A Critical Analysis Of Education system In Pakistan
Seniors plz chek my out lines as i have been preparing for 2103's attempt.
1. current literacy rate of Pakistan 2.Education level
i. primary education
ii. middle education
iii.high ( ix to x )
iv. intermediate ( xi to xii )
v .Higher education 3.Excessive role of private schooling & higher education
4. uncontrolled madarsa schooling 5.Above three unparalleled education sytem's out put
6.Flaw of successive education policies. 7.Feudal politician and bureaucrats role in education. 8.less education budget. 9.obsolete examination system
10.priority to higher education 11.neglecting gross root education
12.no significance on technical education. 13. untrained teachers
14.No effective mechanism of teachers training. 15.pressure group of associations of teachers. 16.no check and balance system. 17.no financial assistance to poor students.
18. lack of awareness of importance of education in remote areas.19.dissolution of HEC
20.unparalleled education policies of provinces.
remedies or panacea
1. good governance
2.increasing education budget
3.one sound education policy for all gov private and madarsas schooling
4.chek and balance system.
A critical analysis of education system in Pakistan
Education is a systematic process of establishing the pillar of society. It brings up an empty mind with discourse tongue of awareness. The literal meaning of education and supplementary definition particularly on the ground of Pakistan poses an alarming condition. Sine the birth of newly independent state Pakistan, education lagged behind due to deliberate negligence of parochial feudal and state politician in particularly and bureaucracy in generally. From the emergence of Pakistan there has been centered censure by conscious group of common people and civil society, finally both influence over the government to think over seriously on their discussing point In the dilemma of authoritarian long regime and fragile civil government, education has been neglected because elite group from ruling class whether in military or so called civil representative, did not seriously boost the level of education through sound education policies. Instead of, political uncertainty, nepotism culture, thirst of power perpetuated the level of education in dregs of glass.
Pakistan inherited the system of education from British but after that no significant changes has been brought in education system of Pakistan. Consequently, the literacy rate have become less than the regional countries which got independence abreast of Pakistan. According to the Education Report 2009, it shows overall figures on education, literacy rate rose to 67 pr
cent in 2009-10 than it was 57 per cent at the period of 1998-99. Out of literacy rate, male literacy stood 68 per cent and female 58 per cent in 2009-10. Female literacy rate was 57 per cent in 2008-09. Therefore, a slight one per cent increase was recorded during the period of 2009-10.
Literacy rate is measured from the prevailing level of education in the country. There are five education levels are operating in Pakistan, primary, middle, high schooling, intermediate and university education. Unfortunately, the policy maker of education has been determined and focused only on higher education. Through such policy, an independent body of Higher Education Commission ( HEC) was established to look after overall universities education through code of conduct and various allocations of budgeting the universities including foreign scholarships in various programs.
To improve the quality of higher education, primary education has been ignored since the independence of Pakistan. Although the primary level of education do have a founding role of developing the nation in every walk of life. Some Asian and almost every Western developed countries hold the reign of education and developed their economies from the utilization of modern education. In contrast, country like Pakistan’s education witnesses of dilapidated condition by terms of structural and management problems. There are 154000 primary schools with 420000 teachers do exist in both the urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Majority of them are two or three classes of school buildings where nursery to five class education is given. One can assume the running of such schools in squeezed class. Result as, a bulk of incompetent students are being produced for upcoming level of education. One side the education condition is like that and on other side the schools with out teachers, having no furniture, schools are being used as guest house by landlords are other factors to mar the quality of education.
Middle school (vi-viii) is too reflects as the primary one with out guided steps by the government of Pakistan. All efforts to increase the quality of higher education on negating the gross root education have produced anarchy in education system of Pakistan; because, a country with heavy population along with expanding rate of unemployment with lack of education is threat even to democracy. The reason of expired middle education system is followed by the primary education. Moreover, feudal system, extreme poverty, lack of good governance, no effectual procedure of poverty scholarships demoralized the already shabby society to reluctant on educating their children when above problems knock the door of poor families. Consequently, a sharp decrease of enrolment (0.2 %) in middle school from 5.426 million in 2007-08to 5.414 million in 2008-09. It was also estimated to decrease the enrolment of middle school to (0.6 %) during 2009-10.
Secondary education, after the passing of middle education the students are required to pass national exam under the divisional control of Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE). There are 24322 schools with 439316 teacher are functional. Despite, such huge numbers of middle schools and teachers have not improved the quality of education.
There are 8 per cent of Pakistanis are graduates. Male contribution is (6.3%) and (3%) of female. The 8b per cent of graduates are subdivided to age cohort between 57-67, 47-57, 37-47 and 21-37. Hence the university enrolment is recorded 10.319 million despite pivotal of education policy. A country with 180 million people, 01 million figures shows the backwardness of country men.
One side the illiteracy rate in Pakistan is enlarging day by day in account of rapid growth of population, and on other side the gulf between poor and rich is also increasing. The factors responsible for reinforce the class conflict, education is the foremost contributor. In result of, private education system came on gloomy horizon in providing the qualitative education only those strata who afford high fee structure. Such heavy fee structure badly hit the poor strata, result as they could not equip modern education to their children. Comparatively, private leaner lag behind public learner in competitive exams and avail of high official jobs. Therefore poor become more poor and rich become more richer.
The third system responsible for aggravating education system of Pakistan is Madarsah school system. Such religious schools are being operated by religious scholars on their creative way of teaching having no interference or directions from government. Madaresah schools only provide religious education according to their cult and creed on expulsion of western education. In 1882 Deoband school under the leadership of Muhammed Qasim Nanativi openly negated Sir Syed Ahmed khan’s Ali Garh college. Later unprecedented events proved Sir Syed’s doctrine correct to acquire western education, which is not against Islam, mostly propagated by religious clergy. But a rift between two important institutions devised the Muslim Umma in groups. Same the case is being contested by Pakistani Government since its independence. Certainly, a country with multi-educational policies procures chaos in a country. Pakistan is a land of such chronic diseases.\
Ideally, a unanimous and monotones education policy is prerequisite to achieve satisfactory literacy rate. A ten or more than ten years time period is allocated to overcome hurdles with good governance. In Pakistan, there has been a problem of good governance. Every successive government comes up with new education policy on expulsion of previous. Thereupon, repercussion of each government is Pakistan have marred the structure of education since 1947. Although article of 38(d) in Constitution of Pakistan guarantees of free education is a right of every citizen and respected government is bound to take measures to provide basic education to intermediate. Article 38 (b)…. To remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period. In spite of, constitutional guarantee in the constitution in Pakistan, the government is openly violating the constitution. The current coalition Government led by PPP brought new education Policy 2009. Although the features of education policy 2009’s are remarkable but, despite it seems impracticable, because lasing mind set of politician and bureaucracy.
Comparatively, the education budget of Pakistan in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is less than the regional countries. The current education budget of Pakistanis just 2.5 % of GDP whilst Nepal 2.7%, Srilanka 3.2%, India 3.5% and Bangladesh is 3.5%. The low education budget shows the negligence of education. Remember, 95 per cent of education budget is incurred on salaries and maintenance.
Outdated examination system is another point of discussing the standard of education in Pakistan. The primary to middle examination system is splendid for increasing the role of teacher in its class. Such school teachers are responsible to seek exam from the course they cover in class. Hence students are acquainting of how to prepare for exam. Irrespective of primary-middle examination, IV to XII examination process has been enlarged from class teacher to board’s selective teachers. The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE), a divisional board has a significant role to rule out the syllabus for IV to Xii respectively; and keep right to form a exam paper in its own supervision. This rationale of conducting exam is excellent but lack of communication system between school and college authority and concern officers of board have created uncertainty among students about the extracting paper for the exam. The following are the flaws in examination system.
I. Ineffective communication between school/college authority and BISE board. It is seen that teacher do not complete the assigned course to its students. Hence the quality and standard of examination vulnerable for students.
II. But it is obligation of the board to form exam paper according to the course.
III. Political or absent teacher in regular classes have further spoil the examination process
IV. No modernization in exam system are the keywords found in the current exam system.
Basically, from last two decades, all importance has given to standardize higher education or university education; for this purpose, another two universities are established from 132 to 134. An independent body Higher Education Commission (HEC) was formed to regulate the universities of Pakistan. On some extent, the HEC has succeeded in towards it purpose, but after the 18th amendment, HEC was dissolved and to be made the education a provincial subject.
In quest of to boost the higher education, the gross root or primary education was entirely ignored which provides the foundation of quality education. Thus, ignoring the primary education, the level of illiteracy further increased. Therefore, Millennium Goal for 2015 in education policy 2009 seems impracticable. Along with primary education, technical education of woman vocation and poly technical education has been set aside of no importance. Basically, technical education play vital role to decrease the rate of unemployment on immediate basis. There are numbers of technical institutions are in ready position to provide technical education but due to mismanagement these liable no beneficial since their structural presence.
One side in advanced countries, the respected government has described the system of teachers training as to equip modern techniques of teaching method to their teachers. Consequently, they are now are the champions of modern civilization in science, art, philosophy, literature. In contrast, Pakistan too launched same pattern for training their teachers, but inefficiencies almost succumb to outstanding process. On other side, teachers too have failed to attend regular classes on available old culture of teaching method from primary to college level in rural and urban areas. The Education department is not taking stern measures against these elements due to political reconciliations.
In result of present scenario, government itself provided an opportunity to teachers to gather on one plate form and form teachers union to protect the rights of teacher if any official matter may arise to his/her. In these days, the teacher union has appeared a resisting force in front of government machinery. There are many unions of teacher according to its level, such as, primary, middle, secondary and universities. Such associations have started politics in their affairs. Eventually, education department can not regulate with out consultation associations of teachers. It too has deteriorated the education.
No proper mechanism of scholarship program to deserved students and financial assistance to poor students is another factor responsible to limiting the education only accessible to affordable families. There are number of international agencies providing education funding to provinces of Pakistan as to eradicate illiteracy from the country. Such agencies are World Bank, Asian Development Bank and United Nation’s agencies, but due to corruption in education department, no considerable achievement carried out.
Good governance is a first pre-requisite factor to embark on the every essence of policy to build up society through key education. The Quaid-e- Azam rightly emphasized the acquirement of education on addressing in” All educational Conference at Karachi, Nov, 27,1947, said,” The importance of education and the right type of education can not be over emphasized. If we are to make any real, speedy and substantial progress, we must earnestly tackle this question ad bring our educational policy and programme on the lines suited to the genius of our people, consonant with our history and culture, and having regard to the modern conditions and vast developments that have tken place all over the World.”
Good governance leads ruling class or chosen representatives to take very steps that have far reaching impact on the socio- economic position. In Pakistan, there have been gaps towards attainment of qualitative education in account of weak administration. Hence it is necessary to re-shape administrative machinery as to rightly deliver the founding education to its people.
The second very step after good governance is to increase education budget from 2.5 % of GDP to 8% of GDP. To increase education budget it means the government will have no constraint of financing but, instead of, government will be able to meet cope education matters according to its need. The third required step to improve education, a sound and unanimous education policy is indispensable. Though, after passing of 18th Amendment Bill in the Constitution of Pakistan, education ministry ultimately became a provincial subject. The province needs to call on joint meeting of MoE to draft and agree upon one education policy as to bring all systems of education under strict check.
The forth needed step of implementation is of government’s regulation in education. Through administrative strictness it could be ensure that the writ of state is accessible, therefore no compromised can be tolerated in case of inefficiencies in regard to implementation.
The fifth element is to implementation of education Policy 2009. According to the education Policy 2009, the Government of Pakistan declares that it will ensure education for all and will increase literacy rate from 67 to 87% till the end of 2015. Further says that university enrollment will be brought to 1.5 million from 01 million.
All constraints in education system in Pakistan require sincere efforts to resolve administrative and management problems by the effectiveness of the government of Pakistan. Pakistan experiences a country of religious intolerance and much more multi-crisis land. War on terror since 2001; have revealed the administrative flaws in the administrative machinery of Pakistan. It is time that the current Government of Pakistan must tackle education problem because illiteracy is even threat to democracy.
Nelson Mandela said; if you want o change the World, remember education is the only way o change the World.’