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Old Monday, September 05, 2011
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POVERTY

“One thing is sure and nothing is surer; the rich get richer and the poor get — children”

1. STARTING PARAGRAPH:
Poverty is an ethical concept, not a statistical one. Inherent in the term “poverty”, when applied to human beings, is the notion of a life situation that should not exist. It is not only lack of roti, kapra aur makan—food, cloth and shelter. Amartya Sen aptly sums up many dimensions of poverty as lack of “capability”—capability to overcome violence, hunger, ignorance, illness, physical hardship, injustice and voicelessness. The World Bank has argued that poverty often lies in the absence of opportunity, empowerment and security, and not just the absence of food on the table.
Still, there is a hunger to have a statistic that sums up poverty, something handy both for analysis and for comparison across groups and among time periods. For this reason there are a variety of statistical measures of poverty. None of them do a very good job of capturing the multi-dimensional concepts of poverty discussed above. All require severe conceptual compromises to make them comparable either across groups or time. Nevertheless, they provide whatever is available to monitor poverty reduction in a consistent manner.

2. DEFINING POVERTY:
Poverty is relative to richness. It is one of the foremost social problems facing by the developing and the third world countries. John L. Gillin asserted that poverty may be regarded as “that condition in which a person, either because of inadequate income or unwise expenditure, does not maintain a scale of living high enough to provide for the physical and mental efficiency that enable him and his natural dependents to function usually according to the standards of society of which he is a member.”
I. Absolute poverty: It is a condition of moneylessness; therefore, it is also called Income poverty. According to Gerald Meier, “the ability to attain minimum standard of living.” Poverty is also defined as powerlessness. Poverty as powerlessness is measured in terms of lack of power as well as money. Powerlessness in other words is the lack of control over one’s own destiny. Powerlessness is a lack of empowerment.
II. Relative poverty: The best to measure the relative poverty is to take into account the position of various groups on a scale of income that must compare the income share of those at the bottom to that of those at the top. With complete income equality, the top 20 per cent of people would get 20 per cent of the income available and the bottom 20 per cent would get 20 per cent also.

3. INTRODUCTION:
The fight against poverty represents the greatest challenge of our times. Considerable progress has nevertheless been made in different parts of the world in reducing poverty. The proportion of people living in extreme poverty on global level fell from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001 (on the basis of $1 a day). In absolute numbers the reduction during the period was 130 million with most of it coming from China. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the absolute number of poor actually increased by 100 million during the period. The Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS also witnessed a dramatic increase in poverty. While incidence of poverty declined in South Asia, Latin America and the Middle East witnessed no change.
The recent trends in global and regional poverty clearly suggest one thing and that is, that rapid economic growth over a prolonged period is essential for poverty reduction. At the macro level, economic growth implies greater availability of public resources to improve the quantity and quality of education, health and other services. At the micro level, economic growth creates employment opportunities, increases the income of the people and therefore reduces poverty. Many developing countries have succeeded in boosting growth for a short period. But only those that have achieved higher economic growth over a long period have seen a lasting reduction in poverty – East Asia and China are classic examples of lasting reduction in poverty. One thing is also clear from the evidence of East Asia and China that growth does not come automatically. It requires policies that will promote growth. Macroeconomic stability is therefore, key to a sustained high economic growth. Although extreme poverty on global level has declined, the gap between the rich and poor countries is increasing, even when developing countries are growing at a faster pace than developed ones – perhaps due to the large income gaps at the initial level.
In a world of six billion people, one billion have 80 percent of the income and five billion have less than 20 percent. In the next 25 years, two billion more people will be added in the world we live. All but 50 million of them will be in the developing countries. In the year 2025, seven out of the eight billion people will be living in developing countries. This issue of global imbalance is at the core of the challenge to scale up poverty reduction.

4. CAUSES OF POVERTY:
According to Henry Gorge, the main cause of poverty is the personal ownership and monopoly of the individual on the land. He writes, “in the great cities, where land is so valuable that it is measured by the foot, you will find the extremes of poverty and of luxury. And this disparity in condition between the two extremes of the social scale may always be measured by the price of land.” According to Karl Marx, the main cause of poverty is the exploitation of the workers by the capitalists.

5. THE WORLD BANK REPORT (2006):
A World Bank report says that South Asian countries can significantly reduce poverty in the next 10 years by increasing investment, improving labor quality and addressing gaps in income.
The Economic Growth in South Asia report says South Asia’s decade-long economic expansion has made life better for many poor people. But, it said, without changes to economic policies, that rapid economic growth may be difficult to keep up.
Shantayanan Devarajan, co-author of the report and World Bank chief economist for South Asia, said the region “must create the conditions and incentives necessary to sustain and accelerate growth that benefits all. The economic well-being of several hundred millions of people depends on it.”
The report said the number of people living in poverty could drop by two-thirds if economic growth jumps to 10 per cent a year until 2015.

6. CAUSES OF POVERTY IN PAKISTAN:
I. Large family size:
II. Skewed patterns of land ownership:
III. Disadvantageous consumption patterns:
IV. Poor educational attainment:
V. Poor health and fertility indicators: Lack of access to critical infrastructure:
VI. Vulnerability to abuses or power, weak Rule of Law:
VII. The inflation rate, which was at 5.7 per cent in 1998-99, was reduced to 3.6 percent in 1999-2000 and further to 3.1 per cent in 2002-03 (the lowest in the last three decades). But still standing at 8 per cent in June 2006.



7. GOVERNMENT’S POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY:
In Pakistan, Poverty Reduction Strategy was launched by the government in 2001 in response to the rising trend in poverty during 1990s. It consisted of the following five elements:- (a) accelerating economic growth and maintaining macroeconomic stability, (b) investing in human capital, (c) augmenting targeted interventions; (d) expanding social safety nets and (e) improving governance. The net outcome of interactions among these five elements would be the expected reduction in transitory and chronic poverty on a sustained basis. The reduction in poverty and improvement in social indicators and living conditions of the society are being monitored frequently through large- scale household surveys in order to gauge their progress in meeting the targets set by Pakistan for achieving the seven UN Millennium Development Goals by 2015.

1) Employment:
The strong economic growth is bound to create employment opportunities and therefore reduced unemployment. The evidence provided by the Labour Force Survey 2005 (First two quarters) clearly supports the fact that economic growth has created employment opportunities. Since 2003-04 and until the first half of 2005-06, 5.82 million new jobs have been created as against an average job creation of 1.0 – 1.2 million per annum. Consequently, unemployment rate which stood at 8.3 percent in 2001-02 declined to 7.7 percent in 2003-04 and stood at 6.5 percent during July – December 2005. The rising pace of job creation is bound to increase the income levels of the people. Agriculture, housing and construction, IT and Telecom sector, and SME are the sectors, which have created relatively more jobs.

2) Remittances:
In recent years the role of remittances in reducing poverty has been widely acknowledged1. Remittances allow families to maintain or increase expenditure on basic consumption, housing, education, and small-business formation. Remittances constitute one of the largest sources of external finance for developing countries and Pakistan is no exception. Total remittances inflows since 2001-02 and until 2005-06 have amounted over $ 19 billion or Rs.1129 billion. It has averaged 4.1 percent of GDP during the last four years.
To the extent that the poorer sections of society depend on remittances for their basis consumption needs, increased flow of remittances would be associated with reduction in poverty and possibly in equality.

3) Globalization:
The strategy going forward as enshrined in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper for the medium-term (2006/07 – 2008/09) aims at forging a broad-based alliance with civil society in the quest to alleviate poverty and accelerate development. The complex and multi-dimensional nature of poverty warrants that strategies for poverty reduction encompass plans for rapid pro-poor economic growth, sound macroeconomic management, structural reforms, and social inclusion. The strategy is being enriched by the on-going process of dialogue with civil society and the poor. The strategy places considerable emphasis on taking advantage of the opportunities offered by globalization.

8. SUGGESTIONS & INITIATIVES OF THE GOVERNMENT:
Pakistan’s Poverty Reduction Strategy is underpinned by the following considerations:
Continuing to ensure macro-economic stability and sustained high and broad-based economic growth by taking advantage of the opportunities offered by globalization, while at the same time unleashing the potential of domestic commerce, reducing inequalities and maximizing employment generation directing public policy debate towards the needs of the poor.
Bringing about an effective transformation of society, by forging partnerships and alliances with civil society and the private sector.
Understanding the nature of poverty, and using that as a guide for all public actions, empowering the people, especially the women and the most deprived, by increasing access to factors of production, particularly land and credit.

1) Maximizing the Gains from Globalization:
Globalization is a multi-dimensional process, which impacts all aspects of life, be it economic, social, cultural, or political. For globalization to lead to poverty reduction, domestic enterprises need to be increasingly competitive the international market. This requires increased efficiency and upgrading skills of the labour force to improve its level of human capital. It requires the enforcement of quality control and standards. For domestic enterprises to be competitive in the global economy, good investment climate is essential, in which firms can start up, grow and prosper.

2) Trade Liberalization and Export Promotion:
The Government has implemented a comprehensive program of trade reforms gradually moving the economy away from protectionism towards greater trade openness and global economic integration. The Government has been taking a number of defensive trade measures – in the context of WTO – to protect the domestic industry against the dumping of cheap and illegal imports. Sustained export performance is a key priority. Towards this end, the Government is making efforts in the areas of trade facilitation, WTO related issues, export promotion and diversification, and extension of export promotion zones and industrial clusters. The Government’s policy will focus on measures to sustain textile exports and promote other sectors that are not yet capable of exporting. The Government is committed to liberalize and deregulate Pakistan’s trade and widens the export base through further strengthening of industrial activity and strong institutional supply side measures. The trade policy continues to focus on value addition for sustainable growth in export earnings.

3) Employment Generation and Poverty Reduction:
Economic growth has been quite robust during the last five years and particularly in the tenure of PRSP-I (2003-06). The growth momentum is likely to continue in the medium-term. In order to maximize the poverty reduction impact of growth it needs to be aligned with an employment strategy that can ensure that growth is broad-based.

4) Micro-Finance:
Micro finance plays a critical role in improving the lives of the poor people. The poor use financial services not only for business investment in their micro-enterprises but also to invest in health and education, to manage household emergencies, and to meet the wide variety of other liquidity needs that they encounter occasionally. Evidence from the millions of micro finance clients around the world demonstrate that access to financial services enables poor people to increase their household income, build assets and reduce their vulnerability to the crises that are so much a part of their daily lives.
In the context of Pakistan, the use of micro-credit holds importance for both the agricultural and non-agricultural sector. The need for credit is particularly important for poor farmers. Their requirement for agricultural inputs, seeds, fertilizer, pesticide etc. tends to be cyclical, as does their income. However the two cycles do not always coincide. Rural loans for non-agricultural purposes include such things as micro enterprises in unorganized sectors of rural economy.

9. CONCLUSION:
Not surprisingly, the figures cited by the government for people living below the poverty line have come to be widely questioned. With poverty alleviation being the buzzword these days in our economic and social development and a key criterion for aid givers, it is understandable that the policymakers are desperately trying to prove the success of their strategy in terms of falling poverty levels. But unfortunately wishes are not horses and the government will have to do better to achieve its goals. It now appears that the government’s claim of poverty being 23.9 per cent is being challenged not just by economists in the country but also the World Bank and the UNDP. Both these agencies have come up with different figures — 25.7 per cent by the UNDP and 28.3 per cent by the World Bank. This is no doubt embarrassing for the government, which has repeatedly claimed that its estimates have been endorsed by the donor agencies. But it is still not too late to rectify the error so that our economic planning is not based on illusionary statistics.
In fact, the poor in our countries have been kept at the level of slaves who work to keep their masters in power by their labour, providing services which nobody else would, and voting the elite into power again and again. Every programme for relief to the poor is designed to let their conditions climb by a small notch essentially to enhance their capacity to continue the good work they have been doing for the affluent for generations. Thoughts contrary to this system are dubbed as the product of the followers of the leftists led by Karl Marx, and dumped.
Malthus stated that in the race between increasing population and increasing production, population must eventually win. Those of us who decline to accept this pessimistic view recognize the difficulty of the practical problem of meeting the needs of an ever-expanding population.
It is vital that a broader range of poverty reduction measures be utilised, including alternative strategies that can better address deprivations of the landless poor or even the marginalised provinces. The only way to encourage such policies would be to make development processes more participatory.

St. John’s Gospel says, “The poor, you have always with you. But the poor haven’t always been treated in the same way. In sum, the poor may always be with us, but they are not always who we think they are.”

























INFLATION

1. INTRODUCTION:
T
he word INFLATION comes from ‘inflate’, which means to rise artificially. “Inflation is a rise in the general price level in a country,” defined by Brooman. According to Shapiro, “Inflation is a persistent rise in the general price level vis-à-vis rise rise in the prices of goods and services.” Inflation in economics implies an increase in the supply or money, unaccompanied by a corresponding increase in the supply for output. When output fails to increase in response to an increase in the quantity or supply of money in circulation, inflation takes place. Therefore, it affects the overall economy of a country on one hand and increases the expenditure of a common man on the other. There is no blinking the fact that the living conditions of a common man deteriorate with the increasing prices of the goods and services.
Inflation seemed to be a chronic problem in many parts of the world. There is a wide spread recognition that inflation results in inefficient resource allocation and hence reduces potential economic growth. Inflation imposes high cost on economies and societies; disproportionately hurts the poor and fixed income groups and creates uncertainty throughout the economy and undermines macro economic stability. High inflation has always penalized the poor more than the rich because the poor are less able to protect themselves against the consequences, and less able to hedge against the risks that high inflation poses. Lowering inflation therefore, directly benefits the low and fixed income groups. Pakistan has witnessed a low inflation environment for the last several years but experienced a sharp picked up last year at 9.3 percent.

2. TYPES OF INFLATION:
I. Demand Pull Inflation: When aggregate demand of goods and services exceeds the available supply of output; there is rise in the general price level, which is called demand-pull inflation.
II. Cost Push Inflation: When there is no increase in aggregate demand, prices may rise. This may happen because of costs, particularly the wage cost go on rise.
III. Creeping Inflation: If the general price level in a country is rising less than 3 per cent per annum.
IV. Trotting Inflation: If the general price level arises between 3 to 6 per cent per annum.
V. Running Inflation: The annual rise in inflation of about 10 per cent.
VI. Gallop or Hyper Inflation: When the average general price level increases between 20 to 30 per cent per annum.

3. CAUSES OF INFLATION:
According to Gallop Economic Survey, which was conducted in different countries of the world, there are following causes of inflation:
I. Increase in money supply
II. Increase in community’s aggregate spending.
III. A rise in wages.

4. EFFECTS OF INFLATION ON DIFFERENT ECONOMIC GROUPS:
I. On Businessmen: It is of positive sense. When the prices of goods and services increase, they get more profit. They usually try their level best to increase the gap between the cost and prices. When the price increases, the salaries or remunerations don’t increase.
II. On Fixed Salary Group: Inflation has negative effect on the fixed salary groups of the country; investors make profits in this context.
III. On Agriculturists: The agriculturists welcome the high prices of the commodities. The reason is simple; they get more profits of their crops.
IV. On Common Man:

5. HISTORICAL REVIEW OF PAKISTAN:
Historically speaking, inflation rate is on continual increase in Pakistan since its independence. From 1961 to 1972, inflation rate was 3.3 per cent per annum. From 1972-74, inflation rate was 30 per cent, which was the highest increase in the history of the country. From 1974-77, inflation rate stood at 17.3 per cent per annum; a little decline from the previous period. From 1977-80, rate of inflation declined to 8.5 per cent per annum. During the years 1980-90, inflation rate on average stood at 11.4 per cent per annum. During the years 1991-97, the rate was increased to 13.9 per cent per annum. During the years 1998-2000, inflation rate declined to 5.7 per cent. Presently, the inflation rate has decreased from 9.3 per cent in 2005 to 8 percent in the mid of 2006.

6. CAUSES OF INFLATION IN PAKISTAN:
I. Increase in the flow of remittances: PPP increases
II. Deficit financing: gap between the revenues and expenditures
III. Rapid monitory expansion:
IV. Foreign economic aid:
V. Investment in real estate:
VI. Lavish spending habits:
VII. Excessive speculation and hoarding:
VIII. Increase in population;

7. ANTI-INFLATORY MEASURES:
I. Incentives to farmers:
II. Check on corruption:
III. Recovery of loans:
IV. Check on non-productive spending:
V. Check on hoarding:
VI. Promotion of Sunday Bazaars:
VII. Supplies by Utility stores:

8. PRESENT SCENARIO:
The flare-up in prices over the past two years had emerged as one of the biggest challenges in macroeconomic management. On the back of the high rate of economic growth generated over the last four years in succession and in combination with negative exogenous shocks, price pressure had built up noticeably in the economy, especially during the preceding fiscal year (2004-05). In terms of generating inflation, the phenomenal rise in aggregate demand in the economy, on the one hand, was compounded by supply shocks on the other. The adverse external developments which impacted the price level for the fiscal year under review included a continuation of the surge in international price of oil to an all-time record of nearly US $ 75 per barrel in April this year, before pulling back somewhat, coupled with an unprecedented rise in world prices of commodities due to demand from fast-growing economies such as China and India. Also impacting price development in Pakistan was the decline in the size of sugarcane crop resulting in relatively lesser production of sugar within the country as well as significant rise in international prices of sugar owing to diversion of large portion of sugarcane into ethanol (a petroleum substitute) by the world’s largest producer, Brazil. These factors combined to spark inflationary pressers not just in Pakistan but also in the global economy.

I. Price Developing during 2005-06:
A sharp pickup in the prices of essential commodities and unprecedented rise in international price of oil have led to the re-emergence of inflationary pressure across the globe. After living in a low inflationary environment (4%) for the last five years, Pakistan witnessed higher inflation for a verity of reasons. The higher inflationary trend in Pakistan over the last two years has been the outcome of pressure that emanated from demand and supply sides. Four years of strong economic growth has given rise to the income levels of various segments of the society. The rising level of income have strengthened domestic demand and put upward pressure on prices of essential commodities.
Supply side pressure emanated from a variety of factors, prominent among those are: increase in support price of wheat for three years in row, shortage of wheat owing to less than the targeted production, mismanagement in wheat operation in one of the wheat deficit province, inter-provincial ban on the movement of wheat resulting in sharp increases in prices of wheat and wheat flour. The prices of other food item such as beef, mutton, chicken, milk etc also registered sharp increases owing to “sympathy effect” on the one hand and demand pressure on the other.
Lower production of sugarcane resulting in relatively lower production of sugar on the one hand and a sharp increase in the international prices of sugar owing to significant diversion of sugarcane into ethanol (petroleum substitute) by the largest producer, Brazil, also contributed in building inflationary pressure in Pakistan .In recent months, prices of various kinds of pulses also registered sharp increases owing to a significant decline in domestic production as well as shortages in international markets, keeping the prices of pulses at record high level. Unprecedented rise in international oil prices also contributed to the build up in inflationary pressure in Pakistan.

9. ECONOMIC SURVEY:
I. Inflation by Income Group:
Price hike affects various sections of the society differently. In most cases, the lower income group of society becomes victim of the severity of inflation on account of their erosion of purchasing power. To assess the impact of inflation across all income classes, the CPI is also computed for four-income group with income limits ranging from Rs. 3000 to Rs. 12,000 per month.
II. Price Stabilization Measures:
In order to keep the prices of essential commodities under control, the government has been taking various measures throughout the year. These measures include liberal import regime for food items including zero rating of imports of these commodities. The government has been expanding the supply of essential items such as sugar and wheat flour through the outlets of the Utility Stores Corporation (USC). Furthermore, in order to provide relief to low and fixed income groups, the government has been selling wheat flour and sugar through the outlets of the USC at much lower prices than the market. In order to augment supplies of essential commodities at shortest time and at lower freight charges, the government has allowed the import of various items through land routes from neighbouring countries.

10. CONCLUSION:












































POPULATION EXPLOSION

1. INTRODUCTION:
R
apidly increasing population is the most gigantic, formidable and intractable problem, which the world faces today. Malthus stated that in the race between increasing population and increasing production, population must eventually win. Those of us who decline to accept this pessimistic view recognize the difficulty of the practical problem of meeting the needs of an ever-expanding population. Achieving a world population in balance with its environmental resources is crucial to the future of our planet and the welfare of its people. Population growth is a complex issue that directly or indirectly impacts all aspects of our lives and the conditions under which we live – from the environment and global stability to women's health and empowerment. Population control — or population welfare, if you want to be genteel — is the buzzword today. The focus has been on the economic impact of a rapidly growing population and its implications for employment.

2. GLOBAL SCENARIO:
It took all of human history until 1830 for world population to reach one billion. The second billion was achieved in 100 years, the third billion in 30 years, the fourth billion in 15 years, and the fifth billion in only 12 years. Today, the world's population is approximately 6.5 billion and grows by nearly 80 million people each year. With expanded use of modern contraceptive methods in the developing world, the total fertility rate, or average number of births per woman, has fallen from over six in the 1960s to under three per woman today. However, total fertility rates still remain high in the less developed countries, at five children per woman. The median projection for world population growth shows a 2.6 billion increase to 9.1 billion people by 2050. This increase is approximately the size of the combined populations of China and India, the two most populous countries in the world.
The problem of over-population becomes even more serious in context of the developing countries like Pakistan. The population boom has not only resulted in an economic upheaval in developing countries rather it is also the primary cause of environmental degradation. The biological threat of ever increasing population has ushered in an era of shortage of safe drinking water, diminishing forest resources, climate change due to depletion of ozone layer among other things. Other forms of environmental pollution associated with population are marine pollution, noise pollution, depletion of land resources etc. Besides these, environmental pollution has also damaged the beauty and serenity of nature. Almost half of the world population is urbanized because of which traffic problems have multiplied, land erosion, and solid waste disposal are the major civic problems of today.

3. CAUSES OF OVER-POPULATION:
I. Increase in fertility rate. II. Control of the fatal diseases. III. Illiteracy
IV. Infant death rate curtailed. V. Lack of recreational facilities VI. Patriarchal societies
VII. Early marriages. VIII. Low status of women IX. Joint family system
X. Warm climate XI. False religious practices. XII. Polygamy.

4. EFFECTS OF POPULATION GROWTH:
I. Economic development. II. Per capita income. III. Standard of living.
IV. Agricultural development. V. Employment. VI. Labour force.
VII. Conflicts & confrontations. VIII. Social infrastructure. IX. Environment.
X. Health facilities, education etc.

5. SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
Pakistan’s population has grown at an average rate of 3 per cent per annum since 1951 and until mid 1980’s. Population growth slowed to an average rate of 2.6 per cent per annum during 1985-86 and until 1999-2000. However, since 2000-01 Pakistan’s population is growing at an average rate of almost 2 per cent per annum. If Pakistan had succeeded in slowing its population growth rate to 2 per cent per annum since 1959-60, Pakistan’s population today would have been 103.4 million as against 152.53 million. In other words, the country’s population would have been 49.13 million less. Pakistan is relatively poorer today as a result of higher population growth rate in the past. Had Pakistan’s population grown at an average rate of 2 per cent per annum since 1959-60, Pakistan’s per capita income would have been Rs. 64366 today as against Rs. 43748. In other words, Pakistan would have been 52.02 per cent richer than what it is today. Furthermore, Pakistan’s per capita income in dollar term would have been $ 1083 rather than $ 736.
History cannot be changed; those who are already born are part of the society. What is needed now is to educate them, to provide them skill through training and to make them productive members of the society. This is what the government of Pakistan is trying to do. It is trying to improve the quality of education. An extensive programme of vocational training is being developed to provide proper skills to the people so that they can become dynamic citizens of the country. During the last 50 years, Pakistan’s population has increased from 33 million to 152.53 million in 2004-05. Thus making Pakistan the 7th most populous country in the world. Although the current population growth rate slowed to 1.9 per cent per annum, overall population has increased by 2.76 million people as compared to last year; this is still considerably high compared to the average of 0.9 per cent for the developed countries and 1.7 per cent for the developing countries.
According to one estimate, Pakistan's population will almost double in the next 32 years at the current growth rate of 1.9 per cent. Higher population growth supplies more work force in the market and given the low economic growth in the past, it creates less jobs. Thus, it puts pressure on educational and health facilities on the one hand and gives birth to unemployment, land fragmentation, overcrowding, katchi abadis, poverty, crime and environmental degradation on the other.

6. POPULATION SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN & SOUTH KOREA:
The negative economic impact of high population growth over the decades is also reflected in the following comparative statistics between Pakistan and South Korea.
During the five decades from 1950 to 2001, the population of Pakistan has increased 4.3 times - from 33 million to 140.36 million, whereas the population of South Korea increased only 2.4 times - from 20 million to 47.7 million. Over the same period, the per capita income in Pakistan increased by only five times from $79 in 1950 to $503 in 2001, whereas South Korea's per capita income increased by 129 times from $82 in 1950 to $10,550 in 2001. It may be pointed out that in 1950 the difference in per capita income between the two countries was merely $ 3 but this difference widened to $10,047 in 2001. While economic policies in the two countries determined these statistics, the rate of population growth must also have played a role.

7. POPULATION RELATED ISSUES (PROBLEMS & SUGGESTIONS):
[Economic Survey (2005-06)]
Pakistan being a developing country also faces the problem of over population. During the past 25 years, cultivable land has increased by 27 per cent compared to 98 per cent increase in population, resulting in reduced individual land holdings in Pakistan. Due to a high birth rate urban population will double in the next 20 years causing more and more forests to be cut to make way for humanity. Even now each year, deforestation occurs at the rate of 2.5 per cent. In addition, since only 60 per cent of our population has sewerage facility, the remaining 40 per cent churn out wastes damaging the environment and causing a lot of diseases. Rising levels of income on the one hand and easy availability of loan facility/financing on the other has lead to an increase in motorization in the country and almost 70 per cent of our on-the-road vehicles have outlived their life span and emit un burnt monoxide gases. In fact, the total number of vehicles in Pakistan emits more noxious fumes in the air as compared to all vehicles in the US. Finally, rapid expansions in the industrial sectors has caused the industrial and residential areas to merge causing health hazards for the population.
I. Fertility and Mortality:
While mortality has been decreasing and fertility has shown a significant decline over the recent years, the crude death rate (CDR) of Pakistan is estimated at 8.2 (per thousand) in 2005-06. In Pakistan, decline in mortality rate is due to the elimination of epidemic diseases and improvement in medical services. Despite a considerable decline in the total mortality in Pakistan, infant mortality has still remained high at 77 per thousand live births in 2005. Maternal mortality ratio ranges from 350-400 per hundred thousand births per year leading to about seventeen thousand newborn babies being born motherless.
II. GDP Growth:
Real GDP grew strongly at 6.6 per cent in 2005-06 as against the revised estimates of 8.6 per cent last year and the 7.0 per cent target for the year. When viewed at the backdrop of rising and volatile energy prices and the extensive damage caused by the earthquake of October 8, 2005 Pakistan’s growth performance for the year has been impressive. The key drivers of this year’s growth have been the service sectors and industry. Within industry, large-scale manufacturing grew weaker-than-expected by 9.0 per cent as against 15.6 per cent of last year and 14.5 per cent target for the year, perhaps exhibiting signs of moderation on account of higher capacity utilization on the one hand and a strong base effect on the other.


III. Per Capita Income:
Per capita income is one of the main indicators of development. It simply indicates the average level of prosperity in the country or average standard of living of the people in a country. Per capita income defined as Gross National Product at market price in dollar term divided by the country’s population, grew by an average rate of 13.9 per cent per annum during the last four years – rising from $582 in 2002-03 to $847 in 2005-06. Per capita income in dollar term registered an increase of 14.2 per cent over last year – rising from $ 742 to $ 847. The main factor responsible for the sharp rise in per capita income include: a sharp pick up in real GDP growth, stable exchange rate, and rise in inflow of workers’ remittances.
IV. Inflation:
Among the most appreciated developments, during fiscal year 2005-06, was the significant abatement of price pressure over the course of the year. For the first ten months of the current fiscal year (July–April 2005-06), all-important barometers of price pressure in the economy indicated a steady deceleration in inflation. Inflation during the first ten months (July-April) of the current fiscal year is estimated at 8.0 per cent as against 9.3 per cent in the same period last year.
V. Education:
Currently, the literacy rate is 53 per cent which is much below the targets set to be achieved in 2005 and far away from reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target of 80 per cent literacy till 2015. Looking at the gender disaggregated data for overall literacy, 65 per cent of males and 40 per cent of females were literate in the year 2004-05. The key impediments to the progress in reaching a higher level of literacy in Pakistan are the low enrollment rates and poor quality of education provided by the public sector.
VI. Health:
According to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights “ Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate to the health and well -being of himself/herself and his/her family.”
Importance of the health in the social lives of the people makes it such an important area that it cannot be considered in isolation and it is inextricably tied to other socio economic and political realities. The Constitution of Pakistan in its article 38 titled “promotion of social and economic well being of the people” ensures the provision of basic necessities of life including health and medical relief for all citizens, irrespective of sex, caste, creed or race.
There is a considerable improvement in health care facilities over the past year as the existing vast network of health care facilities consists of 946 hospitals, 4554 dispensaries, 5290 basic health units/sub health centers (BHUs/SHCs), 552 rural health centers (RHCs), 907 maternal and child health centers (MCHs) and 289 TB centers (TBCs). Available human resource for the fiscal year 2005-06 turn out to be 118160 doctors, 6761 dentists and 33427 nurses which makes the ratio of population per doctor as 1310, population per dentist 25297 and population per nurse as
4636.
VII. Labour Force:
In Pakistan, labour force participation is estimated on the basis of the Crude Activity Rate (CAR) and the Refined Activity Rate (RAR). The CAR is the percentage of the labour force in the total population while RAR is the percentage of the labour force in the population of persons 10 years of age and above. The figures both for CAR (32.8%) and RAR (46.9%) for the first half of 2005-06 fare higher than LFS 2003-04 (30.4% and 43.7%). This phenomenon is more obvious for rural areas and women. Augmentation of the rates for the set of economic activities carried out within the house precincts also depicts the same scenario (42.8 Vs 38.5%).
VIII. Transport & Communication:
Road transport is a backbone of Pakistan’s transport system, accounting for 90 per cent of national passenger traffic and 96 per cent of freight movement. Over the past ten years, road traffic – both passenger and freight – has grown much faster than the country’s economic growth. The 9,518 km long National Highway and Motorway network contributes about 3.7 per cent of the total road network and carries 90 per cent of Pakistan’s total traffic.
IX. Energy Requirements:

X. Environment:
The key factors contributing to air pollution in Pakistan are: a) rapidly growing energy demand; b) increasing industrial and domestic demand and c) a fast growing transport sector. In the cities, widespread use of low-quality fuel, combined with a dramatic expansion in the number of vehicles on roads, has led to significant air pollution problems.
Air pollution levels in Pakistan’s most populated cities are among the highest in the world, causing serious health issues in the process. One of the major achievements during 2005-06 was the formulation of the “National Environmental Policy 2005” which addresses the sectoral issues such as (a) water management and conservations, (b) energy efficiency and renewable, (c) agriculture and livestock, (d) forestry and plantation, (e) biodiversity and protected areas, (f) climate change, air quality and noise, and (g) pollution and waste management.
Water availability in Pakistan continues to decrease, both in total amount of water as well as in the per capita water availability in Pakistan. In 1951, when population stood at 34 million, per capita availability of water was 5300 cubic meter, which has now decreased to 1105 cubic meter, just touching water scarcity level of 1000 cubic meter. With a present growth in population and the low rainfall, the threshold limit of water scarcity i.e. 1000 m3 of water per capita per year may be reached as early as the year 2010. Various mega initiatives have been planned especially under WAPDA vision 2025. The estimates show that the current water shortage of 9 million acre feet would aggravate to 25 MAF if all planned dams under Vision 2025 are not constructed by 2016.
XI. Housing:
Housing is one of the basic human requirements, as every family needs a roof. Providing shelter to every family has become a major issue as a result of rapid urbanization and higher population growth. According to the housing census 1998, the housing backlog, which stood at 4.30 million, has been currently projected at 6.19 million. It is estimated that to address the backlog and to meet the housing shortfall in the next 20 years the overall housing production has to be increased to 500,000 housing units annually. The present housing stock is also rapidly aging and estimates suggest that more than 50 per cent stock is over 50 years old. It is also estimated that 50 per cent of the urban population now live in slums and squatter settlements.
XII. Agriculture:
The performance of agriculture remained weak this year as it grew by only 2.5 per cent, as against 6.7 per cent of last year and the 4.2 per cent target for the year, with major crops and forestry registering a negative growth of 3.6 per cent and 5.7 per cent, respectively. Agriculture, this year was subjected to adverse weather conditions.
XIII. Manufacturing:
Manufacturing is the second largest sector of the economy, accounting for 18.2 per cent of GDP, and registered a growth for the third year in a row, albeit at a relatively slower pace of 8.6 per cent as against 12.6 per cent last year. Large-scale manufacturing, accounting for 69.9 per cent of overall manufacturing, registered weaker-than expected growth at 9.0 per cent as against the target of 14.5 per cent and last year’s achievement of 15.6 per cent. The relatively slower pace of expansion perhaps exhibits signs of moderation on account of higher capacity utilization on the one hand and a strong base effect on the other.
8. POPULATION WELFARE PROGRAMME:
In 1953, the Family Planning Association of Pakistan (Non-Government Organization) initiated few clinics to provide family planning services. During the second plan period (1960-65) the Population Welfare Programme was started by the Ministry of Health but the programme did not show adequate progress. Finally an autonomous Family Planning Council was created in 1965 to run the programme independently. At that time the annual crude birth rate was around 45 per thousand and death rate was around 18 per thousand whereas the net growth rate was 2.7 per cent per annum. The overall execution and entire funding of this Program is the responsibility of the Federal Government. The Ministry of Population Welfare is the main executing agency of the national program while implementation of field activities is the responsibility of the Population Welfare Departments in each of the four Provinces of Pakistan.

9. CONCLUSION:
With the commencement of the new millennium the population welfare programme has also taken a new turn. This turn in policy is a shift from the focus on fertility towards a more comprehensive approach of integrating family planning with reproductive health and also addressing wider range of concerns, especially economic status, education and gender equality. One of the major achievements of the Cairo Conference has been the recognition of the need to empower women, both as being highly important in itself and as a key to improving the quality of life for everyone. It also emphasizes that men have a key role to play in bringing about gender equality, in fostering women's full participation in development and in improving women's reproductive health.








UNEMPLOYMENT

1. INTRODUCTION:
T
he problem of unemployment is hanging like a sword of Damocles on the head of our country. Workless people can always be dangerous to the security of the state. The ‘fire of stomach’, as it is said, can lead them to commit any crime in the calendar. If they are not given a job by which they may earn their living honestly, they will have no other alternative than to beg or snatch their food.
Unemployment is the mother of all ills. ‘Idle person is a devils workshop’. It is a poison, which pollutes the society and wrecks the political fabric of the country. It turns law-abiding and honest men into criminals and dacoits. It encourages dishonesty, patronises corruption and falsehood, and brings into light the dark side of human character.
It is difficult to expect truth, nobility and honesty from a person who cannot have two square meals a day, and who cannot provide a morsel of food or a dose of medicine to his sick wife or ailing children. He can have no sense of self-dignity, for he has no sense of security, “A ploughman on his feet”, says Franklin, “is higher than a gentleman on his knees.”

2. UNEMPLOYMENT:
Unemployment is defined as all persons ten years of age and above who during the period under reference were, (a) without work i.e., were not in paid employment or self-employed, (b) currently available for work i.e., were available for paid employment or self-employment and (c) seeking work i.e., had taken specific steps in a specified period to seek paid employment or self-employment. According to this definition about 3.32 million people were estimated to be unemployed during the first half of the fiscal year 2005-06 as compared to 3.52 million in 2003-04. The overall unemployment rate for the first half of 2005-06 is estimated at 6.5%. The unemployment rate in 2003-04 has been at 7.7 percent. Although it is not strictly comparable, the fact remains that unemployment is exhibiting a declining trend. Both rural and urban unemployment rates have been estimated at 5.7 percent and 8.4 percent in the first half of 2005-06.

3. SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
Since independence, five labour policies have been announced by the government in the years 1955, 1959, 1969, 1972 and 2002, which laid down the parameters for the growth of trade unionism; protection of workers rights; the settlement of industrial disputes; and the redress of workers grievances. These policies also provided for compliance with international labour standards rectified by Pakistan.
Historically, the 1960s and the 1970s were a turbulent period in the history of Industrial Relations in Pakistan. Militant trade unions and equally intransigent management’s were locked in endless disputes conflicts over pay and working conditions. Strikes, go slows, lockouts and litigations were the most distinctive features of employer-employee relations. The concept of employers and employees working together in close cooperation to ensure productivity, profitability and growth of businesses and security of employment was largely non-existent. There was no realization that job security and appropriate wages were critically dependent on profitability and continued competitiveness of businesses.
The atmosphere of mutual hostility and distrust, though considerably diminished, continues to bedevil industrial relations to this day. As a consequence, both the entrepreneur and labour, in fact, the economy of the country as a whole have suffered greatly. But, perhaps, labour has suffered most on account of increasing unemployment and declining real wages as both public and private sector businesses have increasingly resorted to cutbacks, relocation, closure, contract employment and outsourcing in an effort to maintain profits and to counter pressure from trade unions. These difficulties have been compounded by exploding population and influx of Afghan refugees, which have further aggravated unemployment and depressed the job market.
The progressive globalization of economy is bringing forth even more formidable challenges and pressures. Successive governments, torn between conflicting desires for promoting welfare of the low-income classes and requirements of global competition, have had the unenviable task of balancing demands for better wages and decent competitiveness on the other while at the same time ensuring increased revenues.
Today, however, a different scenario is emerging. Sobered by the negative experiences of adversarial industrial relations over the past decade, trade unions are increasingly discarding militancy while employers are recognizing the need and benefits of co-opting labour as partners in productivity. Both employers and trade unions are progressively getting involved in bilateral dialogue as there is a growing realization that common interest of both employers and employees is best served by securing business profitability and growth. Enlightened elements within labour and employees organizations have come together to form the Workers Employers Bilateral Council of Pakistan (WEBCOP). WEBCOP emphasizes the need for an organized and sustained dialogue between employer and labour organizations based on bilateralism where the government adopts the role of a facilitator.
The constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan and international labour standards render definite obligations upon the Sate for the realization of human rights for all citizens, equally for men, women, young and old, Muslims and non- Muslims. In acknowledgement of these obligations, a new labour policy was formulated in 2002 (the first after 1972). This policy aims to guide administrative, legal and judicial actions of government, employers and workers in realizing labour rights and their welfare along with promotion of social justice. The government believes that such collective commitment to equity is necessary to achieve and sustain rapid economic growth in a globalized economy.

4. CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT:
I. Lack of political infrastructure. II. In-aptness in the job opportunities.
III. Lack of interest in technical education. IV. Political dominancy.
V. Education just for the sake of education, not for purpose.
VI. Transferring of rural labour to towns. VII. Child labour.
VIII. Double standards in the implementation of the merit policy.

5. IMPACT OF UNEMPLOYMENT:
I. Social disorder: corruption, law and order, street crime etc.
II. Job dissatisfaction:
III. Lack of awareness about the job opportunities:

6. PRESENT GOVERNMENT POLICY:
The government’s vision for a new labour policy focuses on dignity of labour, strengthening bilateralism, elimination of animosity and antagonism by fostering a trust relationship between employer-employee and promoting social dialogue. The government is firmly of the view that both industrial growth and decent working conditions can be achieved only though peace and tranquility in the industrial sector. This is only possible if there is an awareness and understanding between workers and employers of their reciprocal rights and obligations with all-round commitment to higher productivity.

I. Labour Force Participation Rate:
In Pakistan, labour force participation is estimated on the basis of the Crude Activity Rate (CAR) and the Refined Activity Rate (RAR). The CAR is the percentage of the labour force in the total population while RAR is the percentage of the labour force in the population of persons 10 years of age and above. The figures both for CAR (32.8%) and RAR (46.9%) for the first half of 2005-06 fare higher than LFS 2003-04 (30.4% and 43.7%). This phenomenon is more obvious for rural areas and women. Augmentation of the rates for the set of economic activities carried out within the house precincts also depicts the same scenario (42.8 Vs 38.5%).
II. Employment Situation:
The structure of employment suggests that employees and self employed respectively account for 38% and 34% of the total employed work force followed by unpaid family helpers (27%) and employers (1%). Of the unpaid family helpers, females account for 56.9% and males account for 19.8%. More male workers are engaged in the category of self employed employees and employers.
As documented in the survey 69.7% work force is employed in rural areas. While the remaining 30.3% are employed in urban areas. It is important to note that since 2003-04 and until December 2005, 5.82 million new jobs have been created reflecting the growing pace of economic activity in the country. In the past the economy use to create about 1 million jobs annually but the capacity to generate more jobs has increased in recent years as a result of strong economic recovery. It is also important to note that out of 5.82 million new jobs, 4.4 million (78%) have been created in rural areas while 1.28 million (22%) have been created in the urban areas. Going forward the challenge faced by the government is to sustain the growth momentum to create more jobs, increase incomes of the people, and reduce unemployment and poverty.
III. Employed Labour Force by Sectors:
The share of agriculture in employment has increased from 43 percent in 2003-04 to almost 45 percent by mid of 2005-06. The share of remaining sectors has remained more or less stagnant with minor fluctuations both ways. On the whole, an increase has been observed in almost all-major industries/sectors for both genders. Sector wise break up of employed labour force shows that female labour force participation is on the rise for most sectors especially agriculture, fishery and telecom sectors. It is important to note that the employment of the rural females increased despite a considerable rise in female Labour Force Participation Rate.

IV. Employment Promotion Policies:
i. The Public Sector Development Programme (PSDP) for the current fiscal year 2005-06 has been increased to Rs. 272 billion, a 19.4 percent increase over last year’s PSDP of Rs 227.7 billion. Since the focus of PSDP for 2005-06 has been on accelerating growth, increased funds for PSDP would mean enhancing public sector investment to generate employment thus raising overall growth. Employer-led Skill Development Councils developed by Ministry of Labour Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis, have been established in all provinces to identify needs of geographical area, prioritize them on market demand and to facilitate the training of workers through training providers in public and private sectors.
These councils have met the diversified training needs of the industrial and commercial sectors and have trained 46, 674 persons so far. Technical and vocational training enhances the employability of the work force. There are 315 training institutes under NTB across Pakistan, which also includes all TEVTA institutions in Punjab. They offer vocational courses in 80 trades and the net output capacity of these institutions is 150,000 per year. At present the training capacity of 28,050 trainees is available under the Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (TEVTA) Punjab and the other Provincial Directorates of Manpower and Training. Besides 8807 apprentices are being trained under the Apprenticeship Training Programme in the country.
ii. A Ten Year Perceptive Development Plan for the period 2001-11 is under implementation and accelerating GDP growth and reducing unemployment are among its major goals. This plan envisages to create 11.3 million new job opportunities through investment of Rs. 11287 billion during the Plan period. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) represents a signifying component of Pakistan’s economy in terms of value. They are highly labour intensive and provide employment to the bulk of the non-agricultural labour force.
iii. The growth of SMEs has mainly been hampered by the non-availability of credit in the past. Realizing this constraint the government has opened two specialized non-credit banks namely, the SME Bank and Khushali Bank. The Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA) is also actively developing programmes for managerial skill development and technical and informative support to the SMEs.
iv. The housing and construction sector provide substantial additional employment opportunities as it contributes through a higher multiplier effect with a host of beneficial forward and backward linkages in the economy. The sector, through linkages effect with about 40 building material industries, supports investment and growth climate and help reduce poverty by generating income opportunities for poor households. During the last two years, the government has taken various budgetary and non-budgetary measures, which are now yielding positive results. Construction activity in Pakistan is booming; demand for construction-related materials has surged. Many national and international real estate developers have launched or launching large construction projects in Pakistan, which has further accelerated construction activity in the country.
v. Pakistan Poverty Alleviating Fund (PPAF) was set up in April 2000 with an endowment of $ 100 million, as a wholesale lender to NGOs engaged in providing micro financing. PPAF is present in 94 districts across Pakistan. Whereas, it has 52 partner organizations. So far it has made disbursements of Rs. 8.2 billion and it has around 7 million beneficiaries. The government has so far spent over one thousand billion rupees on pro-poor sectors in the last five years.
7. CONCLUSION:
Economic growth is the engine of employment generation and poverty alleviation. In order to sustain this strong pace of growth and maintain healthy and vigorous macroeconomic indicators would require a prolonged period of macroeconomic stability, financial discipline, and consistent and transparent policies. These, along with improved governance and better quality infrastructure would encourage private sector to play a leading role in promoting investment and growth.
The government on its part must identify and promote sectors, which are considered not only to be the major drivers of growth but also have the greatest potential of creating more employment opportunities.
The man in the street wants that our government sitting in Islamabad should go on issuing orders on papers and like Aladdin’s Lamp great and good things should be done out of nothing. We forget that if we do not do the work, the work will not be done. It is only through patience; untiring constructive labour on the part of the rulers and the ruled alike that the solution of unemployment problem in a backward country like Pakistan can come through.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING

1. INTRODUCTION:
I
n recent years the smuggling of human beings across international borders has grown rapidly from a small scale cross border activity affecting a handful of countries into a global multi-million dollar enterprise. Although information about human smuggling is patchy and often unreliable, current estimates suggest that some 8,00,000 people are smuggled across borders every year.
The spread of smuggling needs to be understood in the context of the globalization and greatly increased migration. Prospects of a better life abroad, poverty, economic marginalization, political and social unrest and conflict are all incentives to move. Global media and transportation networks make movement easier. As push and pull factors encourage increasing numbers of people to migrate, they in turn collide with the many legal obstacles to entry that industrialized countries have put in place.
Two trends are a direct consequence of this. First, as avenues for legal migration have become increasingly restricted, the asylum system has come under pressure as one of the few options that migrants can use. Second, migrants have increasingly resorted to the use of smugglers to facilitate their travel. This compounds their vulnerability to ill treatment and exploitation.
Human trafficking involves forced or coerced movements. Sometimes people are kidnapped outright and taken forcibly to another location. In other cases, traffickers use deception to entice victims to move with false promises of well paying jobs such as models, dancers or domestic workers. In some instances, traffickers approach victims or their families directly with offers of lucrative jobs elsewhere. After providing transportation to get victims to their destinations, they subsequently charge exorbitant fees for those services, creating debt bondage. What begins as voluntary movement ends up coerced.

2. INTERNAL TRAFFICKING:
The trafficking of people for sexual exploitation and forced labour is one of the fastest growing areas of international criminal activity and one that is increasing concern to the international community. Generally, the flow of trafficking is from less developed to more developed regions and countries. While mush of the attention on trafficking ahs focused on those who cross international borders, trafficking within countries also very common. Victims of forced prostitution usually end up in large cities, sex tourism areas or near military bases, where the demand is highest. Victims of forced labour may be found throughout a country, in agriculture, fishing industries, mines, carpets and sweatshops.
Internal trafficking shares many common elements with internal displacement and one could argue that internal trafficking victims are internally displaced persons (IDPs). The Handbook for Applying the Guiding Principles in Internal Displacement makes clear that “the distinctive feature of internal displacement is coerced or involuntary movement that takes place within national borders. The reasons for fight may vary and include arm conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights, and natural or human made disasters.”

3. THE TRAFFICKING CHILD:
Human trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced labour is believed to be one of the fastest growing areas of criminal activity. Child victims are particularly vulnerable but there is little systematic knowledge about their characteristics and experiences. They are often subsumed under the women and children heading without allowing for analysis of their special needs.
Extreme poverty drove many of the girls to migrate. In some situations, parental illness compounded already dire economic circumstances and placed even more pressure on the children to contribute to the family’s income. In other cases, family breakdowns resulting from death or divorce left the children vulnerable.
In some cases, the idea to migrate came form the girls, while the other situations a family member, friend or trafficker pose as a trustworthy individual planted the idea. In most cases, the girls’ decision to migrate resulted from their desire to help their family financially or escape a difficult family situation.

4. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN SOUTH ASIA: by Faisal Yousaf, UNHCR
“Amidst the hype of globalization-driven South Asian prosperity, the plight of the landless, illiterate and chronically poor remains forgotten. Among the most vulnerable losers are those who migrate in search of better livelihoods.”

Trafficking in South Asia is complex and multifaceted, both a development and a criminal justice problem. The main destination of people from SA is the Middle East but many stay within India and Pakistan. There is extensive trafficking of women and girls from Bangladesh to India, Pakistan, Bahrain, Kuwait and the UAE. UNICEF estimates that up to half a million Bangladeshis have been trafficking in the recent years and that up to 200,000 Nepali women and girls are working in India’s sex industry. A small number of women and girls are trafficked through Bangladesh from Burma to India. Young boys from SA are trafficked to the UAE, Oman and Qatar and forced to work as camel jockeys.
South Asian governments have been slow to acknowledge global concerns about human trafficking. The countries in the region have repeatedly been rebuked by the US State Department for failure to tackle human trafficking.
The problem of human trafficking in the region is not new. Millions of South Asian indentures laboureres moved to European colonies – some as far flung as Fiji – in a way, which would today be labeled as trafficking. In the colonial era, trafficking referred exclusively to the movement of white women to the colonies to provide sexual services. In 1949, the earlier UN Convention on trafficking didn’t define it but instead relied on this previous understanding as it sought to eliminate immoral trafficking in women. None of the South Asian countries signed or ratified this convention but their laws have maintained this moral fervour. Persistent failure to clarify the law has often served to legitimize police brutality against women working in the sex trade.
In the 1970s, initial concern about trafficking was linked exclusively with prostitution and sexual exploitation. Feminists spearheaded the anti-trafficking movement, driven by concerns about sex tourism in South East Asia, the stationing of large numbers of US military personnel, mail order brides and women crossing borders for prostitution and for work in the entertainment industry. When the South Asian activists started to analyse the situation in their region it was cross-border prostitution – particularly of Nepali and Bangladeshi women and girls lured to Indian brothels – and child sexual exploitation by tourists in Sri Lanka, which were cited. Women’s rights and child rights groups in the region started networking, providing assistance to trafficked women and girls and pressing for action to address the problem.
In the 1990s, as more women migrated for work and found themselves trapped in debt bound-age or slavery-like conditions, the need to unambiguously define trafficking as a prerequisite to ending it became clear. Some feminists still wanted to focus only on prostitution – arguing that its abolition would stop trafficking – but most analysts and activists began to conceptualize trafficking as a broader phenomenon linked to globalization, unequal terms of trade, migration and labour. Researchers have drawn attention to three main confusions in the literature on trafficking in South Asia – the conflation of trafficking with prostitution, trafficking with migration and women with children – and consequent implications for programmes.
In 2002, after years of discussion, the South Asian Association for Regional cooperation (SAARC) – a regional body bringing together the governments of the member states – agreed a convention on trafficking. Ignoring civil society representations, it defined trafficking solely as the enforced movement of women and children for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. The SAARC Convention is thus far more limited in scope than the UN’s Palermo Protocol. No South Asian countries have ratified the Palermo Protocol.
Every major anti-trafficking initiative in the region has been civil society led. NGOs have carried the main burden in reaching out to trafficking persons, providing health and legal assistance, raising public awareness, steering the national legislative initiatives and providing training and technical assistance to law enforcement and border control authorities. However, civil society involvement is quite recent and they can only provide limited services.

5. KEY CHALLENGES ARE:
I. Absence of a joint regional strategy by civil society organizations to combat trafficking.
II. Duplication in civil society programmes and activities; more agencies focus on awareness raising than on provision of assistance or repatriation of trafficking victims.
III. Only a few organizations provide repatriation assistance to the victims of trafficking.
IV. Lack of a coherent regional donour/funding approach and existence of several parallel anti-trafficking programmes.
V. Major donour supported anti-trafficking programmes in the region often only target specific countries, ignoring others in which traffickers also operate.

6. THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO:
I. Develop new legal and institutional framework to promote regional cooperation, especially through the SAARC.
II. Advocate for the establishment of an office of Rapporteur on Trafficking in Women and Children in SAARC and at the national level, like the one already working in Nepal.
III. Encourage private sector involvement in regional initiatives.
IV. Promote cooperation b/w civil society organizations and national law enforcement agencies.
V. Develop policies and institutional mechanisms especially to repatriate victims of trafficking in a dignified and safe manner.
VI. Encourage inter-regional exchanges visits and trainings, particularly with eastern European states.
VII. Train civil servants to make government schemes more gender sensitive.

7. HUMAN TRAFFICKING & PAKISTAN:
THE trafficking of men, women and children is a bane Pakistan must firmly curb. This modern form of slavery, which entails the trading of people for sexual exploitation and forced servitude, has brought the country a bad name. The latest to raise a finger at Pakistan for being the source as well as the transit area of this deplorable crime is the US department of state, which has just issued its 2006 report on human trafficking. There are other countries in the region, which have also been identified as major traffickers and share with Pakistan the blame for this horrendous crime. The fact that this problem exists in the whole of South Asia underlines the common socio-cultural and economic characteristics and the weakness of governance in all these countries. Women and children, who are the worst sufferers, constitute the weakest section of our society. Poverty also makes them vulnerable to exploitation by vested interests. When the structures of government are weak and the implementation of laws ineffective, it is not unusual that crime and social evils such as human trafficking become rampant. This has been the case in Pakistan. Small wonder then that the state department report condemns the smuggling of men and women from here to neighbouring countries to be used as slave labour and for prostitution and little children being taken to the Gulf states for camel races.
The pity is that despite its best efforts, Islamabad has failed to stem the flood of trafficking. There are additionally other factors, such as unjust laws — the Hudood Ordinances being one — corruption and a general contempt for women and children, which make it easier for evil elements to carry on the slave trade with impunity. The report is appreciative of the Pakistan government for formulating a national plan of action to combat human trafficking and setting up a cell in the interior ministry to coordinate its efforts. One can only hope that the government will ensure the implementation of its national plan and that its good intentions will not vanish in thin air before the cupidity and unscrupulousness of those indulging in this immoral and inhumane trade. Many of the laws that facilitate this evil practice will have to be changed. The law enforcement machinery must also be spruced up to crack down on the gangs operating in this field.

8. THE UN ROLE:
The UN Convention against Transitional Organized Crime and its two protocols on Trafficking and Smuggling adopted in 2000, seek to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. In reality, these distinctions are often blurred. A more nuanced approach is needed to ensure protection for all those at risk.
The Protocols distinguished b/w those who are smuggled and those who are trafficked. Trafficking is defined as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of the exploitation.” By contrast, smuggling refers to consensual transactions where the smuggler and the migrant agree to circumvent immigration control for mutually advantageous reasons. The smuggling relationship technically ends with the crossing of the border. The two critical ingredients are illegal border crossing by the smuggled person and receipt of a material benefit by the smuggler.

9. SUZZANNE MUBARAK WOMEN’S INTERNATIONAL PEACE MOVEMENT (SMWIPM):
On January 23, 2006, in Athens, corporate leaders signed up to seven Ethical Principles against Human Trafficking:
1) Zero tolerance towards human trafficking.
2) Awareness raising campaigns and educational activities.
3) Mainstreaming anti-trafficking in all corporate strategies.
4) Ensuring the compliance of personnel.
5) Encouraging business partners to apply the same ethical principles.
6) Advocacy to urge governments to strengthen anti-trafficking policies.
7) Wider sharing of good practices.
10. CONCLUSION:
• While the prime responsibility in eliminating human trafficking rests with governments, a successful global vis-à-vis regional strategy requires engagement of a wide range of stakeholders, including NGOs, the security sector, the public – and the business community.
• Richard Danziger:
“There needs to be a common understanding of WHO the victims of trafficking are. Only then can the international community hope to improve its record in identification and protection of such individuals.”
• Human trafficking is about the plight and suffering of people and not about criminal transactions in soulless goods. As traffickers ruthlessly exploit the lack of social and legal protection for the victims of trafficking, the legalization of the status of the victims of trafficking is a must. For victims to be able to free themselves from actual or threatened violence they need comprehensive social, economic and legal assistance. This is crucial to effective victim and witness protection strategies.
• More than half of trafficking victims worldwide are children, forced into pornography, prostitution and labour servitude. Human trafficking is an unscrupulous market that generates around $ 10 billion annually.
• “In order to combat one of the cruelest problems in the world today, we must create alliances,” says Ricky Martin, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador and twice Grammy Winner.
• According to UNHCHR’s Recommended Principles and Guidelines for human Rights and Human Trafficking, human rights must be at the heart of counter-trafficking measures. Destination countries mat need to reassess strategies to ensure that they conform to international standards and provide better protection to the victims of trafficking.










































DRUG ABUSE

1. INTRODUCTION:
S
ince the commencement of life, it has been the desire of man to enjoy peace and avoid what is tumultuous and tedious in order to get peace of mind and tranquility. There are legal means for this but the hazard of ignorance leads a frustrated soul to adopt what is injurious to self-health first, and then, pestilence to the whole society.
Drug abuse is a worldwide phenomenon. It is wide spread in our society and has affected Pakistan in many ways. It contributes to crime, adds to the cost of our already over burdened health care system and to the financially strapped social welfare system. It is also a serious threat to one’s health and also causes violence and mass crime in a society. High profitability of opium crop combined with low risk of cultivation is the major factor for its growth. There is a very astonishing fact that the drug trade is second to the trade after armament in the world and yet the UN budget for drug control activities is equivalent to the value of a suitcase full of heroin.

2. SITUATION IN PAKISTAN:
According to the National Assessment Study on Drug Abuse in Pakistan 2000, there were about 500,000 chronic heroine users including 60,000 drug injectors in the age bracket of 25-35 years, which is an alarming high rate by international standards. In order to update data regarding drug addicts, a new project called National Assessment Study 2006 of problems of Drug Abuse in Pakistan is in pipeline and will be completed shortly. For the prevention of the Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse, effective and meaning full steps have been initiated.
It is a matter of great concern that Pakistan should be witnessing a resurgence of poppy cultivation in areas bordering Afghanistan which is expected to produce a bumper crop this year. Government officials often try to convince the people that the acreage under cultivation is on the decrease, as Minister for Narcotics Control Ghous Bux Mehar did the other day. However, with no end in sight to the opium problem in Afghanistan, Pakistan has no option but to work harder at removing the scourge from its territory. Poppy cultivation in Afghanistan witnessed a drastic reduction under Taliban rule, a fact that no doubt helped Pakistan earn the - poppy-free - label in 2001. But with the ongoing war on terror and the increasing lawlessness in Afghanistan, where the procurement of illicit arms depends heavily on the narco-trade, poppy cultivation has assumed unprecedented proportions. For Pakistan – a major transit route for narcotics from Afghanistan – the spillover has been inevitable in areas that share a similar terrain with bordering Afghan villages. Political unrest, especially along the border, has compounded the problem, making it difficult for law enforcement agencies to crack down on those growing poppy.
In Helmand province of Afghanistan, according to the UN and American official an estimated 1,00,000 to 1,25,000 acres of poppy were planted in 2005 out of some 260,000 poppy acres nation wide. The governor, Akhundzade, known to be involved in the drug trade was removed last year in December under the international pressure but was then made a member of the Afghan parliament’s upper house. His successor is said to be honest but the ex-governor’s brother continues to be the deputy governor, and he had inevitably involved in the drug trade.
The drug trade under the Afghan warlords and police chiefs has become organized, those involved in it are well armed and is allied with insurgents such as the Taliban. There are ugly rumours vehemently denied that, warlords and officials apart, even President Karzai’s own brother is involved in the drug trade. In this context, President Karzai has to keep in order his own house rather than blaming Pakistan for cross-border interference as let not the pot call the kettle black.

3. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DRUG ABUSE:
I. Afghan war.
II. Poverty.
III. Unemployment.
IV. Easy availability.
V. Organized gangs of drug mafia.
VI. Corruption among the government agencies responsible for checking smuggling.
VII. Lucrative business.
VIII. Easy money.
IX. Political instability, poor law and order situation and social backwardness.

4. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS:
I. Give rise to crimes and violence.
II. Bad image of the country.
III. Less investment.
IV. Breakup of social bindings.
V. A threat to cultural heritage.
VI. Educational institutions are being affected.
VII. Youth would be the ultimate target.
VIII. Corruption in the government agencies.

5. PRESENT GOVERNMENT STRATEGY:
The Drug Abuse Control master plan (1998-2003) is being extended by the Ministry to meet its objectives. Under this plan, the Anti narcotics Force (ANF), a Law Enforcement Agency Under the Ministry is being strengthened to control the trafficking of narcotics drug effectively. Similarly, the farmers of Poppy growing areas are being provided with alternate source of income. The development projects currently under implementation in the poppy growing areas aims to bring a decrease in the poppy growing/cultivation areas. Four-area development project one each at Dir, Bajaur, Mohmand and Khyber Agency areas are being implemented.
Two model Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Centers i.e., one at Islamabad and other at Queeta have been started by ANF. Both the centers have started functioning and drug addicts are being provided free treatment, medicine, food and stay at the centers. The total cost of both the projects is Rs. 44.304 million. Beside these treatment and Rehabilitation centers, two other projects i.e., NGOs Support Program in Treatment and Rehabilitation, focused drug abuse prevention for high risk and marginalized group in Pakistan costing 55.7 million are also being implemented.
The aim of these projects is to create awareness amongst the masses particularly high-risk group and involve the civil society in prevention as well as treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts. Regarding kind and quantity of different drugs such as Opium, Heroine and Hashish, the total number of the cases reported during the year 2005-06 are 31150 and the total number of defendants are 31435 .A massive drive against drug traffickers taken during the period 2005-06 has resulted in the seizure of 75985.500 kgs.




























SECTARIAN VIOLENCE & RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM

1. INTRODUCTION:

“Communalism, religious intolerance and the sectarian violence are scourge of any society and repugnant to the teachings of Islam. The word Islam means peace and harmony and forbids bigotry and religious fanaticism. It teaches generosity and tolerance even to the followers of the other religions.”
The PM, Shaukat Aziz, is also right in pointing out that a two-pronged strategy – preventive as well as curative is required to control both the manifestation and root causes of sectarian conflict, which has claimed the lives of thousands of Pakistanis since the 1980s. The toll in 2005 alone was over 200 dead and 400 wounded. Earlier this month, Shi’it cleric Allama Hasan Turabi was assassinated in Karachi while nearly 40 Ashura-day mourners were killed in a bomb blast and related violence in Hangu in February 2006. The sectarian scourge, in its current form, is clearly deep-rooted and cannot be eliminated easily. It has its origins in the jihadist militancy fostered by Gen Zia ul Haq and subsequently fanned by misguided adventurers and religious bigots. The situation as it now stands is that an entire generation has been poisoned by the preachers of hate.

In the words of Syed Mohammad Ali in his article “Pakistan’s sectarian problems”,
“Vested interests, misplaced policies and discriminatory laws have drastically reduced the scope for a religiously tolerant state and society in Pakistan. Hate ideologies have damaged our valuable cultural and intellectual heritage. While challenging institutionalised sectarianism is certainly not easy, strengthening the common cultural heritage of Pakistani people offers a less-confrontational way to reverse hate-based indoctrination.”

2. Dr Hasan Askari Rizvi writes in an article “Religious extremism and violence”,
“The government cannot contain religious extremism and violence by simply issuing executive orders. It requires a comprehensive approach that entails monitoring supporters of the militant groups in the civil and military administration, curtailing societal sources of support, and strict action against the hard-core militant elements that use violence. The government must adopt measures to address socio-economic inequities which have increased during the last six years.”

3. Kamila Hyat writes,
“The fact of the matter is that a problem which has taken root over two decades or so may take at least as long to eradicate. After all, numerous studies have shown that prejudice of all kinds is an insidious social phenomenon, which can take generations to wipe out. It is, however, essential that the effort to tackle sectarianism begin immediately. This effort must be underpinned with far greater commitment and a longer-term strategy than has so far been the case. Mere cosmetic measures, revolving around policing militancy by locking up dozens in jails for weeks, or deploying security forces in an effort to keep vigilance over every street corner, is neither feasible nor wise.”

4. FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF SECTARIANISM IN PAKISTAN:
1) Religious Intolerance:
2) Political factors:
3) Economic factors:
4) Indian Interference:

5. EFFECTS OF SECTARIAN VIOLENCE:
1) Social disorder:
2) The politicisation of religion:
3) Impact on religious activities:
4) Law & order situation:
5) Political instability:
6) Widens Antagonism among different sects:
7) Impact on economy:




6. SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
R
epetitive negative depictions of Pakistan are fuelled largely by the many conflicts that plague our country. Besides lingering tensions with India and the discontent among provinces, sectarian violence continues to blemish our national image.
While the extent of sectarian violence is not large in terms of the casualties caused by it, the problem has led to a very perturbing fragmentation of the society. There is a range of sects and sub-sects embroiled in sectarian violence. Understanding sectarianism requires digging much deeper than just looking at the immediate reasons for a particular incident.
1) The politicisation of religion is a major reason for sectarian aspirations taking root in Pakistan. The conflict between sectarian groups is not merely ideological; often it is impelled by the desire to obtain political power. The evident patronage of the clergy by various governments has steadily raised their public profile and influence, culminating in the current setup, in a meteoric rise of religious parties. But the responsibility for helping religious parties into political power does not lie with the Pakistani state alone. During the 1980s many influential players, including the US and some Middle Eastern governments, lent support for the militarisation of religious identities for a proactive role in the Afghan jihad. The decision to use right-wing religious parties to pursue geo-strategic goals first in Afghanistan, and then in Kashmir, led to further politicisation on the basis of religion.
2) The International Crisis Group (ICG) blames the sectarian conflict squarely on the state policies of Islamisation and the marginalisation of secular democratic forces. Several governments in Pakistan are criticised for co-opting the religious right and continuing to rely on it to counter civilian opposition rather than empowering the people. The ICG holds the state responsible for patronising particular religious leaders who used religion as a means to create political distraction. Their pulpits were never used to highlight people’s rights and development issues. Moreover, it is pointed out that laws like the Hudood Ordinance created operational bias against women. The problems were compounded by enforcement of the Islamic law of evidence in 1984 that excluded women’s testimony in cases of Hadd crimes and halved the value of their evidence in civil matters. Non-Muslims were not even allowed to give evidence. There have been numerous cases of people being victimised under these laws.
3) Peripheral theological debates provide the basis for volatile divisions in the hands of those seeking power over people. Press reports indicate that sectarian zealots kill around 200 people a year across the country. Analysts have pointed out that over the years sectarian violence has spread from the more traditional rural arenas to major urban areas. The pattern of targeting high-profile opponents has expanded to include public places — even mosques — and religious gatherings. Even judges presiding over cases of sectarian militancy in anti-terrorist courts are frequently forced to hold trials in jails.
4) Yet because of the political utility of religious leaders, the recently announced law requiring registration of seminaries seems to have been sidelined. Whether the Hudood laws will finally be repealed also remains to be seen. There is an evident need for government to start taking measures that reflect the country’s religious diversity. Besides removing all forms of religious discrimination, there is need for invoking constitutional restrictions against private armies. Hate speech needs to be curbed to avoid extremist violence. One of the suggestions put forth in this regard is to provide constitutional and political rights to the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the northern areas by finally deciding their constitutional and legal status and linking up courts in these areas to Pakistan’s mainstream judicial institutions. The tribal lashkars need to be outlawed.
5) Human rights organisations and legal experts continue to demands such measures. There has been a lot of loud and vocal criticism of discriminatory laws and some efforts have been made to help victims of these repressive laws — particularly minorities and women. The Human Rights Commission for Pakistan, a notable stalwart in this regard, has been recommending that instead of merely changing procedures, all laws that sanction discrimination against minorities and women should be repealed outright.
6) An unfortunate combination of vested interests, misplaced policies and discriminatory laws has drastically reduced the scope for a religiously tolerant state and society in Pakistan. Hate ideologies have damaged our valuable cultural and intellectual heritage. While challenging institutionalised sectarianism is certainly not easy, strengthening the common cultural heritage of Pakistani people offers a less-confrontational way to reverse hate-based indoctrination.
7) Some civil society organisations have begun working on conflict resolution. There are already a small number of peace activists in Pakistan. More poets, writers, artists, journalists, lawyers and young volunteers need to lend support to this movement. To diffuse tensions between different religious groups civil society groups can facilitate dialogue or support moves to remove discriminatory practices exacerbating the sectarian rifts. In addition to promoting interventions to narrow the sectarian fragmentation, more research is needed on the religious and cultural communities of Pakistan. Debates in the mainstream media to highlight our common intellectual heritage would also be useful.

7. CONCLUDING REMARKS:
The compulsions fuelling religious conflicts are certainly complex. They have multiple negative implications as well. Nonetheless, this is not a problem that will go away on own its own. It needs to be actively addressed if Pakistan is ever to become an enlightened and moderate state.
In Hasan Askari’s words, “The government must adopt measures to address socio-economic inequities which have increased during the last six years. Unless poverty and underdevelopment are addressed effectively, ideological appeals and militancy will continue to attract the alienated youth. The government must also open up the political system to mainstream and liberal political forces so that they can help inculcate moderate and tolerant values among the people. Internal harmony and cultural and political tolerance cannot be promoted without establishing an equitable socio-economic system and a participatory political process.”
















































ILLITERACY

“Are those equal, those who know and those who don’t know.”

1. INTRODUCTION:
I
t is now a universally recognized fact that mass education is a pre-requisite for the development and prosperity of a country. The main priority of the developing countries, in recent years has been to foster the development and renewal of primary education and to eliminate illiteracy. Pakistan, unfortunately, like the other under developed countries, has made little progress in this aspect. Since independence, she continues to remain in the group of countries with the lowest literacy rate.
Half of the world’s illiterate and 22 percent of the world’s population live in South Asia. Pakistan does not fare well on account of literacy within the region. Sri Lanka and Maldives have almost attained full literacy. The adult literacy rate for India is 61 as compared to 53 percent in Pakistan. India, according to a recent study done by the World Bank, has attained 100 percent Gross Enrollment ratio (GER) and 90 percent Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) at the primary level.

2. MEANING OF ILLITERACY:
For an Adult, illiteracy means primitive manual labour in agriculture and industry, uncertain employment opportunities and low wages, life-long miserable living conditions, and humiliating dependence on the literates of the community for the day-to-day civic and business interactions and deprivation in all walks of life. For adults illiteracy also means exclusion from most of economic, social and cultural activities.
For the Out-of-school Children, illiteracy means forced labour, vagrancy, sickness and slavery.
For Women, literacy is a survival kit and symbol of status. It means emancipation, participation in the decision making of the family and equality.

3. IMPORTANCE OF LITERACY:
Illiteracy is a small pane in a large window, opening into the world of knowledge based on reading and writing as one of the earliest cultural activities of mankind. Mankind’s civilization, and its accumulation, sharing and transmission of knowledge over the centuries has been made possible by written and readable words. Every Muslim knows that the first command revealed by Allah to the Holy Prophet of Islam Muhammad (PBUH) was ‘READ’.
Literacy, over the centuries, has become the lever of human progress and the leveler of social and economic conditions. It is a basic human need, and human right to knowledge. Illiteracy is brake on human development, and maps of illiteracy – poverty, underdevelopment, social discrimination and disease are always co-incident. It is a challenge to human dignity and imposes a second-class status on a person in all societies. Life without literacy is life without hope, security and freedom.

4. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE LITERACY STATUS:
The literacy status of a country is determined by the following parameters:
I. The existing level of literacy.
II. The rate on increment of new literates.
III. The volume of the education system’s output.
IV. The demographic factors engage structure, mortality and birth rate.
V. The last but not the least is the percentage of budget engaged for the education.

5. RAISING THE LITERACY RATE:
Countries have succeeded in raising their literacy rates by taking the following steps:
I. Universalization of primary education.
II. Providing non-formal primary education facilities for out of school youth and dropouts.
III. Launching countrywide programmes for adults backed by political leadership.
IV. Broad involvement of various social groups, institutions, public and voluntary organizations etc.




6. ILLITERACY SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
The picture of illiteracy in Pakistan is grim. Although successive governments have announced various programmes to promote literacy, especially among women, but they have been unable to translate their words into actions because of various political, social and cultural obstacles. Access to basic education is the right of every individual. Education is the most important instrument in enhancing human capabilities, and in achieving the desired objectives of economic development. Education enables individuals to make informed choices, broaden their horizons and opportunities and to have a voice in public decision-making. It is one of the most important factors that act as a counterweight to social and economic mobility imposed by cultural and historical biases. Education is a vehicle of nation building through which a nation’s shared interpretation of history and cultural values are reproduced across generations. At the country level, education means strong economic growth due to productive and skilled labor force. At the individual level, education is strongly correlated to higher returns in earning and a more informed and aware existence. The emerging global scenario offers immense opportunities and challenges, and only those nations can benefit from it, which have acquired the required knowledge base and skills.
There are 163,000 primary schools in Pakistan, of which merely 40,000 cater to girls. According to UNICEF, 17.6 per cent of Pakistani children are working and supporting their families.

7. CAUSES OF ILLITERACY IN PAKISTAN:
1) Half-hearted planning and management of literacy and continuing education.
2) Limited budget.
3) Lack of reliable statistics and research researchers.
4) Weak community participation.
5) Lack of multimedia material.
6) Lack of special skilled textbook writers.
7) Poor follow up of programmes.
8) In-service teachers do not take such work seriously.
9) Dependence on foreign aid.
10) Dropout rate is high.
11) Over-crowded classrooms.
12) Panacea of private sector.
13) Outdated curriculum.
14) Problems of higher education; brain drain etc.
15) Corruption.
16) Rote learning.
17) Unfair examinations.
18) Lack of adequate facilities such as clean water, electricity etc. in the rural schools.

8. EFFECTS OF ILLITERACY:
1) Over-population.
2) Low-GDP and per capita income.
3) Increase unskilled labour.
4) Infant mortality and maternal mortality.
5) Political instability.
6) Poor use of natural resources.
7) Heavy international debts.
8) Child labour.
9) Poor international image.
10) Low per acre agriculture yield.
11) Halting industrial growth and less trade activities.

9. PRESENT GOVERNMENT POLICY:
According to World Bank Report, Pakistan’s spending on public sector education is only 2.3 per cent of the GDP and this is much lower than the south Asian average of 3.6 per cent and the low-income countries’ average of 3.4 per cent
I. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs):
Pakistan has committed to all the International declaration to extend the agenda of providing the basic right of education to all of its citizens. Pakistan is among the signatories of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as the Dakar World Education Forum 2000. The Government of Pakistan has taken several policy and program initiatives to achieve these international goals since then. The National Plan of Action for Education for all was initiated in response to the commitment made at Dakar for World Summit. The Education Reform Action Plan (ESR), which is built upon the National Education Policy 1998-2010, is a long-term plan, with three yearly action plans. The ESR addresses the development of the overall education sector through investment in rehabilitation of schools, improving the curriculum and assessment reform system, an adult literacy campaign, mainstreaming the Madressahs, a pilot school nutrition program and technical stream in secondary schools. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) views education as a strong policy instrument in bringing poverty down.
Three main goals that are the underlying objectives of all of these programs and initiatives include universal access to primary education by increasing the net enrollment and higher rate of survival of children till grade 5, increase in the adult literacy rate and to attain gender equality at all levels.
Currently, adult literacy rate is 53 percent; net enrollment at the primary level is 52 per cent, retention rate for 2004- 05 is noted as 61 per cent and significant gender gaps at all levels especially in the rural areas persist. Public spending on education as a percentage of GDP is 2.1 per cent and has approximately increased by less than one percentage point since 2000-01.

II. Education Institutions and Enrollment
Attainment of Universal Primary Education (UPE) has become a compelling national priority. This is a challenge that has been accepted at the highest level in the federal and provincial governments. UPE is anticipated to increase in access to education by 4%, reduction in gender disparity by 10% and enhancing primary completion rate by 5% per annum. In the past year, 2187 new primary schools were established, 1221 in the public sector and 881 in the private sector. This increase has occurred in both rural and urban areas. Statistical annexure table 9.1 and 9.2, show the number of the girls in the primary and middle school in year 2004-05. The expansion in the number of institutions is inconsistent with the need to provide easy access to the half the country’s school going population. The public sector was able to establish only 999 new primary schools for girls in 2004-05. The responsibility of expanding the primary and middle schools for girls has been devolved to District Governments under the devolution plan.

III. Primary education
Two main indicators that show the changes in the primary schooling are Gross Enrollment Rate (GER) and Net Enrolment rate (NER). The last four years have witnessed 14 percentage points increase in the gross primary enrollment which is more then 3 percentage point per annum increase on average. This increase from 72 percent in 2001-02 to 86 percent in 2004-05 is a result of targeted and resilient polices of the government. Adoption of free provision of universal basic education polices in the provinces (except Balochistan) is gradually delivering the promised increase in the enrolment rate. In the urban areas, the GER is impressive in all provinces, ranging from 84 percent in Balochistan to 108 percent in Punjab. In the rural areas, Punjab has made a marked progress, particularly in female GER, which increased from 61 percent in 2001-02 to 82 percent in 2004-05. The Gender gap has also seen an improvement at the primary level in Punjab and has been modest in Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

IV. Gender gap
Gender disparity in literacy and enrollment is one of the key concerns of the Government. Pakistan’s overall record in promoting and delivering gender equality has been weak. There are, however, areas in which significant progress has been made and indicators point to a steady though slow improvement in the ratio of girls to boys at all levels of education, the ratio of literate females to males, share of women in urban employment (as proxy indicator for share of women in wage employment in non-agricultural sector) has improved marginally and improvement in participation of women in national decision making process.
Statistics show that gender disparity has been declining since 1998-99, however the recent decline is only marginal from 26 percent in 2001-02 to 25 percent in 2004-05. Reducing gender gap in education at all level will ensure equality of opportunity and economic participation for females. Gender disparity in literacy is lower in urban areas where it is 16 percent, as compared to 29 percent in rural areas in 2004-05. In fact there has been no progress in reducing the gender gap either between the urban and rural areas or between genders in both areas.

V. Public Private Partnership
The Community Support Rural Schools Program (CSRSP) is NEF’s largest program and it encourages pilot innovations to promote education in rural areas. Notable among them are Child Friendly School Program and Education for Working Children. Currently, 260 schools are running under CSRSP with an enrollment of 23300 students and another 350 schools are established in 2005 supported by NORAD. Moreover, teacher training has been a significant component of CSRSP, with the goal to enable in-service community teachers to re-learn modern pedagogical principles and techniques to manage today’s classrooms.

VI. Higher Education Commission
Pakistan is ranked amongst the lowest in the world in higher education enrollment rates at 2.9 percent. Other Asian developing countries, such as India and Korea, stand at 10 percent and 68 percent respectively. According to a report of the steering committee for higher education in 2001, only 2.6 percent of the students between the ages 17-23 enrolled in universities, which have increased to 2.9 in 2005. The target is to double enrollment in the next five years by increasing the capacity of the existing higher education institutions and also establishing new ones. The quality of education provided is not up to the mark, which can be gauged from the fact that not a single Pakistani university is ranked among the top 500 universities of the world.

VII. Financing of Education in the public sector
Public expenditure on education as a percentage to GDP is lowest in Pakistan as compared to other countries of the South Asian region. Pakistan spends 2.1 percent of it’s GDP on education as compared to India which spends 4.1 percent, Bangladesh 2.4 percent and Nepal spends 3.4 percent.

VIII. National Education Assessment System
National Education Assessment System (NEAS) is a World Bank funded project with a total cost of Rs. 319.364 million including foreign exchange component with World Bank share of Rs. 273.110 million. The government of Pakistan is committed to improve the quality of education at all levels. The NEAS is one of the key programs of the Ministry meant to improve the quality of education at elementary level, with the objective to measure learning achievements of grade 4 and 5 students, to develop capacity in educational assessment related activities, to institutionalization of sustainable monitoring system and information dissemination.

IX. Curriculum Development
The curriculum development is an on going process to respond to global challenges and emerging trends. This process has been initiated in collaboration with the federal units and provincial and regional governments (AJ&K, FATA). The present government realizing the importance of vibrant and dynamic curriculum has decided to review /revise curriculum of class 1 to 8. The committee has initiated consultative meetings to develop a curriculum reflecting the latest trends in individual subjects as well as equipping the education of the country with the requirement of today and tomorrow.

10. SUGGESTIONS:
1) A uniform education policy.
2) Ability and merit must be declared as corner stones of our national life.
3) Adequate educational facilities.
4) Removal of fake schools; 23000 present in whole country.
5) Fair examination system.
6) Updated curriculum.
7) High standard of academic research.
8) Removal of corruption.
9) Training of teachers.
10) Removal of rote learning.



“Education makes people easy to lead, but difficult to drive; easy to govern, but impossible to enslave.”












CURRENT EDUCATION SYSTEM

“The struggle to raise a nation’s living standards is fought first and foremost in the classrooms.”

1. INTRODUCTION:
B
irds and animals require teaching or training to lead a successful bird or animal life. They know how to make a home or shelter for themselves and how to keep themselves alive instinctively. The instinct of self-preservation is implanted by nature. They are given certain faculties, which develop, to their maximum level with their physical growth without much conscious efforts on their part or on the part of their parents. Not so with man. His intellectual growth depends on many outside factors and cannot attain maturity without long and deliberate efforts on his part and on the part of his well-wishers. A forest can grow itself but a garden cannot.
A flower is pretty by itself but a diamond requires a lot of cutting and polishing before it will sparkle and scintillate into thousand colours. Man is like a rough diamond and requires filling and polishing before all his faculties can function fully. Inevitably, in fact, education enables one to lead a better life physically, mentally and spiritually. Education helps iron out one’s emotions, prejudices, and idiosyncrasies to rationalize things rather objectively. This enables an individual to visualize his position in a society he lives and the world society as a whole.
The process of education can be regarded as a function of five M’s namely Man, Money, method, Management and Machinery. That is the short human expression of the major variables that figure in the educational process, though social milieu, reflecting attitude of society towards education.

2. GLOBAL EDUCATION SCENARIO:
Access to basic education is the right of every individual. Education is the most important instrument in enhancing human capabilities, and in achieving the desired objectives of economic development. Education enables individuals to make informed choices, broaden their horizons and opportunities and to have a voice in public decision-making. It is one of the most important factors that act as a counterweight to social and economic mobility imposed by cultural and historical biases. Education is a vehicle of nation building through which a nation’s shared interpretation of history and cultural values are reproduced across generations. At the country level, education means strong economic growth due to productive and skilled labor force. At the individual level, education is strongly correlated to higher returns in earning and a more informed and aware existence. The emerging global scenario offers immense opportunities and challenges, and only those nations can benefit from it, which have acquired the required knowledge base and skills.

3. EDUCATION SCENARIO IN SOUTH ASIA:
Half of the world’s illiterate and 22 percent of the world’s population live in South Asia. Pakistan does not fare well on account of literacy within the region. Sri Lanka and Maldives have almost attained full literacy. The adult literacy rate for India is 61 as compared to 53 percent in Pakistan. India, according to a recent study done by the World Bank, has attained 100 percent Gross Enrollment ratio (GER) and 90 percent Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) at the primary level.

4. LITERACY SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
(From page 25)

5. CAUSES OF ILLITERACY IN PAKISTAN:
(From page 25)


6. EFFECTS OF ILLITERACY:
(From page 25)

7. PRESENT GOVERNMENT POLICY:
(From page 25, 26, 27)
8. NEW SCHEME OF STUDIES:
• The federal education ministry on Thursday notified a new scheme of studies for classes I to XII, extending the number of annual academic days from 170 to 210 and making Islamiyat compulsory from class III-instead of class IV from next year.
• Non-Muslim students have been given the option to study ethics in place of Islamiyat.
• Computer education has been made compulsory from class VI. Physical training, arts and crafts, library sessions and after-school team sports have also been made compulsory.
• The number of academic days in a year has been increased from 170 to 210.
• The new scheme will be effective from 2007.
• Science and maths would be taught in English by 2011, it was notified.
• All middle schools will get computer labs within three years. Standard exams will be conducted at the end of class VIII to grant scholarships to students at the provincial and district levels.
• Under the new scheme, students of classes I and II will be taught Urdu, English, mathematics and general knowledge, which will include short stories from Islamic history, science and social studies.
• The provinces have the discretion to use their regional languages as medium of instruction and no student will be retained in classes I and II.
• From class VI onwards, science, geography, history and computer education will be taught in addition to other compulsory subjects. Maths, science and computer education will be taught in English, whereas, for geography and history the medium of instruction can be Urdu or English up to 2011.
• For classes IX and X in humanities group, Pakistan studies and three out of 22 elective subjects will be taught in addition to Urdu, English, maths and Islamiyat. An advanced Islamic study has been introduced as an elective subject.
• In the science group, physics, chemistry, biology and maths will be taught in English, whereas Islamiyat and Pakistan studies will be taught in Urdu.
• At the higher secondary school level, there will be five academic groups — science group-I (pre-medical), science group-II (pre-engineering or computer science), humanities, commerce, medical technology and home economics.
• In the pre-engineering group, maths, physics, chemistry or computer science will be taught in addition to the compulsory subjects of Islamiyat, Urdu and English.
• In the humanities group, three out of 24 elective subjects, including advanced level Pakistan studies and Islamic studies etc, will be offered in addition to the compulsory subjects.
• In the commerce group, business maths and statistics, principles of accounting, computer skills or banking, principles of economics and commercial geography will be taught in addition the three compulsory subjects.
• In the medical technology group, labs, images, operation theatre, ophthalmology, physiotherapy and dental hygiene technologies will be taught in addition to the compulsory subjects.
• In the home economics group, food and house management, food and nutrition, home farming, clothing, child development, group behaviour, childcare and nursing will be taught in addition the compulsory subjects.

9. SUGGESTIONS:
1) A uniform education policy.
2) Ability and merit must be declared as corner stones of our national life.
3) Adequate educational facilities.
4) Removal of fake schools; 23000 present in whole country.
5) Fair examination system.
6) Updated curriculum.
7) High standard of academic research.
8) Removal of corruption.
9) Training of teachers.
10) Removal of rote learning.






HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

1. INTRODUCTION:
U
niversities are key institutions of the modern world that cradles for knowledge, particularly for modern science, which has produced technology that has changed the world more in the past 200 years than the previous 2000-years. But universities are not like magic boxes that just churn out new science and technology. They are dynamic and complex organizations whose building blocks are the faculty, students, administration and physical infrastructure. The purpose of the modern university is to effect the transmission of existing knowledge, create new knowledge, and generate employment skills needed for a modern economy. Its organizing principle is that of a self-governing community of scholars engaged in free inquiry, discovery and teaching.
Access to basic education is the right of every individual. Education is the most important instrument in enhancing human capabilities, and in achieving the desired objectives of economic development. Education enables individuals to make informed choices, broaden their horizons and opportunities and to have a voice in public decision-making. It is one of the most important factors that act as a counterweight to social and economic mobility imposed by cultural and historical biases. Education is a vehicle of nation building through which a nation’s shared interpretation of history and cultural values are reproduced across generations. At the country level, education means strong economic growth due to productive and skilled labor force. At the individual level, education is strongly correlated to higher returns in earning and a more informed and aware existence. The emerging global scenario offers immense opportunities and challenges, and only those nations can benefit from it, which have acquired the required knowledge base and skills.

2. HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN:
Half of the world’s illiterate and 22 percent of the world’s population live in South Asia. Pakistan does not fare well on account of literacy within the region. Sri Lanka and Maldives have almost attained full literacy. The adult literacy rate for India is 61 as compared to 53 percent in Pakistan. India, according to a recent study done by the World Bank, has attained 100 percent Gross Enrollment ratio (GER) and 90 percent Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) at the primary level.
Pakistan is ranked amongst the lowest in the world in higher education enrollment rates at 2.9 percent. Other Asian developing countries, such as India and Korea, stand at 10 percent and 68 percent respectively. According to a report of the steering committee for higher education in 2001, only 2.6 percent of the students between the ages 17- 23 enrolled in universities, which have increased to 2.9 in 2005. The target is to double enrollment in the next five years by increasing the capacity of the existing higher education institutions and also establishing new ones. The quality of education provided is not up to the mark, which can be gauged from the fact that not a single Pakistani university is ranked among the top 500 universities of the world.
Public expenditure on education as a percentage to GDP is lowest in Pakistan compared to other countries of South Asian region. Pakistan spends only 2.1 per cent of its GDP on education compared to India, which spends 4.1 per cent, Bangladesh 2.4 per cent and Nepal 3.4 per cent.
3. HEC:
The commission began its operations in 2003 by first writing a programme for the five year period between 2005 and 2010. The Medium Term Development Framework identified four areas for emphasis. The first was access to the institutions providing higher education. In 2005, only 2.9 per cent of 13 million people in the age group 20 to 24 years were enrolled in institutions of higher learning.
The commission wrote in its programme that it would pay particular attention to increasing enrolment in institutes of higher learning. This would be done in several ways: by encouraging students to go for higher education by giving them stipends, by increasing the capacity of existing institutions to take in more students, and by establishing new universities. In March 2006, President Musharraf announced that his government would establish six new universities, each with the help of a different donor. This would be done under the commission’s auspices.
It is expected that these initiatives will help to increase enrolment in higher education from 2.9 per cent to five per cent by 2010 and to 10 per cent by 2015. If this happens, Pakistan should have 1.8 million students attending institutions of higher learning. If the dropout rate is not more than 10 per cent, this would mean that the country will be turning out graduates at the annual rate of 1.6 million. This, of course, will be a quantum jump in the number of graduates coming out of schools and colleges.
However, increasing the supply of higher education facilities and the number of graduates does not necessarily mean an improvement in the quality of human resources available to society and economy. Pakistan does not have a programme in place for testing the quality of graduates at the national level but that notwithstanding there is an impression that the quality of education has suffered at all levels over the last several decades.
The commission’s Medium Term Development Framework states: “The present quality of higher education is very low. Not a single university of Pakistan is ranked among the top 500 in the world.” Accordingly, the commission began to focus on improving the quality of teachers arguing that the first step in any programme to improve the standard of education at any level was to have more qualified teachers available to the students. This was also the part of the programme that drew the most criticism, in particular from several members of the current faculties. This should have been expected since any change — and what the commission is intending to undertake is a colossal change — will be resisted by those who are likely to be hurt by it.
The government turned to new organisational forms that were answerable essentially to the president whose objectives they were entrusted to achieve. The two agencies that were established were semi-autonomous bodies with their own budgets, programmes, staffs and leadership, and were given the mandate to raise a part of their resources by directly working with the donor community. The two programme leaders had the direct encouragement and support of the president. That they succeeded in bringing about some impressive change was because the president was prepared to step in whenever the programme leaders felt that their forward movement was being blocked by vested interests.
The two bodies that received these mandates were the Higher Education Commission working under the leadership of Dr Attaur Rehman and the National Commission on Human Development that was founded and is operating under the direction Dr Naseem Ashraf. If they succeed in their two very separate missions, they will do so for the remarkable dynamism and charisma of the two leaders made responsible for these two efforts and the fact that they were using entirely different organisational forms and structures in order to achieve their objectives and those of a reformist president.
Recently, the visionary decisions reached by the chancellors’ committee to increase allocations in respect of development and recurring budgets for the higher education sector by 50 per cent each year (till they reach one per cent of GNP for the higher education sector) must be strictly adhered to, if Pakistan is to follow the path of Japan and Korea and develop into a knowledge economy,
The plan is to increase the number of PhDs in the public sector universities from 1,700 to 15,000-20,000 in five years. But our public sector universities are dinosaurs, and what is desperately needed is their restructuring. The creation of nine new engineering universities along the lines of the Indian IITs is welcome, but what about the existing universities?
Fareed Zakaria wrote in a recent article for Newsweek, while Al Qaeda has been weakened considerably in the last several years, the only activity that remains is by way of “Al Qaeda Central by which I mean a dwindling band of brothers on the Afghan-Pakistan border”. The current western interest in Pakistan’s educational sector, therefore, was prompted by some of these concerns. Not only were the donors prepared to put money into the sector. They were also organising seminars and workshops to understand the nature of the Pakistani malaise and possible cures for it.
The work of capacity-building at the local level was entrusted to the Human Development Foundation of Pakistan and that of bringing about a quantum change in higher education to the Higher Education Commission. The third was to recognize that the educational sector needed a partnership between the public and private sectors. The government neither had the capacity or the resources to handle the colossal task alone; it needed to work with the private sector that had already demonstrated the imagination, passion and resolve to improve the level of education at all levels in the country.
4. PROBLEMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION:
1) Low Quality of most teachers:
2) Rote Learning:
3) Physical violence:
4) Cheating in Examinations:
5) Pathetic ethical environment:
6) Bad Intellectual environment:
7) Academic research environment is impoverished:
8) Religious elements in the Universities:
9) Role of HEC:
10) HEC has failed to stop Brain Drain:

DEREGULATION & PRIVATISATION


A. DEREGULATION:
1. Introduction:
Deregulation or liberalization means to lessen the government’s dominance over the private sector i.e. the reduction of the role of the state as regulator, facilitator and welfare provider. It means that the main object is to decrease the government’s intervention. In other words, it implies a greater role to the market forces to determine important economic parameters like foreign exchange, prices, what to produce, how mush to produce, for whom to produce and when to produce with minimum government’s intervention.
2. Deregulation in Pakistan:
Many steps have been taken by the government of Pakistan to deregulate the public sector industries in order to facilitate the desirous investors and business circles. The steps are to remove bottlenecks and to encourage the investment in those areas in which the investors were reluctant and hesitant to invest because of certain barriers and hurdles.
The government of Pakistan has taken the following steps:
I. Changes in foreign exchange regulations:
II. Relaxation of no objection certificate:
III. Declaration of negative areas:
IV. Introduction of green channel:

B. PRIVATISATION:
1. INTRODUCTION:
P
rivatisation is mainly aimed at maximization of output as well as profits with special references to industrial sector and satisfaction of all concerned. Thus, privatisation is an economic movement for rolling back the public sector and enhancing the status of private sector with the objective of maximum output or production.
Historically speaking, Thatcherite Britain had taken lead in implementing with success the policy of privatisation of industrial units in economy. In Britain, a large number of public enterprises and corporation have already been privatised. The possibility of privatizing some huge public sector enterprises cannot be ruled out. From Britain, the idea of privatisation has swiftly traveled to other western European countries such as France, Italy, Spain, Germany and Turkey. Thus the idea of privatisation was becoming popular in the world irrespective of the differences of ideology. At present, nearly 70 countries of the world are following this idea.
From solid waste pickup to charter schools, privatisation has invaded every service that falls under the local government umbrella. Now one of the phenomenon's leading authorities, E. S. Savas, has published "Privatisation and Public-Private Partnerships," a book that takes a look at the changing face of privatisation, the pros and cons of outsourcing and the elements that have influenced privatisation from the beginning.
"Early attacks on privatisation were based on the mistaken assumption that it was antigovernment; it was not," he notes.
"Privatisation is more a political than an economic act," Savas notes. Like any political move, privatisation has its sources of opposition, and it is important for governments to consider the big picture before proceeding with an action that likely will change their entire operations.

2. OBJECTIVES:
1) To discipline the nationalised industry by subjecting them to market forces.
2) To respond to the failure of government administration in controlling and monitoring the performance of units.
3) To decrease the political interference by ministers in the management affairs.
4) To reduce government investment, relieving it to maintain law and order.
5) To increase revenue and decrease public borrowing.
6) To increase share ownership.
7) To create competitive culture.
8) To increase entrepreneur’s efficiency.
9) To ease the administrative and financial burden of government.
10) To reduce the size and presence of public sector.
11) To increase rate of growth.
12) To raise money in order to reduce foreign debt.


3. SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
Pakistan seems to have entered into a new phase of economic activity where the privatisation deals have become the in-thing. The sweetest of them all was that of the PTCL sell-off. After the deal was done, the terms were sweetened to keep the buyer from walking away. The KESC deal also carries a lot of sweeteners. The candy-coated steel mills deal has been annulled by the Supreme Court.
Time and again, the privatisation of state-owned enterprises has triggered criticism. The latest disinvestment of 75 per cent of public shares in the Pakistan Steel Mills has led to a barrage of complaints relating to the lack of transparency and the indecent haste with which the transaction was conducted. The Supreme Court has been approached on the matter.
Almost half of the remaining 40 units in the public sector are scheduled to be privatised during the current financial year. But the prospects of even half of these units coming on the block any time soon have become highly doubtful in view of the Supreme Court judgment reversing the sale of the Pakistan Steel Mills and the aftermath of KESC sell-off.
No doubt, the Council of Common Interest (CCI), a constitutional requirement (and one of the main conditions set by the Supreme Court in the PSM case for safeguarding national interests in the privatisation process) has been met. Still, privatisation seems to have become uncertain.
Despite selling off over 150 state-owned enterprises and collecting about Rs. 400 billion (over 75 per cent of these funds were raised during the last four years), the country’s external debt that stood at $37.8 billion by end June 2001 has now gone up to over $39 billion.
From an accounting perspective, this is happening because we are not working towards balancing the two sides of the money equation. While it is easy to raise funds by selling off assets, it has been difficult for the government to control its extravagant and unproductive expenditure. Thus while we sell our assets to raise foreign currency resources to pay off national debts and deficits, we also incur new ones — in the areas of trade, current accounts and budget — as a result of poor economic management.
The Privatisation Ordinance 2000 stipulates that 90 per cent of the proceeds will be spent on the reduction of debt and 10 per cent on alleviation of poverty. The government has realised more than Rs. 270 billion from privatisation proceeds since 2000 and in the same period the domestic debt has increased by Rs. 670 billion and foreign debt by Rs. 520 billion.
Hence, privatisation proceeds have been probably utilised for current expenditure in direct violation of the statutory provisions of the Privatisation Ordinance 2000.
The prospective buyer, local as well as foreign would now think more than twice before even taking a look at the list of units to be privatised. And because the risks associated with buying a privatised unit is perceived to have gone up sharply, the offered prices may also be proportionately lower, perhaps even much lower than the ones the government could afford to accept. All this is likely to persuade the government finally to take a fresh look at the content and direction of its privatisation policy and also take some decisive steps to remove the loopholes from the privatisation process that promote corruption.

4. HISTORY OF PRIVATISATION IN PAKISTAN:
It was in 1978 that General Ziaul Haq introduced the privatisation process in Pakistan. Now that another military ruler, General Musharraf, is holding the fort, the process has gained momentum.
Many financial writers want us to believe that the process of privatisation was initiated in 1991 and not in 1978. The Privatisation Commission website also misinforms the public that privatisation began from Jan 22, 1991 in the country.
In 1978, General Ziaul Haq handed over Ittefaq Foundry to the Sharifs of Lahore without inviting any bids. In fact, two other nationalised units, Nowshera Engineering in the NWFP and Hilal Ghee in Multan, were handed over to their original owners. Subsequently, a Transfer of Managed Establishments Order 1978 was enacted as a law to provide legal cover for this imperial gesture of kindness.
In 1985, the Committee on Disinvestment, Deregulation and Privatisation was constituted with the then president of the Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Aziz Zulfikar as its head. It had a few sub-committees that did some preliminary work. In 1988, the Benazir government also formed a privatisation committee and made a French consultant prepare a report on the subject. A small number of PIA shares were offered to the public for the first time as a modest beginning towards privatisation.
After obtaining ownership of the Ittefaq Foundry without getting involved in any hassle of bidding in 1978, Nawaz Sharif’s business empire went on expanding with every passing day and his political power also grew by the day. After becoming prime minister in 1990, Nawaz Sharif himself initiated the privatisation process as per policy of his government. The first entity on his government’s hit list was the Muslim Commercial Bank. The whole process was done in indecent haste. Advertisements for inviting bids for 26 per cent of the shares of the MCB appeared in newspapers in the third week of December, 1990. Bidders were not allowed any due diligence. Only 11 days were given to the bidders as the last date of submission was December 26. Five bids were received and were opened in the conference room of the State Bank of Pakistan by a bidding committee that was headed by the then Governor of State Bank of Pakistan, I.A. Hanfi.
Abdul Qadir Tawakul was the highest bidder who offered Rs56-a-share. The total payment came to Rs838.8 million. Tawakul was refused and his offer was turned down on the ground that the colour of the money he was offering was a bit black. Tawakul made a lot of noise and threatened to take the case to the highest level of the judiciary. But, bankers say, he was promised and later given two billion rupees bank loan to withdraw from the race. Tawakul obtained the loan entirely on bogus documents and is now in jail because of it.
Privatisation in Pakistan has remained a controversial matter, if not a dirty game. Three of its chairmen, retired Lt-General Saeed Qadir (1990-93), Naveed Qamar (1994-96), and Khawaja Asif (1997-1999) were put in jail for one reason or another after the dismissal of their respective governments.
A study of the Asian Development Bank found “very little impact on the employment,” to quote a privatisation website. The ADB surveyed 21 privatised entities and found five were in a poor condition, six were roughly neutral and 10 showed some economic benefits.
From 1991, Pakistan has to date privatised as many as 143 public sector enterprises including seven banks, one major telecommunication corporation, one major power utility, 12 energy sector units, five newspapers, as many hotels, one advertising agency about 100 industrial units of various kinds.
Since January 2001, it has unloaded its shares in as many as 14 enterprises through the stock exchanges. This gigantic exercise spread over 15 years has earned for the state a paltry sum of $7.28 billion, the bulk of which (about a little over $5 billion) has come in the last seven years with more than half of these proceeds having been contributed by one single sale (PTCL).
Major public enterprises still on the block and awaiting the hammer to fall include the Oil and Gas Development Corporation Limited, Pakistan State Oil, Sui Southern Gas Company, Sui Northern Gas Company, power distribution units of Jamshoro and Faisalabad, the NIT, Pakistan Petroleum Limited, the Karachi Shipyard, National Construction Company, Peco land and the Printing Corporation of Pakistan.
Total proceeds from privatisation since 1991 to this day amounts to Rs395.24 billion. Out of this sum, transactions worth Rs217.91 billion were finalised in the last eight months. Under the law, 90 per cent of privatisation proceeds are for debt clearance and 10 per cent for poverty alleviation. “We instantly remit every paisa of privatisation proceeds to the finance ministry,” a spokesman of the Privatisation Commission replied when asked if he could give a breakdown of how the proceeds were being spent.

5. ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF PRIVATISATION:
The major argument for privatisation is that to privatise a company which was non-profitable when state-owned, means taking the burden of financing it off the shoulders and pockets of taxpayers, as well as freeing some national budget resources for something else.
Privatisation has its supporters as well as critics. Proponents of Privatisation argue that Privatisation sets in competition and efficiency.

6. ARGUMENTS AGAINST PRIVATISATION:
Critics argue that Privatisation of key public institutions, especially those involved in basic services, make these services vulnerable to profit making. Private companies, driven by profit, have no moral responsibility to ensure access of basic services to the poor. While the government owned Karachi Water Supply would have responsibility to provide water to all, the privatized Karachi Water Supply has no such obligation. The poor thus are more easily excluded.
Globally speaking, since early 1980s the Reagan and Thatcher era, we have witnessed greater acceptance of Privatisation processes across the world. The international development institutions have been promoting these policies in the developing countries. Pakistan, much has a history of importing finance ministers and advisors from Washington, has clearly bought into these policies. In the words of PM Shaukat Aziz, “The economic policies of the government is governed by the principles of deregulation, liberalization and privatisation.” But, the country is witnessing many negative aspects of the Privatisation Process.
The key problem with privatisation is that the process of privatizing state assets is rarely clean and publicly accountable and is marred with corruption. Assets are often sold below the market price due to connivance between the bureaucrats’ incharge of the process and the bidders; also there is little public accountability of the bidders.
In the absence of a transparent market system, privatisation leads to ownership of assets by a few very wealthy people at the expense of the general public. Where free-market economics is rapidly imposed, a country may not have the bureaucratic tools necessary to regulate it.
Most economists argue that if a privatised company is a natural monopoly, or exists in a market, which is prone to serious market failures, consumers may be worse off when the company is in private hands. This seems to have been the case with rail privatisation in the UK and New Zealand; in both countries, public disaffection has led to government intervention.
It also needs to be remembered that the privatisation process raises problems of unemployment given the dismissal of a large number of employees that accompanies this process. Private companies often start overhauling of public enterprises by dramatically cutting back on the number of employees. If many big state institutions are being privatised simultaneously, as is the case under the current government, then this can only serve to worsen the unemployment problem.

7. CONCLUDING REMARKS:
Since its inception, privatisation has come under severe criticism because instead of creating employment, the process has done just the opposite. Besides, some economists believe that privatization has also led to massive corruption in many a case.

















































GOOD GOVERNANCE

1. INTRODUCTION:
G
overnance implies control, direction, and rule with authority or administers laws to govern a system to achieve certain objectives. Good Governance implies running administration according to the defined laws to achieve the objective of promoting the welfare of the people in a democratic oriented order. Bad governance means departing from the norms of laws and subjecting system of administration to whims, idiosyncrasies of the rulers to achieve certain ulterior motives at the cost of national interests.
The hallmark of great nations is that they learn from their past experience to become wiser in conducting their current and future affairs. Another distinctive feature of such nations is that they try to understand the emerging long-term trends to identify new challenges, and plan for the future so as to take maximum advantage of the opportunities and avoid the pitfalls that may lie ahead.
On the other hand, the nations on the trajectory of decay and ultimate oblivion neither learn from the past nor have the inclination to look ahead into the future to plan for their security, progress and welfare. All it lacks in the context of Pakistan; socially, economically and politically as well.
In the words of Mahbbub-ul-Haq, ‘Crisis in Governance’, “Human Development Report in South Asia”:
“Governance is the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority to manage the resources of a country. It is always based upon certain rules and laws established by the members of a society. These laws agreed upon by the society are, in fact, to make governance pro-welfare in the larger interest of the people. The ultimate goal of governance is human development through decreasing human suffering and increasing opportunities.”
He further writes:
“Good Governance is exercising authority in accordance with the established laws, and any digression or subversion from these laws is bad governance. Whereas Good Governance guarantees safety and security of human beings and creates an atmosphere conducive to progress and prosperity. Bad governance has the germs of fathering a number of crises. No state is free of all crises but it is the quality of governance that ensures its survival through any crisis. Crises flee at the hands of Good Governance and they are multiplied in abd governance. Crisis management requires employment of all available resources, human, physical and technological in the best manner and it is only possible in Good Governance. States having Good Governance are capable of fighting any crisis even with the meager resources.”
Four characteristics, namely, fairness or merit, competence, ability and integrity underline Good Governance. As for fairness, it calls for ensuring equality of opportunity through merit, transparency to meet the end of justice. Competence and ability are inter-related inasmuch as ability is linked to competence of an individual. The recognition of competence through merit in employment needs to be accorded the highest priority to lay basis for Good Governance. The worth of an individual in functionally specific societies depends upon his competence and ability to do a job efficiently rather than his family connections to secure a job for which he is not suited. Jobs are offered to individuals on the basis of their competence and ability in societies that have Good Governance. In pluralistic societies like Pakistan, it is not the suitability of an individual for a particular job but his clannish connections plus the influence he wields in political hierarchy that could get him a job though he may not possess the required qualifications. In such societies merit is discarded to accommodate certain favourites and jobs particularly in public sector go to those who do not possess competence to man them. Handling of jobs by incompetent personnel gives a set back to Good Governance for achieving efficient-oriented results.
Good Governance stands for the strength of various types of institutions, political, economic and legal. Institutions need to be built and sustained, which could guarantee the survival of the nation in times of catastrophes or perils. Institutions need to be stronger than individuals. Unfortunately, a little effort has been made to build institutions on a stable footing in Pakistan as individual shave taken a precedence over institutions. The trend is to be reversed for achieving real stability. The latter comes not through individuals but through institutions. We must not allow the erosion of institutions through the idiosyncratic behaviour of rulers and this would necessitate more doses of democracy. Good Governance is linked to the development of institutions, and through these Pakistan can hope to meet the varied challenges of the 21st century.

2. THE CRISIS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN:
Pakistan suffers from a number of crises. Every crisis has negative effect on its polity and society. But the foremost crisis that Pakistan is facing is that of Good Governance. It is the core of all other problems.
Pakistan unfortunately plunged into the curse of bad governance in the early years of its life. The blame is often laid at the door of imperial legacy we inherited from the colonial rulers. But it is the fact that the system of governance that Pakistan inherited at the time of its birth had proved its worth for over 100 years. Under the same system people had trust and confidence in the government. Life and property of citizens were secured through implementation of law. After the partition, the founding fathers of Pakistan gave best results with the same wherewithal despite having meager resources. But as the state grew older and resources became available the quality of governance started to decline and currently it is at the nadir. After 58 years, the dream of the father of the nation still remains unfulfilled.
Every time a new government comes it declare the old systems an anathema, throws it away and establishes a new one. After so many experiments with the constitution still we have not been able to achieve the desired results, thanks to poor governance. Change in constitution and law makes little difference if these laws are not implemented in their true spirit. The real problem is at the implementation level. When vested interests and incompetent officials allow subversion to the established law, even the best law cannot be of any use.
Due to the bad governance education, health, civic services, agricultural infrastructure – is in the state of paralysis. Even the most basic social needs of citizens are not fulfilled. Law and order, a fundamental duty of state has suffered a great setback. People do not feel safe and secure. Places of worship have to be guarded for the fear of terrorism. This sorry state of law and order scared the investors away from the country thereby severely harming the economy.
The curse of bad governance has also enveloped the judiciary. In contemporary times there is a great emphasis on good governance. One of the pillars of good governance is the existence of independent, impartial and honest judiciary. Further, true democracy is the hallmark of good governance. Therefore, until and unless a foundation for true democracy and independent, impartial and honest judiciary is laid in this country, the prospects of elimination of the elements of bad governance will be a tall order.
In the context of Pakistan people are increasingly losing confidence in this institution. Its working has been severely harmed by the incompetency and insufficiency of the personnel. In some cases, political interference in the work of judiciary also affects badly the quality of judgment. Delaying tactics have resulted into huge backlog of cases. It consequently delays the delivery. Courts are meant to be the watchdog in a civil society to keep effective check on all other institutions of the state. This lofty job demands efficiency and honesty on the part of judiciary. Bad reputation of courts as in the case of Pakistan encourages corrupt element to violate the laws.
One of the most damaging effects of bad governance is the prevalence of corruption that ultimately results in lawlessness. The absence of impartial and independent accountability has resulted in the growth of this monster. Corruption has become a norm in our society rather than the exception.
Another worst effect of bad governance is that it kills merit. Merit or fairness is essential for good governance. Merit and good governance support each other. Bad governance gives birth to nepotism and favouritism, which is anti-thesis of fairness. In a society based on merit, it is the competence and ability of a person that is the criteria for the employment or continuity of job.

3. PRESENT SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN:
The administrative structure that was left behind by the British has been labelled ad nauseam as the legacy of the colonial rule, put in place to safeguard the interests of the Raj. To an extent no one can deny this. But no one can also deny the fact that this system was well geared to ensure justice and the maintenance of law and order.
The state of governance is the single most important factor that determines the quality of public services provided to the citizens of a country. Many independent bodies and aid agencies that have looked into Pakistan’s development problems have attributed the malaise in public services — be they education, health, housing, water supply, transport, or sanitation — to poor administration.
1) Poverty:
Good Governance stands for poverty alleviation through long term Social Action Programme (SAP). In Pakistan, Poverty Reduction Strategy was launched by the government in 2001 in response to the rising trend in poverty during 1990s. It consisted of the following five elements: (a) accelerating economic growth and maintaining macroeconomic stability, (b) investing in human capital, (c) augmenting targeted interventions; (d) expanding social safety nets and (e) improving governance. The net outcome of interactions among these five elements would be the expected reduction in transitory and chronic poverty on a sustained basis. The reduction in poverty and improvement in social indicators and living conditions of the society are being monitored frequently through large- scale household surveys in order to gauge their progress in meeting the targets set by Pakistan for achieving the seven UN Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
Not surprisingly, the figures cited by the government for people living below the poverty line have come to be widely questioned. With poverty alleviation being the buzzword these days in our economic and social development and a key criterion for aid givers, it is understandable that the policymakers are desperately trying to prove the success of their strategy in terms of falling poverty levels. But unfortunately wishes are not horses and the government will have to do better to achieve its goals. It now appears that the government’s claim of poverty being 23.9 per cent is being challenged not just by economists in the country but also the World Bank and the UNDP. Both these agencies have come up with different figures — 25.7 per cent by the UNDP and 28.3 per cent by the World Bank. This is no doubt embarrassing for the government, which has repeatedly claimed that its estimates have been endorsed by the donor agencies. But it is still not too late to rectify the error so that our economic planning is not based on illusionary statistics.

2) Inflation:
Inflation seemed to be a chronic problem in many parts of the world. There is a wide spread recognition that inflation results in inefficient resource allocation and hence reduces potential economic growth. Inflation imposes high cost on economies and societies; disproportionately hurts the poor and fixed income groups and creates uncertainty throughout the economy and undermines macro economic stability. High inflation has always penalized the poor more than the rich because the poor are less able to protect themselves against the consequences, and less able to hedge against the risks that high inflation poses. Lowering inflation therefore, directly benefits the low and fixed income groups. Pakistan has witnessed a low inflation environment for the last several years but experienced a sharp picked up last year at 9.3 percent.

3) Economic Growth:
Economic growth is the engine of employment generation and poverty alleviation. In order to sustain this strong pace of growth and maintain healthy and vigorous macroeconomic indicators would require a prolonged period of macroeconomic stability, financial discipline, and consistent and transparent policies. These, along with improved governance and better quality infrastructure would encourage private sector to play a leading role in promoting investment and growth. The government on its part must identify and promote sectors, which are considered not only to be the major drivers of growth but also have the greatest potential of creating more employment opportunities.

4) Provincial Rivalry:
The disparity in the size and resources of the provinces has created the feeling in the smaller units that they are being dominated and even exploited by the larger province. A way out of this throbbing point is to allow all the provinces sufficient autonomy so that they can frame their own policies and run their own affairs as they think fit within the broad framework of the federation. The 1973 Constitution, which was approved by a consensus, provides a small measure of autonomy for the provinces. Even much of this has been siphoned away by the amendments and distortions that have changed the Basic Law beyond recognition. For instance, the changes brought about in the structure of the local government by the military-led government have enhanced the centre’s hold on the administration at the grassroots level. The provinces have been unable to assert their authority and will in many such matters because of their dependence on Islamabad for their financial resources. Their taxation powers are limited and, according to one estimate, they cannot generate more than 10 per cent of their revenue needs. To meet the shortfall, the provinces rely on the federal divisible pool, subventions and grants from the centre. There is also the interference which comes from Islamabad in the shape of appointments of senior officers in the provincial administrations.
5) Unemployment:
6) Illiteracy:
7) Law & Order:
8) Sectarian Violence:
9) Corruption:
10) Population scenario:
11) Privatisation:
12) Political instability:
13)
4. NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR GOVERNMENT REFORM:
The government has recently established still another agency whose mission appears to be similar to that of the NRB. Called the National Commission for Government Reform (NCGR), it is to consist of 11 members five of whom will be serving or retired civil servants, three federal or provincial ministers, and two drawn from the corporate sector. Ishrat Husain, former governor of the State Bank of Pakistan, will be its head.
Writing in this newspaper (July 9, 2006), Mr Husain tells us that the commission will report once every three months to a “steering committee,” co-chaired by the president and the prime minister and including the four provincial chief ministers. This committee will consult the central and provincial cabinets, higher civil servants, politicians, and “nazims” regarding the commission’s recommendations. Once it has approved them, they will be deemed to have been approved by governments at all levels.
He also says that his commission will watch the filtering down to the masses of the prosperity to be generated by economic growth and, in the same connection, it will want to make public officials responsive to the common man’s needs. But apparently, it will not be concerned with the political dimension of governance. This omission may render its enterprise barren, for politics and administration are inextricably linked. The commission wants to make the bureaucracy both efficient and responsive. The quest for efficiency may require modernisation of equipment, change in methods and procedures, simplification of work flow (skipping unnecessary stops on the way up or down), delegation of authority and responsibility, and mitigation, if not elimination, of corruption. Installation of newer equipment, methods, and procedure does not require a lot more than a modest amount of training. Delegation of authority and eradication of corruption are the more intractable problems.














































AGRICULTURE SECTOR

1. INTRODUCTION:
A
griculture is the mainstay of Pakistan’s economy. Nearly twenty-two percent of total output (GDP) and 44.8 percent of total employment is generated in agriculture. It also contributes substantially to Pakistan’s exports. Agriculture also contributes to growth as a supplier of raw materials to industry as well as market for industrial products. Not only that 44.8 percent of country’s work force is employed in agriculture but also 65.9 percent of country’s population living in rural areas is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. Whatever happens to agriculture is bound to affect not only the country’s growth performance but to a large segment of the country’s population as well.
Over the last five years agriculture growth has witnessed a mixed trends. During the first two years (2000-01 and 2001-02), the country experienced the crippling drought, which badly affected its agriculture and eventually overall growth in agriculture turned negative for these two years. In the preceding years (2002-03 to 2004-05), relatively better availability of irrigation water had positive impact on overall agricultural growth and this sector exhibited modest to strong recovery.

2. OVERALL SITUATION:
The performance of agriculture during the fiscal year 2005-06 has been weak. Against the target of 4.2 percent and last year’s achievement of 6.7 percent, overall agriculture grew by 2.5 percent in 2005-06 on the back of poor showing of major crops and forestry, and weaker performance of minor crops and fishery. Livestock has been the sole saving grace. Major corps, accounting for 35.2 percent of value added in agriculture, registered a decline of 3.6 percent as production of two of the four major crops, namely cotton and sugarcane has been significantly less than last year for a variety of reasons including excessive rains at the time of sowing, high temperature at flowering stage, late harvesting of wheat crop, strong base effect (cotton) and incidence of frost, damaging sugarcane crop in the month of January, 2006. The production of third major crop, wheat remained more or less at last year’s level at 21.7 million tons thereby registering a meager growth of 0.4 percent. The production of rice – the fourth major crop – has been the sole major crop, which registered an impressive growth of 10.4 percent but failed to turn the negative growth in major crops to a positive one.
Pakistan’s agriculture has been suffering, off and on, from severe shortage of irrigation water in recent years. The normal surface water availability at canal heads of 103.5 million-acre feet (MAF), the overall (both for Kharif and Rabi) water availability has been less in the range of 5.9 percent (2003-04) to 29.4 percent (2001-02). Relatively speaking, Rabi season faced more shortage of water than Kharif during these periods.

1) Crop Situation
There are two principal crop seasons in Pakistan, namely the "Kharif", the sowing season of which begins in April- June and harvesting during October-December; and the "Rabi", which begins in October-December and ends in April-May. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, maize, mong, mash, bajra and jowar are “Kharif" crops while wheat, gram, lentil (masoor), tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard are "Rabi" crops. Major crops, such as, wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane account for 90.1 percent of the value added in the major crops. The value added in major crops accounts for 35.2 percent of the value added in overall agriculture. Thus, the four major crops (wheat, rice, cotton, and sugarcane), on average, contribute 31.7 percent to the value added in overall agriculture. The minor crops account for 12.3 percent of the value added in overall agriculture. Livestock contribute almost 50 percent to agriculture – much more than the combined contribution of major and minor crops (47.5%).

a) Major Crops:
i) Cotton:
Cotton is not only an export-earning crop but also provides raw material to the local Textile Industries. It accounts for 8.6 percent of the value added in agriculture and about 1.9 percent to GDP. The area and production target for cotton crop during the current fiscal year were 3247 thousand hectares and 15.0 million bales, respectively. The crop was however, sown on the area of 3096 thousand hectares – 4.6 percent less than the target and 3 percent less than last year (3193 thousand hectares).
ii) Rice:
Rice is an important food cash crop. It is also one of the main export items of the country. It accounts for 6.1 percent of the total value added in agriculture and 1.3 percent to GDP. Area and production target of rice for the year 2005-06 were set at 2533 thousand hectares and 5000 thousand tons, respectively. Area sown for rice is estimated at 2620 thousand hectares – 3.4 percent higher than the target and 4 percent higher than last year.
The size of the crop is estimated at 5547 thousand tons – almost 10.4 percent higher than last year and 10.9 percent higher than the original target. The higher production is due to favourable weather condition. Area, production and yield of rice for the last five years
iii) Sugarcane:
Sugarcane crop serves as a major raw material for production of white sugar and gur. Their share in value added of agriculture and GDP are 3.4 percent and 0.7 percent respectively. For 2005-06, the area under sugarcane crop was targeted at 955 thousand hectares as against 966 thousand of last year. However, sugarcane has been sown in the area of 907 thousand hectares – 5 percent below the target and 6.1 percent less than last year. Sugarcane production for the year 2005-06 is estimated at 44.3 million tons against the 47.2 million tons last year. Thus sugarcane production is estimated to be lower by 6.2 percent over the last year. Factor responsible for decline in sugarcane production include late harvesting of wheat, farmer’s shifting to other competing crops and frost affecting the crop in Punjab and NWFP. The area, production and yield per hectare for the last five years.
iv) Wheat:
Wheat is the main staple diet of the people of Pakistan. It contributes 13.7 percent to the value added in agriculture and 3.0 percent to GDP. Area and production target of wheat for the year 2005-06 were set at 8415 thousand hectares and 22.0 million tons, respectively. Wheat was cultivated on an area of 8303 thousand hectares, showing a 0.7 percent decrease over last year and 1.3 percent lower than target. The size of the wheat crop is provisionally estimated at 21.7 million tons which is 0.4 percent higher than last year and 1.4 percent lower than the target as the area under wheat crop decreased due to late picking of cotton, delayed crushing of sugarcane by the sugar mills, less rains during early stage of the crop and erratic high temperature during the month of February, 2006 when the formation of wheat grain takes place. The yield per hectare increased by 1.1 percent. The area, production and yield for the last five years.
v) Other Major Crops
Except maize, tobacco and bajra all other major crops have decreased as compared to the last year’s production.
The production of gram, jowar, rapeseed & mustered and barley is provisionally estimated to have declined by 39.3 percent, 17.7 percent, 7.4 percent and 5.4 percent, respectively. The main reason for decline in production as compared to last year has been the shortfall of respective area of these crops. The production of gram is 39.3 percent lower than last year mainly because of the less rains during crop growth period and at crop development stage.
Moreover, adequate soil moisture was not available at the time of sowing in the main gram growing districts i.e. Bhakkar, Layyah, Khushab and Mianwali which also affected the gram crop. The production of maize, tobacco and bajra grew by 27.3 percent, 18.8 percent and 14.5 percent respectively.

b) Minor Crops
i) Oilseeds
The major oilseed crops include cottonseed rapeseed/mustard, sunflower and canola etc. The total availability of edible oils in 2004-05 was 2.764 million tons. Local production stood at 0.857 million tons which accounts for 31 percent of total availability while the remaining 69 percent was made available through imports. During 2005-06 (July to March) local production of edible oil is provisionally estimated at 0.809 million tons. During the same period 1.269 million tons of edible oil was imported and 0.216 million tons edible oil was recovered from imported oilseeds. The total availability of edible oil from all sources amounted to 2.294 million tons during (July to March) 2005-06 (provisional estimates). The production of oilseed crops during 2004-05 and 2005-06
ii) Other Minor Crops:
The production of all the pulses namely masoor, mung and mash are down by 13.5 percent, 12.6 percent and 9.8 percent respectively during 2005-06. The main reason for decline in production of all these pulses as compared to last year has been the short fall of respective area of these crops, which declined by 17.8, 15.2 and 23.7 percent respectively. The production of potato was also lower than last year on account of frost, which affected the potato crop during the month of January, 2006. However, the production of onion and chillies increased by 29 percent and 34.8 percent, respectively over the last year.





2) Irrigation:


3) VARIOUS LOAN SCHEMES:
a) Production and Development Loans
Agricultural loans amounting to Rs.91.2 billion were disbursed during (July-March, 2005-06) as against Rs.73.8 billion during the corresponding period last year, thereby registering an increase of 23.5 percent.
b) Loans to Small Farmers and Priority Items:
ZTBL disbursed Rs 24.334 billion to small farmers having land holding up to 25 acres sharing 84% of the total disbursements during 2000-06 (July-March).
c) Loan under One Window Operation:
In order to provide credit facilities particularly to small farmers to cater for input requirements at their doorstep during peak sowing season of both Rabi and Kharif Crops, One Window Operation is launched by ZTBL with the collaboration of Provincial Governments, Revenue Officials and Postal Authorities.




































WATER & ENERGY CRISIS


1. INTRODUCTION:
“W
ater is precious, use it wisely” says a notice placed in the bathroom of a five star hotel in Karachi. There could not be a sounder piece of advice but it should be given not only to the guests of the five star hotels but also to the entire citizenry of Pakistan. Pakistan is rapidly moving to the situation when it will begin to be ranked among the countries that have severe shortages of fresh water. Wise use of this precious resource is one way of dealing with this crisis.
Man is a pre-eminently an animal good at gadgets. Man uses water much in the same way as other animals; he has to drink it constantly, washes in it frequently, and drowns in it occasionally – probably oftener than other terrestrial vertebrates. Without water, he dies as miserably as any other beast and with too much of it, as in floods, he is equally unable to cope. However, he excels other animals in that he has learned to utilize waterpower.
There are three basic uses of water in the modern civilization– agriculture, industry and human consumption. Using water wisely in these three uses is one way of saving the country from economic and social disaster.
Water is one of the most important natural resource and the major driving force for the economy of Pakistan. Only a few decades ago, Pakistan was considered to have abundance of good quality water. Now, however, in many other area of the world, population growth, economic development, rapid urbanization and industrialization, are applying continuous pressure on the already limited water resources of Pakistan.
Pakistan is now towards a serious shortage of water. In 1951, per capita surface water availability for irrigation was estimated at 5650 cubic metres; this declined sharply to only 1350 cubic metres per head in 2002. The minimum amount that should be available is 1000 cubic metres. 2012, Pakistan will have reached the stage of “acute water shortage”.

2. CURRENT SITUATION IN PAKISTAN:















3. WORLD BANK REPORT:
• Pakistan has exhausted its current water capability and needs to take immediate measure to sustain its water-driven economy.
• Pakistan only stores 30 days of river water. India stores 120 to 220 days, Colorado River in the US stores 900 days.
• Pakistan’s per capita water storage is just 150 cubic meters while that of China is 2200, Australia 5000 and the US is 5000.
Pakistan’s economy can only be propelled into future only through building new water projects and canals.

4. WATER VISION 2016:
President Musharraf said,
“Water and energy are matters of life and death for us. We have to build all dams. We have lagged far behind and have to work at a fast pace to catch up with the rest of the world.”
We are facing an existing water shortage by 9 million-acre feet and by 2020 this short fall will be up to 20 maf. Constructing two to three dams is inevitable for us by the year 2020. By building mega water reservoirs our canals will become perennial and no longer be seasonal. New reservoirs will generate 10000 mw of power, which would certainly bring down the rate of electricity. One dam will bring an additional 2 maf of water to Sindh, two dams will fetch 4 maf and another dam will bring water equal to storage capacity of Mangla Dam.
Apart from Diamer-Bhasha and Kalabagh, the water vision envisages construction of Akori, Munda and Kuram Tungi Dams by the year 2016.

5. NEED FOR THE DAMS:
Tariq Hameed, Chairman Wapda says,
“Pakistan is fortunate that nature has bestowed it with abundant water reservoirs. It is now up to us to harness these resources for the economic development and prosperity of the people of Pakistan.”
1) Presently, out of total cultivable land of 77.1 million acres, we are only cultivating 54.5 million acres because of shortage of water.
2) With the increase in population, Pakistan will have a shortfall of 11 million tons of major food grains by 2010 and 16 million tons by 2020. This food grain deficit will increase to 28 million tons by 2025.
3) High power tariff burdening consumers can be reduced by correcting hydel-thermal generation ratio of 30-70, which used to be the opposite in 1970.
4) Only 14 % of Pakistan’s total hydropower potential of 50,000 mw being tapped at present.
5) Average hydel generation unit cost for new projects is Rs. 1.00/KWH against Rs. 7.00/KWH for new oil based thermal generation.
6) Pakistan’s electricity demand and increasing by 7 % per annum.
7) Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy; 23.3 % of GDP.
8) 64 % Pakistanis depend on agriculture.
9) 60-70 % of exports depend on it.
10) Pakistan today is among one of the world’s fastest growing populations now estimated at over 150 million. Due to the lack of large river regulation capability through sizable storages, the country is facing serious shortages in food grains. Given the present trend, Pakistan could soon become one of the food deficit countries in the near future. Therefore, there is a dire need to build storages for augmenting agriculture production. Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma reservoirs have already lost about 5 maf due to sedimentation. It is estimated that by the year 2012, this loss would increase to the original combined capacity of Mangla and Chashma reservoirs.
11) Industrial expansion and growth essential for economic development and prosperity.
12) It will provide the better clean environment for the human beings.
13) Reduction in barren lands.
14) To control flooding and manage rivers.
15) The completion by India of Wuller, Buglihar and Krishenganga, Uri-11 Pakaldul and Burser projects on the western rivers of Indus, Jehlum and Chenab to which Pakistan has the exclusive right according to the 1960 Indus Basin Water Treaty, will also create serious water shortage.

6. NEED FOR RESERVOIRS:
1) Hydropower Generation
High power tariff, which is a burden on consumer, can be reduced by correcting hydel thermal generation ratio of 30-70, which used to be the opposite in 1970. Only 40% of Pakistan’s total hydro power potential of 50000MW is being tapped at present. Average hydel generation cost for new projects is Rs 1.007/Kwh as against Rs 7/Kwh for new oil base thermal generation. Pakistan’s electricity demands are increasing by 7% per annum.
Saving import of fuel for thermal power plants reduce cost of electrically i.e. Rs1/Kwh. Electrification of industries of towns and villages. Reduces cost of electricity help manufacturers.
2) Agriculture
Agriculture forms the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. 23.3% of GDP, 64% Pakistanis depend directly on agriculture. 60-70% exports depend on it. Water is a life line for agriculture. Average rainfall of Pakistan is below Avg. Thus, water storage is needed for agriculture as it is a precious resource and we should not waste a drop of it.
Out of Pakistan total geographical area only 17.1Macre is suitable for agriculture. A total of 44.4Macres of agriculture land is irrigated besides only 10Macres Barani land under cultivation. If water is available the remaining 22.6Macres of land(29% of total suitable area for agriculture) can turn productive if no additional water is tapped. It means that 1/3 of agriculture potential will remain untapped.
3) Industry


4) Drinking Water And Sanitation
Pakistan’s population is increasing by over 2% per year requiring availability of more clean drinking water. Cities, towns, Villages expanding requiring more water for sanitation purposes.
Implementation of clean drinking water schemes possible with availability of more water.

5) Environment
Better clean environment for humans. Reduction in barren land. Controlled rivers and canals.
More land area under cultivation, greenery and habitation to improve better water management and cleanliness. More forests and eco system preservation and flood control.

7. KALABAGH DAM:
Public feeling that were running high on the Kalabagh dam issue have mercifully calmed down. The president made a sensible move by announcing a change in the order of the dams to be built.
The dam site is located 210 Km downstream of Tarbela and 26 Km upstream of Jinnah Barrage on the Indus. When completed, the rock fill dam will rise to a height of 260 feet and will be 4375 feet long. It will create a reservoir with usable storage capacity of 6.1 maf. The entire project is estimated to cost $ 6.1 billion and will take 6 years to complete.
ROLE:
• Replacing storage lost by sedimentation in existing reservoirs at Mangla, Chasma and Tarbela and proving additional storage of water to meet existing water storages during early Kharif period of April/June. (Particularly critical for cotton crop in Sindh).
• Providing effective regulations of Indus River to meet Kharif allocation of provinces under WAA1991.
• To control flood in the Indus to enable provisions of perennial tube well irrigation to the revering area in Sindh.
• Generation of Hydroelectric power at low cost.
• Reducing dependence on imported fuel, saving foreign exchange.
I. Reservations of Sindh:
1) No surplus water is available for storage.
2) There is the fear that there is not enough water in the Indus for these mega projects to be used optimally i.e. there would be no surplus water to fill Kalabagh reservoir.
3) The project would render Sindh into a desert.
4) Sindh’s water supply which is already at low level will be reduced further since the regulation of the flow of the river might enable the upper riparian to take away more of the water and thus starve the lower riparian of irrigation for its agriculture (Sindh is the lower riparian).
5) Sindh’s worries about possible environmental problems. Its coastal area, which has suffered as a result of SEA water moving unto the KOTRI, need to minimum 3.6MAF of water escapade per annum in the INDUS to offset the negative ecological impact on the river DELTA. Sindh fears that:
“Sea water intrusion in Indus estuary would increase. Mangrove forest, which is already threatened, would be further affected adversely. Fish production, drinking water supply below KOTRI would be adversely affected.”

CRITICISM:
According to experts, these apprehensions are baseless and the real issue is that of politics.
• Dams don’t consume water. They store water during floods and make it available for crops demand bases for the dry period.
• The share of water would be strictly governed by WAA1991.
• Mangrove forests cover area of almost 0.32MA. In the forest spreading from Karachi in the west to the Rann of Kutch in east, 95% of forest population consists of a SALT –TOLERANT variety.
• Similarly, a recent study has shown that instead of reduction fish production has increased. Moreover, downstream to KOTRI barrage, ground water id saline or brackish not suitable for irrigation or drinking. After KBD there would be drinking water available.
II. Reservations of Balochistan:
1) The supply of water from Indus, through the Pat Feeder canal, may be curtailed.
III. Reservations of NWFP:
1) It will flood Noshera and lot of fertile areas will be waterlogged, besides displacing a large no of people.
2) It will displace 42000 people.
3) There would be water logging and salinity in Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi.
4) It is also feared that historic flooding of Peshawar Valley including Nowshera would be aggravated in the event of recurrence of 1929 record flood.

CRITICISM:
• Nowshera, Mardan and Swabi has altitude higher than that of KBD (915 feet above sea level). Thus KBD would not result in flooding or water logging /salinity. Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi are at 970-962-1000ft above MSL (Mean Sea Level)
• Total cultivable land submerged would be 27500 Acres (24500 in the Punjab and 3000Acrs in NWFP). Thus submerged irrigated land would be only 3000Acres (2900 Acres in Punjab and 100Acres in NWFP.
• As far as the displacement of people is concerned the people have in their minds the problems faced after the construction of Tarbela new model village should be constructed to resettle the effected families with facilities of water supply, electricity, roads, dispensaries, schools etc.

8. DIAMER BASHA DAM:
The project is located on Indus River, about 315 Km upstream of Tarbela Dam, 165 Km downstream of Gilgit and 40 Km downstream of Chilas. The dam would have a maximum height of 270meters and impound a reservoir of about 7.4 maf, with live storage of more than 6.4 maf. Mean annual discharge of Indus River at the site is 50 maf. The dam will impound 15 % of the annual river flow. The dam project would cover an area of 110 Km and extend 100 Km upstream of the dam site up to Raikot Bridge on Karakoram highway.
The estimate cost is $ 6.5 billion. It will affect 30 villages and 2200 houses. It will also affect 22000 people. The total area under reservoir will be 25000 acre and it will generate 16500 Gwh/ year.
Benefits:
1) Availability of 6.5MAF annual surface water storage to supplement irrigation supplies during low flow periods.
2) Clean and cheap energy through 4500 MW generations.
3) Deduction of dependence on thermal power thus, saving foreign exchange.
4) Employment opportunity, particularly to the locals, during the construction and operations.
5) Creation of masses infrastructure leading to overall socioeconomic uplift of the area and standard of living of people.
6) Flood control.

9. CONCLUSION:
• The government has drawn up a 25-year plan (2005-2030) for increasing energy production in the country. That is needed to meet the demand for energy which is increasing by ten to twelve per cent annually, says Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. That is one of the major development plans.
• The energy development plan is accompanied by initial cost estimates which will be $37 billion to $40 billion that has to come in the form of foreign aid or foreign investment. And that is a very large sum. But the annual average expenditure works out to $1.5 billion. If Pakistan itself was to make the investment, the total cost might be less.
• Disclosing the details of the 25-year energy augmentation plan Shaukat Aziz says consumption of power in Pakistan will increase seven fold by 2030 and the energy needs will increase by eight fold.
• Malthus stated that in the race between increasing population and increasing production, population must eventually win. Those of us who decline to accept this pessimistic view recognize the difficulty of the practical problem of meeting the needs of an ever-expanding population.
• The present government needs to be appreciated that it has ended the dead lock wit inauguration of Diamer Basha Dam. It is hoped that Govt. would make an effort to remove the apprehensions the provinces and construct other dams too.
• There should be public consensus on national issue and to look into the matters with contempt as enemies are working against the prosperous future of Pakistan. We as a nation need to unite as one to defeat their nefarious aims.




ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION &
WARM CLIMATE

1. INTRODUCTION:
S
ignificant strides have been made in Pakistan for forwarding the environmental agenda from being a stand-alone topic to one identifying itself as an integral element of the national mainstream development with the recently launched Mid-Term Development Framework for 2005-2010. This also lends itself to address sustainable environmental development as a vehicle for economic growth. Several policies, plans, programs and projects have been initiated for environmental protection and conservation in the sectoral areas of water and air pollution control, land use, forest management, energy efficiency, biodiversity conservation, and waste management, etc. In addition, Pakistan’s role in the international community vis-à-vis its responsibilities for sustainable development has also become known through the Government’s show of commitment for instance on biodiversity, drought and desertification, and climate change, etc.
Economic Survey (2005-06) stated, “Sustainable development remains the cornerstone of government policies, and the concern for environment, its protection, renewal and enrichment is recognized as an obligation towards the betterment of all citizens. Concerns of environment sustainability are integrated in the country’s development agenda and as a crosscutting subject, are being addressed in all sectors of economy. The poverty-environment nexus has been of particular interest in the recent years as poverty in Pakistan, like in many other middle-income countries, plays an important role in increasing the vulnerability of the poor to pollution and environmental degradation.”
From formulating the National Conservation Strategy to becoming a signatory to many international conventions/protocols/agreements, Pakistan has emerged as an active and responsible player for environmental conservation. This responsiveness to global and national environmental challenges has been supported through legislation, policy making and creating institutional set up. National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) that was initiated with the approval of the Pakistan Environment Protection Council and the UNDP funded, NEAP Support Program (NEAP-SP) remains the flagship initiative of the Government of Pakistan in the environment area. NEAP-SP focuses on a healthy environment and a sustainable livelihood by improving the quality of air, water and land with civil society cooperation. In this regard, the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) have already been made mandatory for public sector development projects.

2. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY:
One of the major achievements of NEAP-SP during 2005-06 was the formulation of the “National Environmental Policy 2005” which has been approved by the Federal Cabinet. The country’s first ever “Environmental Policy” compliments the objectives of NEAP-SP and addresses the sectoral issues such as (a) water management and conservations, (b) energy efficiency and renewable, (c) agriculture and livestock, (d) forestry and plantation, (e) biodiversity and protected areas, (f) climate change, air quality and noise, and (g) pollution and waste management.
The policy also addresses other cross-sectoral issues such as (a) Population and Environment, (b) Gender and Environment, (c) Health and Environment, (d) Trade and environment, (e) Poverty and Environment and (f) Environment and Local Government. NEAP-SP has also launched a number of Environment related projects in Wind Power, Energy Conservation, Micro Hydro, Juniper Forests, Chilghoza Forests, through its partners namely the Ministry of Water and Power, AEDB, Ministry of Science and technology and the Ministry of Education. In the water sector, Pakistan is faced with severe water shortages and water quality issues. The orientation of the water management institutions and experts is largely toward harnessing the resource in the service of economic growth, and not towards its conservation or quality. In addition, severe levels of water pollution and unchecked industrial pollutants being released in water bodies have added an ‘immediate measure’ status to water management issues. Similarly, although making headway in addressing ambient air quality in the country, Pakistan is struggling with ineffective air quality management systems. Adding to this burden is the fact that at present there is no continuous monitoring station present in the country and most of the data reported is obtained from mobile monitoring units or spontaneous on-site sampling with laboratories based results. A common issue for lack of compliance to water and air quality monitoring and maintenance has been limited resources and persistent information gap.
Other environmental sectors such as wetlands and mangroves are also faced with a similar resource crunch and information and data inadequacies thereby negatively effecting the policy and program implementation. Over fishing and polluted waters are contributing to the reduction of productivity of the marine and inland fisheries. The precarious condition of mangroves in coastal zone and the even more precarious status of certain aquatic wildlife are but a few indicators of the rate of degradation.

3. COLLABORATION WITH INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY:
On the International front, Pakistan is a signatory to a number of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and has acceded to other non-legally binding instruments such as Agenda-21 Rio Principles and Johannesburg Plan of Implementation aiming for sustainable development of natural resources. Among them are the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild flora and fauna (CITES), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Although constrained by issues such as lack of awareness, technical expertise, institutional set-up/capacity, coordination among various concerned departments /organizations, and a clear cut policy and plan of action for each MEA, yet Pakistan has taken several steps to meet its obligations to the MEAs. Key actions include finalizing the National Implementation Plan (NIP) to eliminate Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), meeting the targets set by Montreal Protocol for the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances, implementing the Biodiversity Action Plan, finalizing the Action Plan for UNCCD; finalizing the guidelines and rules for hospital waste management, and regular reporting to UNFCCC through its National communication.

4. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANNISM (CDM):
Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2006, Pakistan has established the “Designated National Authority” (DNA) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in the Ministry of Environment. National Operational Strategy for CDM has been approved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan, which offers all support for attracting investments and capitalizing the carbon business under the CDM initiative. The CDM Cell is working with public and private sector partners for attracting investments in energy efficiency, renewable and alternate energy, industries, forestry and agriculture together with technology transfer and capacity building. The government of Pakistan has enhanced budgetary allocations for the environment sector for the period 2005-2010, which will significantly contribute towards ensuring the environmental sustainability.

5. IMPACT OF POLLUTION:
1) Air
One of the major environmental issues is degradation of ambient air quality particularly in urban areas. The key factors contributing to air pollution in Pakistan are: a) rapidly growing energy demand; b) increasing industrial and domestic demand and c) a fast growing transport sector. In the cities, widespread use of low-quality fuel, combined with a dramatic expansion in the number of vehicles on roads, has led to significant air pollution problems. Air pollution levels in Pakistan’s most populated cities are among the highest in the world and climbing, causing serious health issues. The levels of ambient particulates – smoke particles and dust, which cause respiratory disease – are generally twice the world average and more than five times as high as in industrial countries and Latin America. Various surveys show that air pollution levels in cities have either crossed safe limits or have reached the threshold values.
I. Suspended Particulate Matter:
The most serious issue of air quality in Pakistan is the presence of excessive Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in the ambient air. The major sources of SPM are vehicles, industry, burning of solid waste, brick kilns and natural dust. The origin of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) may be a natural phenomenon, such as unpaved roads and places uncovered by green grass or trees. Fine particles size of soil may be raised in the form of dust cloud by driven motor vehicles and by strong wind blow. Other origins may be considered coming from artificial emission of SPM such as emission gases including the particulate matter from the motor vehicles and industrial activities.

II. Vehicular Pollution:
The major source of CO emission and particulate matters is from motor vehicles emission. In Pakistan, the number of vehicles have jumped from 0.8 million to about 4.0 million within 20 years showing an overall increase of more than 400%. The average compound growth of vehicles is about 11 percent per annum. Since 1980, the maximum growth has been seen in 2-stroke vehicles such as delivery vans, which are approximately 1,751%, followed by motorcycles 541% and Rickshaws 159%. Diesel trucks and buses have also increased at an alarming rate of 200-300% since 1980. Diesel vehicles due to overloading, faulty injection nozzles and weak engines, emit excessive graphitic carbon (visible smoke). Motorcycles and rickshaws, due to their two-stroke engines, are the most inefficient in burning fuel and contribute most to emissions.

2) Water:
Fresh water as a commodity generates concern, being an exhaustible resource and due to the environmental issues related to its degradation. Preserving the quality and availability of freshwater resources however, is becoming the most pressing of many environmental challenges for Pakistan. Perhaps, because water is considered a cheap and readily available resource, there is not enough appreciation just how much stress human demands for water are placing on natural ecosystems.

3) Land
Pakistan is predominantly a dry-land country where 80 % of its land area is arid or semi-arid, about 12% is dry sub-humid and remaining 8 % is humid. Two-third of Pakistan’s rapidly increasing population depends on dry-lands to support their livelihood mainly through agro-pastoral activities. However, like many other developing countries dry lands in Pakistan are severely affected by land degradation and desertification due to unsustainable land management practices and increasing demand of natural resources causing enormous environmental problems, including degradation of dry-land ecosystems, loss of soil fertility, flash floods, loss of biodiversity, reduction in land productivity, soil erosion, water logging, salinity, and many other associated problems. The situation is further aggravated by scarcity of water, frequent droughts and miss-management of land resources, contributing to expansion of deserts, reduced productivity and consequently increases in rural poverty. Moreover, there is limited knowledge of consequences and economic implications of land degradation, information gaps, and limited institutional capacity to address land degradation and desertification problems through an integrated land management approach.
Some threats of land degradation are greater than others in terms of their manifestation: Water logging and salinity as a result of poor irrigation practices affects 14 million ha, while deforestation and overgrazing affect 11 and 24 million ha, respectively. While the former is the cause of the most widespread land degradation in river basins (in Sindh and the Punjab), the latter combine (mostly deforestation, water and wind erosion) to affect the greater dry land and upland areas (Balochistan, NWFP and parts of Punjab) and do considerable damage to the integrity of ecosystems and provision of essential ecosystem services – soils, trees, water and biodiversity.

4) Forestry
Pakistan has 4.01 million hectares covered by forests, which is equivalent to about 5% of the total land area. Eighty five percent of this is a public forest, which includes 40% coniferous and scrub forests on the northern hills and mountains. The balance is made up of irrigated plantations and river rain forests along major rivers on the Indus plains, mangrove forests on the Indus delta and trees planted on farmlands. Though the forest resource is meager it plays an important role in Pakistan’s economy by employing half a million people, providing 363 thousand cubic meters of timber which constitute as one-third of the nation’s energy needs. Forests and Rangelands support about 30 million herds of livestock, which contributes more than US$ 400 million to Pakistan’s annual export earnings. Forestry sector plays an important role in soil conservation, regulates flow of water for irrigation and power generation, reduction of sedimentation in water conveyances and reservoirs, employment and maintenance of ecological balance.

6. KEY INITIATIVES UNDER THE POLICY:
I. Climate Change Initiatives:
The Government of Pakistan Ratified the Kyoto Protocol earlier this year. A high level National Committee on Climate Change, chaired by the Prime Minister of Pakistan has been formed to review policies and monitor progress on climate change initiatives in the country. An autonomous Global Change Impact Studies Centre has been established that is engaged in research on impacts and adaptation to climate change in the country. The Centre is now well equipped with staff and resources and is engaged in model based research on climate change not only in Pakistan but also at the regional level. Ministry of Environment has been designated as the Designated National Authority (DNA) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in the Ministry of Environment.
National operational strategy for CDM has been approved by the Prime Minister, offers all support for attracting investments and capitalizing the carbon business under the CDM initiative. CDM Cell has been established for approving and facilitating CDM projects in line with national sustainable development goals.

II. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:
Energy efficiency and the Renewable Energy is receiving increased focus in the light of high current and expected oil prices, Carbon Trading and Climate Change. Alternate Energy Development Board (AEDB), the focal point of Renewable energy, has formulated an investment friendly Wind Power Policy and already issued 32 Letters of Interests (LOI) for setting up of 50 MW wind farms in the Sindh area. The Solar Thermal policy and the energy conservation policy have been drafted and expected to be formalized in a few months in consultation with all stakeholders. More recently the CDWP has approved provision of stand-alone solar electricity for 300 villages in Balochistan and 100 villages in Sindh. AEDB is also working with the UNDP, GEF and other donors, in the area of Micro Hydro (Productive Use of Renewable Energy), Wind Mapping, and Energy Efficiency Improvements specially in the small and medium sized industries.

III. National Land Use and Forestry Programme:
A number of Plans and Policies including the Forest Sector Master Plan, National Forest Policy, Biodiversity Action Plan and Desertification Combat Action Plan, Maritime Policy and the Integrated Coastal Zone management Plan has been formulated and are at different stages of approval. National Forestry Policy has been submitted to the Cabinet for consideration. The draft policy proposes that the State-owned forests be regenerated and protected with intimate involvement of local communities in forests management. Local governments and union councils bring in more private marginal lands under forest cover within a defined legal framework to avoid alienation of land use. State-owned wastelands are leased out to tenants for expansion of forest cover from 4.8% to 6% in 2015, in support of the commitments made by the Government of Pakistan under the MDGs. Currently the Ministry of Environment is implementing 20 projects, including Tarbela Water Shed Projects; Mangrove Rehabilitation Project; Ayubia National Park Management Project; Ranage Management in Potohar track and Rachna Doab Forestry Project.

IV. Water and Sanitation:
The Ministry of Environment has formulated a draft Sanitation Policy, which will be submitted to the Cabinet for approval after it has been deliberated upon during the 2nd South Asian Conference on Sanitation (SACOSAN) being held in Islamabad during the third quarter of 2006. Under the WES program the Ministry of Environment with the assistance of UNICEF is preparing a “Drinking Water for All” policy. Both the policies when implemented will support Pakistan achieve the targets set for the MDGS.

V. Water and Air quality monitoring:
Under the project “Establishment of Environmental Monitoring System” Environment Protection Agency (EPA) with the collaboration of district and local governments will effectively monitor ambient air quality, urban wastewater and industrial effluent discharge into rivers/water bodies to check air and water pollution. ECNEC has already approved Rs 1089 Million for the project to be implemented in 5 major cities of Pakistan with assistance from the Japanese Government.

VI. Bio-safety Guidelines:
“Pakistan Bio-safety Rules- 2005” have been approved and they address the complex issue of genetically modified living organisms (GMOs). Under the rules, specific licenses’ will be required for the import, export production of experimentation with the GMO.
VII. Legislation enforcement:
Currently, two tribunals are functioning in Lahore and Karachi. During the coming three years full financial and manpower support will be extended to make them fully functional to prosecute environmental violations. Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) are mandatory for the Public Sector Development Projects, and this program is being extended to the other projects also.

VIII. Programs and Projects:
MTDF allocates Rs. 28.3 Billion in the PSDP for 147 projects to be implemented in 2005 -2010 in the environment sector, compared with cumulated total of Rs. 5.5 Billion in the previous five years. Flagship is the Clean Drinking Water for All – 2005-2008” a three year federal program costing Rs 10.0 Billion. The program will install standardized water purification plants at convenient places in urban and rural areas. In the Water Supply and sanitation sector the MTDF proposes a National Drinking Water and Sanitation Policy focusing on clean drinking water for the entire population, improving /expanding water service delivery, water conservation and efficiency, and maximizing coverage of sanitation services. Donor projects and programs outside the PSDP include projects in Wind Power, Micro Hydro, Energy Efficiency and Conservation, Renewable Energy Development; Dry Lands and Desertification; Wetlands Management; indoor and outdoor air pollution controls; and forest rehabilitation and conservation projects.

7. ENVIRONMENTAL FISCAL REFORM:
The environmental fiscal reform (EFR) project launched recently by an international NGO could lay some misconceptions to rest. Fiscal and environmental issues are often seen to be mutually exclusive if not contradictory. The reality is that sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction are dependent in large part on the state of the environment. It has been noted across the developing world that environmental degradation hits the poor the hardest. Depletion of forest cover, land erosion and soil contamination lead to loss of livelihood, as do overfishing, destruction of natural hatcheries and other shocks to the marine and riverine ecosystems. Water and air pollution have a direct impact on health and overall quality of life. Social costs aside, an ailing workforce has a bearing on urban and rural productivity, besides putting additional pressure on a cash-strapped healthcare system that it is already bursting at the seams.
The scars of environmental degradation are already all too visible in Pakistan. Prolonged drought and erratic weather are damaging agriculture, the mainstay of the economy. In the country’s northern areas, ruthless logging by the timber mafia has made landslides a perennial threat to life and property. Large-scale erosion is also silting our reservoirs and rivers at a rapid rate, hampering irrigation as well as power generation and increasing the severity of seasonal floods. Financial managers for whom human misery is not a priority concern should remember that all this comes at a staggering monetary cost. If root causes are addressed, recouped revenues and funds currently tied up in damage control could be channelled towards socially productive avenues. To do this, the emphasis will have to shift from short-term gains to sustainable development aimed at equitable economic growth and poverty reduction. The architects of the three-year EFR project hope to engage government at both federal and provincial levels. That may well be their biggest challenge.



























SYNDROME OF CORRUPTION

“Corruption destroys the moral fibre of a nation.”

1. INTRODUCTION:
S
yndrome means a group of symptoms of a disease. All symptoms taken together constitute of a disease. Corruption is a deep-rooted disease, which stands for overall rottenness prevailing in a society. It destroys the purity of the things. Bribery, hoarding, smuggling, favouritism, jobbery are the different forms of corruption to cause putrefaction in a society. As J. S. Mill says, “I’ve learnt to seek my happiness by limiting my desires rather than attempting to satisfy them.”
Happiness cannot be attained through the multiplication of human desires. It could be sought by limiting desires. There is no blinking the fact that rising material aspirations induce an individual to find out the necessary means to satisfy them. It is not possible to satisfy the ballooning desires within the framework of limited resources. Hence there arising a temptation on the part of a person to indulge in corruption to supplement his weagre resources through illegal ways.
Corruption is universal and often its echoes are heard in developing countries. Economically advanced countries are involved in various forms of corruption. They indulge in the worst form of corruption when they through the iniquitous, inegalitarian, international economic order, endeavour to extract blood out of the veins of poor countries for sustaining their economies. The developed world aims at perpetuating the rich-poor country relationship at the international plane by sticking on the existing rotten international economic order.
Corruption is rampant in much of the developing world. It is pervasive at all levels of public management, including deliberate mismanagement of national economies for personal gain.
Despite stringent anti-corruption laws and permanent commissions / bureaus to curb it in a number of countries, it reigns supreme. In many parts of the third world, its sweep is so wide that the public at large feels the battle to curb it is futile and they are tolerating it without protest.
Genesis of corruption can be explained by looking at three levels, international, national & individual institutional levels (Goudie & Strange, 1997) Competitiveness of international market provides multinational companies of various sizes with an incentive to offer bribes to gain an advantage over competitors. At the national level basic development strategy of any govt. moulds opportunities & incentives for corruption. At the same time three relationships between the government & the civil services, also affects the nature & discussion of corruption. Corruption takes the many forms these forms are acceptance of money and other rewards for contracts, violation of procedures to advance personal interests, pay off for legislative support, diversion of public resources for private use, intervening the justice process, nepotism, common theft etc.
Pakistan is an under developed country & that there had been a continuous discussion about the progress & economic growth. Different perceptions are shard at national and international level relating to the causes of corruption. The 2003 index of corruption (CPI) of transparency international has ranked Pakistan at 92nd among 102 countries surveyed.

2. DEFINING CORRUPTION:
There is no single, comprehensive, universally accepted definition of corruption. Attempts to develop such a definition invariably encounter legal, criminological and political problems. Moreover, various defined forms of corruption and corrupt practices keep evolving and new forms keep sprouting up making it difficult and rather unpractical to confine this phenomenon to the ambit of one definition. Bearing this difficulty in mind, many International and National Organizations have prepared a long list of corruption offences, thus adopting operational approach instead of seeking to define corruption in generic terms. Etymologically the word "Corruption" comes from the Latin verb "corruptus" (to break); it literally means broken object. Conceptually, corruption is a form of behavior, which departs from ethics, morality, tradition, law and civic virtue. Anyhow, Corruption can be defined as:
“Corruption evolves such behaviour on the part of office holders in the public or private sector whereby they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves and/or those close to them, or induce others to do so, by misusing the position in which they are placed.” More simply it comprises "the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit."
Corruption has been defined in a variety of ways by social scientists; however, for purposes of identifying corrupt practices and comparison across systems, the most satisfactory definition is given one by I. Nye, “Corruption is behaviour which deviates from the formal duties of a public role because of private considerations regarding personal wealth or status gains or which violates rules against the exercise of certain types of private privileges regarding influence”. Corruption is thus an illicit form of influence employed by people and groups to get things they want from government and its functionaries or to prevent actions they do not want.
Corruption preserves inequalities by facilitating the direct and unequal appropriation of goods and privileges, by inhibiting changes, which could threaten the status quo, and by buying off potential movements for a change.

3. CORRUPTION IN THE SUBCONTINENT:
Corruption and poor governance have been the main causes of regimes failures in the sub-continent. During the British period, corruption existed in the form of liberal grant of lands to the feudals who perpetuated the British interest in the region. The public procurement and contracting system adopted in the pre-independence era created yet another major avenue for financial corruption that touched new peak during the World War –II, thus justifying a need for enactment of specialized anti-corruption laws for the first time in the sub- continent.

4. EMERGENCE OF CORRUPTION IN PAKISTAN:
The refugees’ influx during independence gave rise to numerous settlement scams. The period of industrialization during the Ayub’s regimes, facilitated Industrialist - Bureaucrats nexus that supported each others interest, whether moral or otherwise. The award of permits and bank loans on political consideration basis during this era engulfed the national scene with corruption that continued till dismemberment of East Pakistan in 1971. The new Urban Middle Business Class also emerged during this time, which wielded tremendous influence on politics through their agitational potentials.
The successive governments from 1972 onward did little to contain the menace. The political cum financial corruption became the major cause of deterioration in the public and private sector institutions. None of the governments ever attempted a serious anticorruption drive that in essence remained elusive and cosmetic in nature. During the Eighties and Nineties, national policy of Deregulation and Privatization gave phenomenal rise to corruption in Pakistan. Grants of business and industrial bank loans without securing proper collaterals, privatization of state commercial enterprises, Housing and social sector/infrastructure development scams brought the national exchequer to the brink of collapse. The banking defaults touched an un-precedental peak in the country. The situation since six years has however improved considerably at mega levels due to strict enforcement operations, although the situation at the grass-root level is not enviable.

5. CAUSES OF CORRUPTION IN PAKISTAN:
The following have been major causes of corruption in Pakistan: -
I. Flagrant abuse of power by the public office holders.
II. Lack of serious programme of combating corruption in the country. The investigative/watch-dog agencies could not develop as per the aspirations of the public.
III. Elected government’s perpetual failure to develop proper ethical and business standards for the public and private sector.
IV. Political leaders incompetence and betrayal of public trust with penchant for self-enrichment.
V. Lack of transparency in the government’s decision-making process.
VI. Lengthy and cumbersome procedures in the executive system.
VII. Weaknesses in the judicial system.
VIII. Poorly paid salary structure in the public sector.
IX. Illiterate, apathetic or ignorant populace, with inadequate public discernment of political choices.
X. Absence of adequate internal / external controls to prevent bribery.

6. TYPES OF CORRUPTION:
Corruption has numerous facets and types, some of which are:
I. Extortion:
This is one of the ugliest forms of corruption, in which innocent people are forced to pay for none of their faults.
II. Abuse of Public Office:
Such as using the advantages of a tax audit or legal sanctions to extract personal favours.
III. Bribery:
It takes two to bread corruption: giving and taking bribes.
IV. Graft:
Graft is the act of a public office holder personally benefiting from public funds in a way other than prescribed by law.
V. Campaign Contributions and Soft Money:
In the political arena, it is difficult to prove corruption, but impossible to prove its absence. Politicians are placed in apparently compromising positions because of their need to solicit financial contributions for their campaigns. Often, they appear to be acting in the interests of those parties that fund them, giving rise to talk of political corruption.

7. FACES OF CORRUPTION:
I. The Police II. Lawyers III. Doctors IV. Journalists V. Teachers
VI. Passport & Immigration officials. VII. Civil administration officials.
VIII. Armed forces officials. IX. Anticorruption officials.
X. Elected representatives. XI. Accounts General officials etc.
XII. Military Personals.

8. EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION AND CORRUPT PRACTICES:
The effects of Corruption and Corrupt Practices, on any society are long term and multi-directional. Some of these effects on our society are as under:
I. Effect on Politics, Administration, and Institutions:
II. Economic Effects:
III. Effect over Rule of law:
IV. Effect on privatisation:
V. Effect over the youth:
VI. Effecting country’s image:
VII. Social & Cultural implications:

9. POLICE CORRUPTION:
"The term “police corruption” has been used to describe many activities: bribery; violence and brutality; fabrication and destruction of evidence; racism; and favoritism or nepotism."
The position is best summed up in the words of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs in Pakistan, "Today we have a police, which is politicized and politically polarized. For it has become a pawn in the hands of its masters. In return, the policemen get political patronage, which has become essential for there survival."
In order to understand police corruption we will examine the basic elements involve in police corruption. According to “Police Ordinance 2002 “
“The order deals with the duties, constitution & organization of the police, responsibilities of the head of the district police, national, provincial, capital city, district public safety commission, police complaint authorities, criminal justice co-ordination committee, on regulation control& discipline of police, offenses & punishment of police officers & national Police management board etc.” (Dawn: 2002)


10. CONCLUSION
Many analysts regard corruption as a mere consequence of political and economic, socio-ethnic, and even moral reasons. From its genesis viewpoint, corruption undoubtedly owes to all these reasons. But it is necessary to admit that at a definite stage in development of a state, corruption itself becomes a predominant factor that defines both the state politics and economy, and even social relations in society. In the opinion of analyst Nurbulat Masanov, corruption serves as "a foundation on which state and political system are laid. As a result, political authoritarianism and social demagogy of the authorities becomes an unavoidable consequence of pervasive corruption in state system”. The democratic system and freedom of speech are real mechanisms that allow to effectively struggle against corruption. Therefore, the only method to survive for a corrupt system is to eliminate corrupt principles from state operations.
Clearly, corruption is not something abstract; it's just a mechanism that regulates the relationship between people in the system of state power. Or else, there are definite bearers of the corruption philosophy in the person of state officials. These people are personally interested in operation of this system, and their interest is quite material. Graft and bribe have become a mandatory element in relationship among people. Bribe is a basis for those relationships. If one starts a "mutiny" against those relations, the fate will be unenviable: and one is destined to go from one official door to another for life. The principle is simple: to create conditions, where it is easier for the person to give a bribe than to go through the myriad of bureaucratic tangle. But the most awful is that graft has turned into a norm, a kind of moral imperative.
In contemporary times there is a great emphasis on good governance. One of the pillars of good governance is the existence of independent, impartial and honest judiciary. Further, true democracy is the hallmark of good governance. Therefore, until and unless a foundation for true democracy and independent, impartial and honest judiciary is laid in this country, the prospects of elimination of Corruption, Corrupt and Corrupt Practices will be a tall order.
In the words of Paul Wolfowitz, the WB President:
“Corruption is not just a problem for developing countries to deal with. The developed countries have an enormous responsibility. Indeed, every corrupt transaction has, unfortunately, at least two parties, and often more, and very often the bribe givers are from developed countries. They need to do more to police that. And they also need to do more to prevent stolen cash from being moved to foreign bank accounts, and to hold private firms accountable if they export corruption to emerging economies.”
He further said:
“Enforcement alone will not cure corruption. How much we do and how much progress we make depends on the desire of both governments and civil society to create the right setting for sound, strong, sustainable development.”
Quaid-e-Azam’s inaugural address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August 1947 as first President:
In Quaid’s words: “One of the biggest curse from which India is suffering – I do not say that other countries are free form it, but I think, our condition is mush worse – is bribery and corruption. That reality is a poison we must put that down with an iron hand and I hope that you will take adequate measures as soon as it is possible for this Assembly to do so.”


NATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGY (NACS),
New Operational Methodology of NAB (as of May 2006):

A. Transparency and Internal Accountability:
1) Transparency in investigation process:
2) Electronic Monitoring:
B. Capacity Building:
1) Restructuring:
2) Specialization is the key to a successful anti corruption strategy:
C. Disposal of Workload:
1) Clearance of Backlog:
2) Prioritization of Cases:
D. Decision- making:
Executive Boards:
E. Awareness and Prevention:
1) Awareness Measures: NAB is the first anti corruption agency to depart from the traditional approach. Alongside strict enforcement, campaign for public awareness regarding the ill effects of corruption is under implementation through media, both print and electronic, for quite some time with a view to transform the societal attitude from acceptance to abhorrence against the menace. We are also going to educational institutes to engage youth in the anti-corruption drive. For this, NAB is striving to incorporate anti-corruption themes in the syllabi as well.
2) Special Preventive Measures:
Departmental Prevention: Instead of waiting for incidence of corruption to happen, there is a need to nip the evil in the bud. Towards this, NAB plans to start interacting with the government departments to identify loopholes, leakage areas in the procedures and irregularities in the flow of money.
3) Special Inspection Teams: Special inspection teams will be activated to carry out raids and sting operations. On-spot inspections of areas vulnerable to corruption will also be carried out.
4) Evaluation of public contracts: Arrangements for evaluation of public sector contracts involving amounts over Rs. 50 million have also been worked out. Leading cases of corruption are being studied to ascertain trends in corrupt practices in order to suggest corrective measures.
F. Miscellaneous:
1) Reward Policy:
2) Arrest policy:
3) ECL Policy:
4) Non-Cooperation by the Departments/Individuals:
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But it should be in PDF Format.That would be more easiest for aspirants.
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Nice job Uzma dear..bundle of thanks, Indeed your efforts are appreciable. i need the toppers academy .if you can shere..Regards
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very nice collection indeed but needs little updation
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Originally Posted by Galaxy young View Post
But it should be in PDF Format.That would be more easiest for aspirants.
Brother i have arranged all these Essays posted by Miss Uzma Khan, and converted it into PDF and also uploaded it........ Now all the Aspirants can download the PDF file containing all these essays posted by Miss Uzma Khan.....
http://www.4shared.com/office/ZAZV33...s_academy.html

But remember, these Essays were posted by Miss Uzma Khan Yousafzai.. and then i just arranged all these essays and converted it into a PDF file and uploaded on a website from where anyone of the Aspirants can download it easily........... done for the convenience of the Aspirants.....
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thanks for this laborious work
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Old Sunday, November 03, 2013
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dear Uzma Khan your efforts are really remarkable and need to be appreciated but here i would like to say something, kindly do not post that kind of bookish material because these essays have been extracted from some books surely inspite of these you should post your own essays which you have written by your pen. just pasting the materials of book here is not enough or posting the essays of Col. Zahoor does not mean here that these essays will enable the students to write that type of essays because in examination hall one does not have sufficient time to memorize or to reproduce that kind of essays owing to this attempting an essay will be very difficult. being a student of essay i would like to request you kindly post the techniques how to write an essay? how to frame a good outline? how to make an effective introductry paragraph and conclusion? because outline,an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph are thought to be the most important parts of an essay. most importantly, you should tell the students how to do time management during an essay paper?. Hope you will pay due attention on these feedbacks.
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