given 10 topics because once you select it you will have to write an essay of at least 2500+ words on the same topics.

Step 1

Brain Storm your mind about the topics and judge how much relevant data have you in your memory to write it down.

Step 2

Never opt a topic in which you do not know the meaning of even a single word.

Step 3

Do not go through the paper too quickly. You can cause yourself unrest and that will reduce your confident and that is surely not required on the day. Read the topics slowly and try to evaluate the meaning of 1st topic to the best of your abilities and then move on the next and then the next. Keep your calm and hold your nerves and if you feel a bit nervous take some deep breaths and remove your eyes for a moment or two and see around to make yourself comfortable. Never reach a decision that Ohhhhhhhhhhhh it too difficult and my CSS has ended or Oh Wowww i can write all the topics and i know every essay. In both the conditions, you have to keep a check yourself whether you are too early onto it. Both perception are wrong and can be lethal and prove a death blow.

Step 4

If you come the assesment that you can wirte an essay on more than one topic or even more than select your essay as under

Make a Rough Brain Storming Outline of both the essays which you think have a tie and then opt the one which you think better. Do it on Page 25 of your answer sheet.

Step 5
Make a outline and start writing essay.

Now you should close your Question Paper because it sometimes happens that students feel obstruction of thoughts at the mid of the paper. That is very normal. To write an essay of 2500+ words without making a single stroke of pen dwindled out of the scope of the topic can make you OUT of the competition. So you can have your moments during the essay paper. Obstruction of brain occurs sometimes because you are surely in a pressure. If at this crucial time, your question paper is open and you find that Oh My God..........! I opted the wrong topic and i should have slected that topic. That is very dangerous situation. More dangerous than the obstruction of thoughts. So close the question paper of fold it such that only your selected topic remains to your eyes. This should be like Burning the boats behind.


Finding the Key word in a topic

Evaluate each topic regarding

Geographical Scope
Time / Era Scope
Segment of society of scope


For example

"Future of democracy in Pakistan is bright"

Here Time is Future
Segment of attention is all the democratic institutions / Govt / other state organs

Geographical Scope is Pakistan

So you would write the essay about the future of democracy in Pakistan. There is no need to mention all the Govts since 1947 upto now. Your focus is Future (Time Scope). You can give brief account in your expansion that how furture of Democracy is going to be bright. You can argue that in past Military intervened etc etc but no need of writing 4-5 pages of history of democracy. It can ruin your essay.

If the Topic is

"democracy in Pakistan"

Now time scope is not given
Geographically Pakistan

So here you can discuss as to why democracy in Pakistan is not so strong ans then also lead the essay from past to future but keep a balance between both.



Outline

How to Brain Storm


Find answers of

What?
Why?
How?
about every point in your point which you are going to include in the outline.

For example
Is Future of democracy in Pakistan is bright? (What?)

Answer Yes

The ask yourself How??

Independent Judiciary
Fair Media
Public Opinion
Maturity
Young Voter
New Leadership
Literacy Rate
International Environment

etc etc etc etc you can brain storm and make points this way.


After making many points you have to connect it to the Essay.

How to Connect it to the Essay?

For Example your essay is
" Effects of Energy Crisis in Pakistan"
and you have made a point in your outline that "Frustration in Public"

You can connect it to the essay in Expansion as under :-

Ten years ago, long ques of people and vehicles on petrol pumps were seldom found. Now its a routine matter. People have to run generators for electricity and it has caused increased cause in usage of oil. People are frustrated of these long ques. Students cannot study at night and people can not have a good sleep at night which has caused public frustration. Even the ladies find it difficult to cook which makes the situation more worse. (its an example. Surely you can write much better than this).

Before adding a point in your essay make sure you know how to connect it to the Essay topic.

For example in essay "Independence of Judiciary"

You can say that "Justice; if administered properly, establishes peace and makes sure a civilized society. It is not important for the people that by which system of Government they are being ruled. The thing important to them is the access to justice. Mughal King Akbar was a monarch but his people were pleased with him because he ensured proper administration of justice. etc etc etc ..........

But you can not say it as such in an essay on importance of democracy. So this is how you will connect your outline points to the essay.


About Essay it is said that you can also say that a crow can be white. But how you will have to give the examiner solid reasons.

You can say that genetic engineering has developed so well. Its an era of Cloning, cross-breeding and test-tube babies. It is no surprise to imagine a white crow now. etc etc etc. (But please if you are a genetic engineer, donot give too many details so that the examiner gets frustrated).


Essay is a paper of English. This is your test how you convey your thinking on page and what skills have you got and how clearly can you make your point.

Its not a paper of Knowledge.

Your points should be coherent and logical and should be seemingly connected to the topic.


Outline

Maximum Size 2.5 Pages
Minimum Size 1.5 Pages

Your outline should be strictly adhered to the topic so that if one reads your Outline without knowing the topic he should reach the topic himself. This is the mirror test of a good outline.

You can use Headings and Sub Headings but keep it in mind make it as lengthy as manageable within time. Too long outline will require time for expansion and closure. You can trim you essay outline if it is too lengthy. But is should not be too short as well.


Your Outline has an effect on the examiner about you.




Topic of the essay(with marker)

Outline (Marker)
1. Introduction (pen) : -------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------
(this introduction is introduction of the outline of the essay. Should be
2-3 lines. Just opening sentences.)

2. Heading
3. Heading
a) Sub Heading
b) ----------
c)-----------
d)----------
4. Heading
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Conclusion.-----------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------. (2-3 lines only and here your outline should be concluded and essay topic may be re-confirmed).


After the Outline

Write with Marker


Essay

and from now onward there is no need to use marker. Now only use blue pen and all the quotes and verses should be given with blue pen only.

An essay doesnot contain headings in it. Essay goes straight. Giving Headings in between the essay makes it like a report writing rather than an essay. However its your own choice anyhow essay should not contain headings in the main body.



Introduction

First 2 pages should be introductory. The examiner determines what the candidate is going to write in the whole essay.

There are many methods of making introductions.

1 Direct Style
2. Indirect Style

Direct Style

You will open up with the topic lines or start it directly and then expand it a bit. It should be like Start to End. It is like starting directly from the topic and diverging it.

Indirect Style

Here you can make start from any relevant argument and then connect the things to your essay topic. It is just like End to Start. It is like Converging towards the topic.

You can start with a very little brief history 2-3 lines, a quotation, a question, case study, or from the key word of the essay topic and then ending the introductory paragraph on the essay topic.


For example an indirect introduction of the essay

" Brains, like hearts go where they are appreciated"

Brain and heart are two major and vital body organs. Brain can be considered to be the chief executive of the body whereas heart; although it pumps blood to all the body, is thought to be the generator of emotions and desires. They are often thought to be working in opposition to each other but this perception is not supported generally. Rather, there is a unique combination between the two which regulates the bodily functions and the behavior. Both organs are responsible for developing perception about everything in life. If it is accepted that heart works in opposition to brain, then a person should jump from an aeroplane on the sight of a beautiful waterfall or any place of his choice. But it never happens because of the threat involved. So the brain and heart work coherently and only those actions are carried out which have appreciation. Appreciation can be in any form and its meanings vary from person to person. Appreciation determines the pathway followed by us. Men of brain and scholars migrate to more developed countries in pursuit of appreciation in the form of sky-scrapping salaries. Great military geniuses of history were found to carry their military expeditions for land, wealth and authority. Brain gives a key importance to appreciation in the interpersonal relations as well. Despite strong desires to advance to a very beautiful, charming and graceful person, appreciation by that person on this advancement will be given due consideration. Thus appreciation attracts the brain and brains, like hearts go where they are appreciated.


In the above introduction, indirect style has been adopted which opens with the key words of the topic Brain and Heart and from their physiologic importance, a chain of arguments connect the three words Brain, Heart and Appreciation and in the end the introduction ends by confirming the topic of the essay.

I have one thing to share that surely all of you can write much better than the above para. I am just trying to share my meager knowledge.


Main Body of the Essay


After your introduction, you will move on to the Expansion of your essay.

Step - 1

Start by expanding the first heading of the outline.

Step - 2

One heading may have length as long as you can manage it within the time. For example you have 7 main headings in your heading then, you can give 2 to 2.5 pages (depends upon the size of your writing and words per page as well). And also if you have very strong arguments about a certain heading you can elongate it too. And for those arguments where you feel like lacking the depth knowledge, then it is better to write less and be superficial rather than incorporating a wrong justification. Only slightly touch it.

Step-3

Try to explain all the headings by arguments in your essay step wise. It will be more beautiful if you keep the order of te outline. It will make your essay coherent.

Step-4

In this way you will unlock all the headings of the outline and then step-wise
lock them back. It should be such that if you start writing one argument, discuss it, narrate it, expand it to the required length, justify it with solid reasons and then re-confirm it and then move towards the next heading.


Step-5

You must arrive at the conclusion of the essay after having discussed all the outline headings (ideally) when there are 20 minutes left at the least. If you feel like running out of time, then you can shorten some of the arguments of your essay. But be aware, without conclusion, your essay stands no where.

Step-6

Conclusion

Conclusion is not Suggestion.
Always remember it.

In conclusion, no new argument should be added. You will just sum up the arguments and justification to support your stance in the conclusion and here your justifications should resonate the essay topic and should re-confirm it. This is must part of essay. You can give your own perception as well. But never add something new in the conclusion. Conclusion never means suggestions. Here you just re-confirm your essay topic or the stance you have maintained in the essay. Here you will support all your essay. This is a backdoor of the essay from where you exit.

Its length should be ideally less than introductory para more ideally one half of your introduction in length. It should be concise and to the point.

In conclusion, you show the examiner that you are confident on yourself and you re-confirm yourself.

Before starting your conclusion, do write the words, "in the end", "to conclude" etc etc.


Also it is inappropriate to start your conclusion suddenly. It should be smooth in the essay. It should not look like in essay that you were arguing and justifying and abruptly you realized that oh my God......! only five minutes are left. And you stop your arguments and right after that para you straight away write "To conclude"...........just like a car was moving at the speed of 40Km/hour and suddenly it stopped and took a 180 degree U-Turn.

You will bring the reader of the essay slowly towards the end of the essay. Your outline should be such that your last 2 or at least one heading is like a closure of the essay. It would help you keeping to the track. You will systematically move to the conclusion yourself. The reader will assess himself that its now heading towards the closure.

Transition from Essay Body to Conclusion should be smooth, coherent, in order and must come as a gradual step in essay. It should feel like gradually going the stairs instead of a jump from the top of the roof. It should look like a part of the essay and a part of gradual descending towards the conclusion. It should not be like a misfit brick in the wall.


How to make arguments?

Each headline has to be discussed as an argument developing. Your argument should ideally be Justified, logical, solid, relevant and comprehensively connected with the essay topic. It can be justified with references to any surveys if possible and if general in form should consist of solid reasons.

How to make an argument?
Approach should be from General to Specific.

For example, You are writing an essay on " Causes of Terrorism" and in an argument you want to tell the examiner that how terrorism is caused by injustice to people. , you can say that

" Its a rule of thumb that true administration of justice brings peace in society".

It is a general Opening of the Heading "Injustice" in the Essay "Causes of Terrorism". This is a general statement and not a quote or saying. You can carve it on your own. Now you will connect it to the Essay topic. You can say

"ts a rule of thumb that true administration of justice brings peace in society. Justice brings the people under the ambit of law. The powerful become accountable for their deeds and when the powerful is answerable to law, a unique harmony prevails on such a society. The rich and the poor, the powerful and the powerless become equal.When they become equal in the eyes of law, reasons for any conflict are minimized because any deed of a person or group of persons to subjugate others is checked by the law. When such a justice is administered, people respect the law and they tend to obey laws as much as possible. When a weaker person gets his right from the court, he would never like to take guns and grenades in his hand and become a criminal to take revenge at his own. This only happens in those societies where conflicts arise due to non-existence of law and non-provision of proper justice. For example, (here give examples of some countries where human rights have been violated and terrorism is common). So no justice means no peace and no peace means war and war of the powerless against the powerful for his legitimate rights has been defined as the Terrorism in the modern world.Hence, non-provision of justice is a main cause of terrorism."


(Surely my English and knowledge is not that good. You can surely write more comprehensive than this). You can give justifications by quoting examples of those countries where justice exists and terrorism is not found and vice versa to strengthen your argument.)


You can use any kind of expansion which you think appropriate for you. The main aim was to share my meager knowledge about making arguments in an essay.




Gender Equality is a myth


1. Gender Equality
a. Physiological Perspective
b. Psychological Perspective
2. Creation of Adam and Eve
a. Who was created first?
b. Had Adam any priority over Eve?
3. How gender discrimination started?
a. Physiological superiority of male gender
b. Lawlessness
4. Status of genders in ancient times
a. Roman Laws
b. Mosaic Law
c. Hinduism
5. Change in status of gender in late 19th Century
6. Status of gender in West
Gender equality to liberalism
Anti-Islam philosphy and its impacts
Vulgarity
Deterioration moral values

7. Status of gender in Islam
Social
Political
Spiritual
8. Is gender equality a myth or a reality?
9. How to implement gender equality?
10. Conclusion. Both the genders have been created by God of the same nature. The word mate has been used and both genders are equal in the eyes of law. They have different roles in society due to their biological differences.



What should not be done in an essay?

Do not try to insert heavy words at the cost of scope of the essay. Some time we know a heavy word and intend to FIT it forcefully in the essay even it is not necessary. Then to insert such a word we often carve a sentence to FIT that word. Sometimes it affects the spirit of the essay and instead of making a good impact, they; being misfit, annoy the reader. Examiner very quickly spot such efforts of inserting heaving words.

Be simple and natural. Do not try to stuff your essays with heavy words. Essay is a test of writing skills of English whether you are able to convey your thoughts through pen or not. Insertion of heavy words is not the requirement. Yes, if your English is that good and advanced and you are well equipped with vocabulary, your writing style will tell itself to the reader and then it will be coherent.

Thanks for such a nice information.
Sir, what should be the strength of introduction's para? 2 to 2.5 pages means all in just one para or it may be divided? Moreover, does 2 to 2.5 pages constitute one para? Please elaborate it. Thanks.
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I want to post Essay outline ?
I have difficulty in using CSS Forum ;Plz help.
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Thanks a lot, very detailed, really helpful
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Quote:
Originally Posted by derawall View Post
I believe Its Sir Nafees style. Isn't it?
I do not own copyrights. I just tried to explain how to deal with Essay Paper. My this post contains all my experiences of essay preparation. I think some people would have learned something. Even if someone has learned a single word, that is enough for me as a member on this forum.
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It depends on you. If you write coherently and can connect all the points cleanly, you can go for one paragraph but be sure not to confuse the readers. It is safer if you go for subparagraphs and delineate one point in each paragraph in the introduction. To sum up, many paragraphs are easier to manage. In the single paragraph, it is like saying all in one breath. Go for one paragraph if you have a deeper grip on topic and can manage it.
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