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Old Wednesday, March 20, 2013
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Default Essays Outlines

Important Essays
Outlines


Democracy in Pakistan

The appraisal of last 60 years of democracy

1. Where does Pakistan stand in terms of democracy?
2. Is the democracy – an issue of Pakistan or all Muslim countries?
3. Is the democracy an issue of Pakistan or all third world countries?
4. Has the democracy with some links with the:
-History
-Culture
-Ideology of people
-Socioeconomic development of people
5. Are the people of Pakistan non democratic?
6. Is the democracy solved the issues of Pakistan?
7. the issue of democracy in Pakistan
-Personalization of politics
-Personality oriented politics
2 The system itself
-Presidential or parliamentary
-The issue of executive legislature and judiciary
3 The issue of execution
-PM
-Cabinet
-Bureaucracy
4. The tug of war between different institutions
-Political
-Military
-Bureaucracy
-Judiciary
5. Election commission and procedure of election.
6. Rigging of polls
7. The making of constitution
8. Amending the constitution
9. Horse trading
10. The politicians
-Background
-Aptitude and capabilities
-Education
-Priorities etc
11. The conduct of political parties
12. The elections in political parties
13. Manifesto of political parties
14. The role of treasury banks and opposition banks
15. The interference of military
16. Provincial/Regionalism/Factionalism.
17. The pressure groups and their attitude towards bureaucracy
18. The indigenous and foreign conspiracies (especially the superpowers)
19. baradari/claim/tribal system in Pakistan
20. Literacy rate in Pakistan
21. economic/social development in Pakistan
22. (Role of mullah/islamists)
23. Local government system and democracy
24. Participation of women in democracy
25. Will we ever be able to bring democracy?
26. Or democracy will evolve with Pakistan
-Short term measures
-Long tem measures




























Terrorism

Angles/Aspects:
a) Fact or fiction?
b) Threat not only for the west but also for the Muslims?
c) Ploy of west to crush Muslims?

Impacts
Social
Political
Psychological
Religious

1. What is terrorism?
2. Is it real or so called term?
3. In modern of the world when did terrorism surface?
4. Is the terrorism a political battle or a religious battle?
5. Is the terrorism a war against the injustices of powerful, superpowers, usurpers?
6. Is the terrorism an attempt to establish the ascendancy of a particular group or class?
7. Is the terrorism a start of crusades?
-A battle between Islam and Christianity
-A battle between a section of Muslims with a section of Christians or west.
8. Is the terrorism and attempt by some hardcore Islamists groups to resist the centuries old occupation of the west on Islamic territories?
9. Do the terrorist draw their agenda of resistance from the cruelties of the west or from Islam?
10. Will they resort to terrorism even if west stops supporting Israel or India?
11. Will terrorism continue even if west stops exploiting the resources of Muslims?
12. Will the terrorism continue even if west shuns biased policies against Muslim state? Its double policy with regard to democracy, human rights violation, atomic energy etc
13. Genesis of so called terrorist or terrorist groups
- Al-Qaida
- Lashkar-e-Tayaba
- Hezbollah
- Others
14. Were this group really motivated for the cause of Islam or west was behind the creation of these groups?
15. Did these groups get separated from the agenda of world powers and pursue their own agenda separately?
16. Though the terrorist organizations have two agendas
-The destruction and defeat of America
-The establishment of Muslim or Islamic state.
17. Are all the terrorist organizations linked with each other?
18. Do they share agenda with each other?
19. To what extent they share common agenda and where they get separated.
20. Do different agencies control different terrorist groups and through different and through different ways influence terrorist groups to achieve their specific goals?
21. is the terrorism
- Local issue
- Issue of Middle East
- Issue of Pak-Afghan
- Issue of America
- A global issue
22. Has the terrorism any link with Clash of Civilization?
23. Is the terrorism linked with the faulty policies of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in the wake of Russian debacle?
24. has the terrorism any linkage with Great Game?
- Expansion of Israel
- Control of energy resources of Middle East
- Control of resources of Central Asian States
- Containment of emerging Muslim power if any.
25. Is the terrorism a ploy of western countries to crush Muslim countries especially Pakistan?
26. Why Pakistan to be crushed in the pretext of terrorism
A. Is it linked with us policies about India and china?
27. Are all sort of terrorism linked with us relation to remain a superpower for centuries
28. Is there no other way to remain in the cradle of power except in the name of terrorism?
29. War on terrorism in which context and for whom is fact and for whom and in which context is a fiction
30. Do any countries, especially the Muslims understand the reality of terrorism?
31. If they understand then are they
- Alive to respond properly
- Are they prepared or preparing for future battle or exploitation
- Have they the capacity and capability to realize and rectify the dangerous situation?
- If a Muslim country has a potential to respond
I. Which country
II. To which extent
32. Will America or western block succeed in the garb of terrorism? If yes to what extend?
33. Will Muslims ever be able to contain/ counter America’s great game?
34. In future will the Muslim governments be at loggerheads with terrorist groups or will cooperate with them at any level?
35. Can they (Muslim countries and terrorist organizations) share a common goal?
36. In the conflict what are implications
- Will the aspiring superpowers be silent?
- Will they allow America to do whatever she wants to do in the name of terrorism?
- Will they cooperate (aspiring superpowers) with Muslim forces? And to what extent?
37. Irrespective of agenda and objectives, known and unknown, what have been the implications for both Muslims and non-Muslims especially for Pakistan, Afghanistan and America.
38. Implications for America
- Credibility and neutrality of USA doubtful
- Alienation in the world of Islam
- Security threat to its populace at home and abroad
- Creation of new enemies instead of friends.
-. Even a clarion call for aspiring or emerging superpowers
-. More consciousness among Muslims for preservation of their ideology, resources and identity
- Alienation of the supporters of America in the Muslim countries
- Huge expenditure on defense
- Economic crises in USA
- Unemployment in USA
- Political challenges for the government
- Mushroom of terrorist organizations
39. Implications for Pakistan
A. economic impacts
I. More expenditure on defense
II. The stoppage of FDI
III. The destruction of tourism
IV. The destruction of infrastructure
V. Ruination of industry, agriculture in war hit areas
VI. Effect on trade
VII. Migration of people
VIII. Economic activity in the area
IX. Business of the people.
X. Expenditure on I.D.Ps
XI Expenditure on reconstruction and rehabilitation of people
XII. Stoppage of games: cricket and loss of revenue.
B. Socio-Cultural impacts
I. Health institutions
II. Educational institutions
III. Employment
IV. Poverty
V. Festivals
VI. Issue of human rights
VII. Issue of women rights
VIII. Art, architecture, literature
IX. Health activities, games etc
C. Psychological impacts
I. Anger
II. Frustration
III. Erosion of social relationships
IV. Mistrust in community
V. Exploitation
VI. Terror
VII. Restlessness
VIII. Nervous tension
IX. Drug abuse
X. Crimes
XI. Emotional disorder







































Islam
Angles/ Aspects
a) Religion of Peace
b) Islam and terrorism
c) Islam and west
d) Challenges to the world of Islam

1. Islam-its meaning and message
2. Background in which Islam dawned in Arabia and its revolutionary impact in bringing peace and prosperity in Arabian peninsula.
3. Islamic concept of peace with respect to
a. Human beings,
b. With respect to different raves,
c. Religions and
d. Languages
e. In peace and war time.
f. Animals
g. Crops and trees
4. Islamic concept of war
a. Only meant to bring peace
b War not option but compulsion
5. The age of Prophet of Islam and peace
a. Relation with
i. Arabian pagans
ii Co-clan opponents
iii. Enemies
iv. Christians
v. Jews
b. The war during the reign of prophet and reasons for war
6. Expansion during the reign of caliphs
a. Why is it a objectionable in the eyes of western historians
b. Did the expansion belie the peaceful credentials of Islam
c. Were Muslim armies waging war for:
i. Territory
ii. Kingship
iii Monetary
iv. Expansion of Islam
d. Were the wars offensive or defensive?
i. Was the Muslim state really threatened when the attack was launched by Muslims?
ii. Were the Persians and roman empires hurdles in the peaceful propagation of Islam?
7. Muslim dynasties and peaceful face of Islam
a. Ummayads
b. Abbasiydis
c. Fatimi
d. Usmani
e. Mughal
f. Modern Muslim states
8. Can the acts of Muslim rulers be equated with the concepts of Islam?
9. Can the acts of a Christian ruler be always equated with Christianity?
10. The historical writings of different writers especially some Muslims and generally some non-Muslims and Islamic concept of war and peace
11. Expansion of Turks into the west (Roman Empire) and image of Islam in the eyes of the west
12. Mughals incursions into the subcontinent and image of Islam in the eyes of Hindus
13. Warring factions among Muslims and the peaceful nature of Islam
14. Islamic teaching and the aspects of peaceful life
a. no love for money
b. no love for property
c. love for god
d. the day of judgment
e. namaz
f. zakat
g. haj
i. roza
j sanctity of three months of Islamic calendar
k the peaceful sanctuary of Kabbah
15. When the religion is so peaceful why the Muslims resorted to war even immediately after Islam and throughout later centuries
a. political
b. factional
c. territorial
d. racial
e. economic
f. linguistic
h. conspiracies
I shifting from Khilafat to Malukiyat
16. When Islam is so peaceful then why the non-Muslims blame it?
a. fearful of Islam’s revolutionary message
b. against the religious clergy to be powerful
c. misunderstanding between religions
d. biased propaganda
e. Islam’s earliest wars with Jews and Christians
f. crusades
g. Usmani’s incursion into the west
h. Ummayads incursion into the south west
i. Opinion of western writers about Islam after the conquest of Constantinople
j. Spanish propaganda after the fall of Granada
k. Freedom movements of Muslims when west occupied Muslim lands in 19th, 20th and 21st century
l. Due to biased propaganda of Jews and Christians
m Israel’s creation
n Muslims reaction and biased allegation of west against Muslims
o some unscrupulous speeches of some mullahs of islam
17. A poor defense of Islam
a. no great scholar among Muslims
b. poor facility of media
c. resource issue
d. non-serious attitude of Muslims
e Muslims at loggerheads with each other
f. sectarianism and factionalism
h. low literacy rate among Muslims
i. influence of traditional mullahs
j. away from modern sciences
18. why Islam has been equated with terrorism
a. Muslim power eclipsed-west encroached upon Muslim territories
b. Muslim woke up for restoration of lost glory
c. their spirit of freedom was equated generally with terrorism
d. Israel’s occupation of Palestine
e. India’s occupation of Kashmir
f. USSR occupation of Afghanistan
g. USA and UK interference in Iran and Central Asia
h. First Gulf War against Iraq
i. Iraq’s second occupation
j West undue support to India and Israel
k. Mujahids(freedom fighters) emerged
l. superpowers threw their agents exploited them against USSR
m. Mujahid were trained, connected throughout the world turned against America
n. a new challenge in the name of Clash of Civilizations was concocted (America started to think who can challenge west after USSR)
o. world trade center and Muslims (in Islam different sections have always been fighting for their ideology)
19. Solution for Muslims
a. peaceful
b war or attacks
20. Americas attack on Iraq and Afghanistan
a. frustration even among peaceful Muslims
b. hard response of Mujahids to US
c this is where terrorism emerged and was equated with Islam
d. terrorist directed the attacks:
i. against USA
ii its interest
iii its allies (both Muslims and non-Muslims)
21. mujahid have two agendas
a to defeat the USA and its allies
b to establish an Islamic state
c. Irrespective of injunctions of Islam they use every possible method of resistance against USA and its allies whether it is human or not(here it is needed to understand the injunctions of Islam and the ways and means of terrorists/mujahids. The western world is at fault. They must differentiate)
to defeat America and its allies
. a. mujahid might be playing at the hands of some agency known or unknown to them
b in the garb of mujahids there might be criminals in order to save their skin, the criminals have ranked themselves with the mujahid.
c. mujahids are terrorists being the deficient in the knowledge of Islam or induced were whatever they want to do in the name of Islam. It is also creating a bad name for Islam
22. They want to establish Islamic state
a. are they really conversant in the teachings of Islam?
b do the great scholars of Islam support them?
c. do the masses support them?
d. in the present Muslim world the laws being practiced are un-Islamic?
e for establishing an Islamic state can they kill their brother Muslims and fellow human beings?
f. what kind of state they want to establish?
g will it cater to the needs of modern times?
h. are all the Muslims support the terrorist or mujahids?
I in labeling all the Muslims instead of a few mujahids what does the west want?
J does west really believe in clash of Islam and the west?
m. is the response of west in the name of freedom of thought and expression toward Muslims responsible(cartoon controversy, books)
n. can Islam not accommodate
i different thoughts
ii different systems of government
iii different races
iv different stages of belief
v different languages
vi different clans
vii different colors
o. Can the Islam not liberate the diversified world?
23. Islam, west and future of mankind
24 Islam’s true spirit of peace is the destiny of future mankind








Media

Aspect: Role of media in society

1. What is media?
2. Media in old days its ways and objectives
3. Growth of media corresponding with the growth of society
4. Quantum shift of media from oral to written with the discovery of print media
5. A glimpse of different civilizations and media
6. When the tribes merged into city states; the role of media also changed
7. The media ups and downs
a. the voice of the rich and influential people
b. the voice of rulers/ kings
8. With the emergence of democracy what was the changed crept into the role of media
9. Modern world media and democracy
10. Where the democracy is suspended the role of media is changed accordingly mostly due to pressure of government (dictators)
11. Development of media renaissance, development and science
12. Societies developed, developing and underdeveloped vis-a-vis the role and development of media
13. When does media become the tool of change
14. Is the media really influential enough to bring the change in society?
15. What are the factors which make the media influential
16 which section of society does the media influence gravely
a upper
b lower
c middle
17 the ways and means which the media employ or can employ for bringing the change in society
a. different sort of programs
b. news
c, reports
d. again and again coverage
e. discussions
f. dialogues
h. stories
i. satirical programs
j cartoons
k. using specific words or language
l. the role of anchorperson
m. dramas
n. documentaries
o. dressing
18. The areas in which media can bring change
a. political
b social
c religious
d cultural
h economic
I scientific/educational
19. Media and political change
a. effecting different decisions of the government
b. favoring any one institution of the government
c. governments domestic and foreign policies
d. governments developmental projects
h favoring different sections of society over each other
I can influence treasury and opposition benches
J may influence legislation
K may influence one party or other one
L may influence canvassing and voting
M may provide food for thought for government
N may favor any system of the government
O may favor left wing or right wing parties
P may favor liberal, conservative or secular parties
20. Is the media always neutral and objective in bringing political change?
21. What are the forces which determine the policy of the media------different channels/newspapers owned by different owners with different ideologies, with different sources of funding?
22. Different agencies may also find their agents in media
23. world powers ---- media ---- domestic political change and foreign political change
24. To what extent world powers are befooled and guided by media and its global political impacts
25. Can we make the media really neutral? the portrayer of only the truth? If yes then how?
26 media and social change
a behavior of the people
b relationship among the people
c. media and health
d. consciousness about different diseases
e. advertisement
f education
g quality of education
h different educational movements of the world
i syllabus
j the situation of educational institutions
k university college school
l education in rural areas
m education in jail
n. education for special people
o. Education of women
p issues of women and media
q Education
r economic empowerment
s domestic violence
t gender biasness
u. media in the wake of natural disasters
27 moral issues and media
a decency
b. honesty
c. integrity
d. diligence
e. discipline
f. truth
g. respect
h. development of social values
i. cleanliness
j forbearance and tolerance
k harmony between different
I factions
Ii races
Iii sects
Iv linguistic groups
28. to what extent media does promote social change and in which context
29. is the change natural, induced or imposed?
30. globalization/social change and role of media
31. Different group’s foreign and indigenous media and social change and reaction of society
32. Religious change and media
a. discussion among different divine religions
b. through discussion among different religions development of understanding
c to lessen the friction among different religions- Islam Christianity Judaism and Hinduism
d. through religion to bring the world together in the wake of globalization
e intra-religious harmony
f. religious duties and special programs on media
j death and birth anniversaries of religious figures
k. religion modernity and media
l. blind religious beliefs and role of media
m. true picture of religion and media
n. concepts and practices
o. role of so called mullahs/Sufis
p can media be not biased in the matter of religion?
33. Cultural change and media
a. dress
b. diet
c different festivals
d art
e music
f architecture
g literature
h traditional culture vis-a-vis modern culture
I culture media and synthesis
34. Media and economic change
a. advertisement
b. business opportunity
c. fashion industry
d chemical industry
e housing industry
f food industry
35. Media and public opinion
36. To what extent media can bring the change in the life personal and social of an individual
37. Media sensational news and individual of a society
a children
b youth
c old
d. women
e professionals
38. media- a serious thing or an entertainment or pleasure time
39. Here is the media pushing the world- towards construction or destruction
40. Are we mere changeable entities before media or thinking and responding beings in light of our own consciousness?
41. Media in 21st century
42 to what extent can we rely on media for secure peaceful and prosperous mankind





















Education in Pakistan
1. Awareness in public
2. No better utilization of Education (unemployment)
3. Poverty and education
4. Different concepts of education prevailing in people
5. Different system of education
• English , A level, O level
• Urdu, public schools
• Arabic, Madrassah
6. Difference level – for different section of population – and hence different utility
7. Highest opportunities for advancement (in competition) for English school students.
8. Urdu-mostly low scale jobs (Can’t get their children educated from highest institutions especially English medium-hence a cycle continues.
9. Poor and middle class children (lower stature)
10. Quality of education in Urdu medium
• Number of schools
• Number of teachers
• Syllabus
• Examination
• Quality of teachers
• Mostly children have to work after schools.
• Low capacity to compete
• No modern technology of teaching
• Teachers iron rod
• Schools away –children in heat or cold fall sick.
• High rate of drop out
• Bad company – spend most of time outside the home.
• People don’t send their children to schools, prefer to have them engaged in work for some earning for their large families.
• Fee, books, uniform shoes etc.
• No supervision at home for school work.
• Poor health of the students hence study is affected.
11. Madrassah’s
• Basically trained in religious studies
• Achronistic syllabus
• No scientific knowledge
• No knowledge of English language
• Poor or no use and awareness of modern technology
• Just trained for Namaz, Nikkah or Jinnaza
• Dependent upon the source of funding
• Hijacked by different donators, sponsoring machines of their ideology
• Myopic views of life and world
• No integration of students in normal educational system of the country
• The poorest people in the Madaressah.
• Jihadi culture of Madressahs
• Sectarianism in Madrassah
12. English medium institutes
• Not affordable for common people
• For upper classes
• Modern syllabus
• Different techniques for teaching the students
• Create competition among the students
• English medium culture
• Mushroom of English medium schools from last two decades
• Issue of space
• Charge high fee
13. Issues of Syllabi
• Not tuned with time
• According to the level of students
• How is it design
• The method, procedure and time period to revise the syllabus
• Members of board who revise syllabus
1. Educationist
2. Academicians
14. |Medium of Instruction
a) Mother tongue
b) Urdu
c\) English
• Which is best?
• To which level the teaching in mother tongue is better and where we should turn towards urdu or English?
• Comparison with other countries
• Serious study and debate require

15. Issues of examination and evaluation
• What should be the ways of evaluation
• Annual system
• Semester system
• Objective or subjective questions
• \Or mix of both
• If mixture what should be the percentage of objective and subjective questions
• The system of checking the papers
• Computerized checking
• Examiners
a) Arbitrary
b) Special guideline and training for checking
16. Issues of science subjects
• Quantity and quality of teachers
• Quantity and quality of labs
• Availability of fund
• Availability of equipments and chemicals
• Availability of electricity
• Culture of experimentation
• Traditional concept of people about science
17. Issues of college education
• Number of colleges as per population
• Number of lecturers as per students
• Choice of bright students
a) Pre-medical
b) Pre-engineering
• Social sciences second grade discipline
• Strikes
• Organizations
• Healthy activities
a) Literary
b) Cultural
c) Sports
• Issues of hostel for ruler students
• Issues of fee
18. Issues of university education
• Syllabus
• Research
• Funding
• Staff
• Politics in university
• Political and religious organizations
• Mashroom of universities but quality?
19. Issues of Research
• Topics for research
• Research culture
• Supervisor
• Funding
• Resources for research
• Laboratories
• Thesis
• Piracies
• Research and linkage with industry
• Modern research techniques
• HEC
• Foreign and indigenous scholarship programme – and appraisal.
20. Issues of education of women
• Number of institutes for women
• Economic barriers
• Cultural barriers
• Insecurity
• Behavior of parents especially in ruler areas
• Women’s preferred professions
a) Education
b) Medical
• Issues of coeducation
• End of scope of education after marriage
• Loss of Govt investment
• Different Islamic groups and education of women in Pakistan
21. Policies of Government
• Fund allocation
• Educational policies
• Establishment of new universities and research institutes
• Parha-Likha Punjab
• Punjab educational foundation
• Teachers on contract
• Free books
• Stipends for girls
• Refreshment: milk and biscuits
• Special attention towards girls education
• Public private partnership
• Different monitoring system
• Introduction of tenure track system
22. Issues of teachers
• Low salary
• Poor facilities
a) Accommodation transport
• No carrier security
• Political interference in transfer posting
• Low promotions
• Absenteeism
• Rough behavior of teacher with students
• Poor knowledge of subjects
• No proper evaluation of students
• Traditional methods of teaching
• No refreshers courses during the service
23. Why do as a nation we not give highest value to education
24. When a religion stresses on need of education, why do we shun from education
25. Who are responsible for sorrow state of education?
a) Educationist
b) Institutions
c) Administrators
d) Politicians
26. Why poor funding for education?
27. Side by side with scientific and social sciences- is there no need for technical education
• Why least attention towards Technical and Vocational education
28. Without Education can we progress
a) Economically
b) Socially
c) Politically
d) Religiously
29. Where do we stand educationally with respect to the rest of the world?
30. The ways to promote education in Pakistan
31. New challenges and education
a) Terrorism
b) Political chaos
c) Sectarianism
d) Global warming
e) Factionalism
32. Future of education in Pakistan
33. Conclusion



ESSAYS OUTLINES








CORRUPTION OUR NATIONAL DILEMMA
Outlines:
Introduction
 Is it really our national dilemma?
What is corruption?
How is corruption our national dilemma?
Corruption and………
• PM, CM
• Bureaucrats, Fed. And Prov.
• Military…Army, Navy, Air force
Corruption and our Legislatures
• MNA’s, MPA’s
• Parliament, Senate, PA, NA
Corruption and Judiciary
• SC, HC’s, District Courts, Lawyers
Corruption and Different Departments
• Police, Revenue, Health, Education, Works and services
• Wapda, Taxation, Local Governments, Sports
Corruption and Provinces
• Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Kpk, GB, AJK
Corruption and Political Parties
Corruption and ECP
Corruption and Media
Corruption and Religious Parties
Corruption and NGO’s
Corruption and Civil Society
Is Corruption a Phenomena for Pak or has it been since inception?
Were the Military Governments or so-called Democratic Governments
more Corrupt?
Is Corruption the “second nature” of our society?
Are our people/communities basically corrupt or Govt. or Both
Has corruption any linkage with our social structure?
Has corruption any linkage with our degree of literacy/education?
Can there be an end to corruption in Pak?
How to get rid of this Dilemma?
Role of…….
• Anti-Corruption Department
• FIA, NAB
• Fed. Provincial Mohtasib
How long will it take to end this Dilemma?
Corruption and our National Image
Corruption free Pakistan and World’s Leadership
Conclusion


TERRORISM IN PAKSITAN
Outlines:
Introduction……..Thesis Statement

“Terrorism in Pakistan is the product of wrong National and Foreign Policy and its roots go deep into the soil of issues of Kashmir and Afghanistan and faulty stance of our different Regimes.”
What is terrorism?
Has terrorism in Pakistan any linkage with Jihad?
“A particular version of Jihad our Security Strategists introduced”
Was the invention of Jihad---in the interest of our country?
• Its short term affects….
• Its long term effects…..
Where and how Jihad and Terrorism became identical?
Did our Socio-Economic deprivation propel Jehadists in the “Camp of Terrorists?”
Was our National Policy with respect to defense…...
• Internal/external security
• Socio-Economic improvement
Why terrorism is always erupted in FATA?
What was the impact of Iranian Revolution on transition from Jihadism to Terrorism and Sectarianism?
What did Saudi-Arabia play role in growing the Nursery of Terrorists?
What was the impact of USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan---birth of Jihadists—how were they turned toward terrorism?
Has there any link between Jihad and Terrorism
Difference between Jihad and Terrorism
• Western blaming of Islam
Was our defense policy employing/exploiting the Local Jihadists for Kashmir and Afghanistan?
Why did we turn toward?
• Military pressure
• Political Leaders….weaker
• Issue of Legitimacy of Military Rulers
• Pressure of world powers
Was terrorism an old phenomenon for Pakistan or just appeared in the wake of 9/11?
Why did we go against our previous security plan and its impact on defense and security of Pakistan in the shape of terrorism?
How far is/was the decision of being ally of USA in the so-called “war on terrorism” right or wrong?






How were the Jehadists ---later on terrorists turned against Pakistan’s security and how did they establish and increase their circle of Influence?
• Alqaida
• TTP
• Lashkar e Tayyeba
• Lashkar e Jhangvi
• Jindullah
To what extent Pakistan has ranked and executed its security plan….its success?
The damage caused by terrorists to Pakistan’s……
• Army
• Political sphere
• Economy
• Social structure
• Cultural heritage
• Religious set-up
• Administration
• Frustration/panic
• Civil losses
How to cope with terrorism?
• Fighting
• Dialogue
• Both?
Terrorism in the world and Usa’s policy toward India, Israel and other Muslim countries..
Its fallouts on Pakistan’s fight against terrorism
Changing scenario at local level, regional and international level and its impacts on Pakistan’s war on terrorism?
In the wake of terrorism, is there need for Pakistan to make up a new security plan---keeping in view the ground realities with respect to terrorism?
What should be our short term and long term policy in combating terrorism?
• Socio-Economic Development
• Better Administration
• Security Measures
• Cheap and Immediate Justice
• Free and Fair Democratic System
• Pro-active and Effective Security Plan and Foreign Policy
• Proper Tapping and Depending on our Own Resources
Can we hope for a peaceful Pakistan in the wake of existing terrorism?
Terrorism free Pakistan and World Leadership
Conclusion







Disaster Management and Government Preparedness
Outlines:
Introduction—thesis statement
“Throughout the national history of Pakistan, disasters whether they were man-made or natural have always been least managed and have resulted in mass destruction and general poverty due to bad governance.”
What is meant by the term disaster?
What is meant by Disaster Management?
What do we mean by Govt. Preparedness?
What are the types of Disaster?
Natural Calamities
 Floods
 Earthquakes
 Famines
 Drought
Man-made Disasters
• Wars
• Military Operations
Process of Disaster Management
• Scientific and Effective Planning
• Awareness
• Pre-settlements—Camps
• Emergency Ration Storage
• Co-Ordination
• Early Warnings
• Rescue
• Recovery
• Compensation
Rehabilitation
Reconstruction
How so far our govt. has fulfilled the pre-requisites of Disaster Management?
Why our respective governments have failed to lower the intensity of disasters?
Role of Disaster Management departments
• NDMA
• PDMA
• PARSA
• ERRA
• PERRA
• DRU





Is there need of an Impartial and Autonomous Body for Disaster Management?
Disaster management and role of
• Pakistan Army
• Civil Society
• Media
• UN
• NGO’s
Is currently our Govt. Prepared to tackle any Disaster?
• If yes…….up to what extent
• If not then why?
How she should get herself prepared?
How Western countries are better built after a disaster?
Proper disaster management and prosperous Pakistan
Conclusion

Future of Democracy in Pakistan
Outlines:
Introduction
What is democracy?
Is Pakistan a truly democratic country?
Democracy and national history of Pakistan
Conducts of the organs of the state from inception to date
• Legislatives
• Judiciary
• Executives
Political parties and their…..
• Types
• System/Structure
• Manifesto
• Party elections
• Base
ECP
• Role
• Voters list…..Enrolment of candidates
• Scrutinizing Degrees and Process
• Conduct of free and fair elections
Role of Civil Society
• Principal oriented
• Feudalistic
• Idealistic
Role of Media… To preserve democracy
Personalization of Politics
• Conduct of personalities

Delivery of Services
• Education
• Health
• Social uplift
• Law and order
Literacy rate...Conduct of general Masses
Role of Army
• Agencies
• Control over Political parties
• Economic and Foreign Polices
• Legislative
Foreign Interference…an Overview

Is democracy Compatible to
• Our Social Structure/Culture
• Islamic Point of view
Future of democracy in Pakistan
Conclusion

Good Governance in Pakistan
Outlines:

Introduction……thesis statement
“Good governance throughout the history of Pakistan has been at its lowest ebb resulting in poor national progress. However with the new spirit in the independence of judiciary, the good governance will definitely improve.”
What is good governance?
“Good governance is simply decision making and its implementation.”
A brief overview of governance in Pakistan
“64 years of independence has resulted in the fulfillment self interests on the cost of national interest and ultimate crises.”
Dictators and good governance?
Who governs the country?
How Western World is said a Developed World?
What are the elements of Good Governance?
1. Participatory good governance
2. Consensus oriented decisions
3. Rules and regulations
4. Effectiveness and efficiency
5. Responsiveness
6. Equity and inclusiveness
7. Accountability
8. Transparency
Who makes decisions in Good Governance?
• Fed govt.
• Prov. Govt
• Local Govt
• Autonomous Bodies
Who are involved and affects decision making process?
Formal channel
• PM, Parliament, NA
• CM, PA
• Military
Informal channel
• Media
• Civil society
• NGO’s
• MNC’s
• Unions, organizations
• World powers
• Religious parties
• Political parties
• Powerful groups/mafias
Role of kitchen cabinets
Why there is lack of good governance in Pakistan?
What affects bad governance has poured on the life of country?
What is the best course to govern well?
How efficient and effective good governance can be achieved?
Good governance and prosperous Pakistan
Conclusion

Energy Crises in Pakistan
Outlines:
Introduction
What is meant by energy crises?
Different government’s role
A general appraisal
Energy crises
• Requirement
• Availability
• Production
• Shortfall
Sources of Energy
Renewable
 Solar
 Wind
 Biogas
 Tidal
 Hydel
Non-renewable
• Coal
• Gas
• Thermal
• Nuclear
• Geothermal

Other sources
 IPP’s
 RPP’s
 IPI
 TAPI
Whether all these sources have ever tapped, utilized, harnessed?
If yes then up to what extent?
If not then why?
 Lack of political will
 Lack of financial resources
 Corruption
 Provincial differences
 Poor administration
Issues of
 Royalty
 Distribution
 Ownership
How to cope with energy crises
Short term measures
 Efficient management
 Conservation
 Proper lining, distribution and channeling
 Theft controlling
 Importing
Long term measures
 Small and medium dams
 New sources…wind, solar, tidal
Conclusion

Gender Discrimination
Outlines:
Introduction…thesis statement
“Gender discrimination in Pakistan is distinct at each and every level and at each for a. discrimination is embedded in our social, cultural and religious percepts.”
What is GD?
GD and developed world
GD and third world
GD and Muslim world
GD and Pakistan
On what standards we measure GD?
 Western
 Islamic
 Social values
 Cultural norms
To what extent it is prevalent in our society?
GD at
 Individual level
 Family level
 Society level
 Local level
 Provincial level
 Federal level
GD in different departments?
 Health, education (students and employees)
 Services, businesses

GD in
 Rural areas
 Cities
 Tribal areas
GD in provinces
 Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Kpk, Ajk, GB
GD in the organs of the state
 Executives
 Judiciary
 Legislative
GD in Law
 Discriminatory laws
GD and
 Media
 Civil societies
 Religious parties
 NGO’s
GD and our National History
 Zia’s Draconian Era
 Mushraf’s Enlighten Era
Why is GD said to be threatened by
 Cultural practices
 Religious matters
 Norms, values, customs, rites, rituals
Is there and end to GD in Pakistan?
Future of GD?
Conclusion






Energy crises



The growing menace of electricity and gas load shedding, combined with constantly rising electricity & gas tariffs has mushroomed into a grave national crisis. It has not only been affecting the trade and industry, development and construction, education and administration gravely, but has also seriously impeded the progress of the whole national life. In spite of higher authorities’ claims of narrowing the gap between energy demand and supply, the ground situation is showing a discouraging picture. The power short fall has crossed the 5000 figure. Unless immediate remedial masseurs are lunched on footing, Pakistan would lead to even deeper crisis.

Causes of energy short fall:

few of the basic causes of energy short fall are under

1- failure of the last regime to increase electricity: The basic cause of energy short in Pakistan is the failure of last military regime to increase the supply of electricity to keep pace with the growing demands. While the installed capacity had increased by 53 % from 1994-99 from 11,320 MW to 17,400 MW; it increase only by 12 % between 1999 to 2008, to 19420 MW
.
2- Under utilization of the existing generating capacity: secondly, an equally serious cause is the under utilization of the existing generating capacity. The availability of hydel electricity goes down in winter by 60 %, but unfortunately, the actual generation of electricity from thermal plants has also declined sharply, thus rising demand and supply gap to around 5000 MW.

3- Circular debts: One of the main reason in the serious short fall of thermal electricity is the problem of “circular debits”. In 2007, the government did not compensate the power companies for the subsidy that was being provided to the consumers. The power companies in turn could not pay the oil and gas companies, reducing their liquidity to import the furnace oil that was needed to generate electricity.
This problem has not only continued, but presently it has turned grave crises. Presently, the power companies in debt of about 100 billion rupees to the oil and gas companies. Therefore oil and gas companies provide insufficient oil and gas to the power companies that has resulted in energy short fall.

4.The repeated cutting down in Public Sector Development Program: At the present, according to Planning Commission Report, the government has conceded playing a key role in prolonging economic recession in the country by repeatedly cutting down the Public Sector development Program (PSDP) that resulted in energy and water shortage in the country. The Report states that Rs.208 billions were approved for Diamer Basha dam by the National Economic Council (NEC), the government reduced it by 100 billion rupees. The government has delayed the exploration of the Thar Coal Project, inspite of the repeated demands for funds allocation for the said project by Samar Mubarak Mand. Many other new projects regarding energy production are suffering from haltage. All these have resulted in intensifying the present energy crisis. In the country.

5 Other factors:
Some other chronic factors that contribute to the present energy crisis are as under;

(i) Line loss: very heavily line loss in the transmission and distribution because of old and poorly managed transmission system. The line loss in Pakistan is about 20 %
as compared to 8 to 10 % in other countries.

(ii) Large scale of theft of electricity: there is a large scale of that of electricity as clearly revealed by the growing difference between units generated or purchased and those paid for.
(iii) Wastage of energy by industrial sector: there is a huge wastage of energy by industry which consumes 30 % of the total electricity due to the less efficient system and other practices.

(iv) Over use of energy by transport sector: transport sector consume 28 % of the total energy. This over use of energy is due to the old and poorly tuned engines.

(v) Domestic wastage: Domestic wastage is about 45 % of the total electricity. Here too, there is a wistful and unnecessarily use of lights, air conditioners and large scale illumination on different occasions.

(vi) General wastage: excessive use of electricity in government offices, roads and park illumination have also contributed to the worsening energy crunch.

(vii) Corruption and lack of political will in the concerned energy department: have also helped the energy short fall to rise to such a disturbing heights.


(B) Effects of energy crunch:

1) Routine life: Badly affected the routine life in Pakistan 8-10 hours laodshedding in cities, 12- 18 hours in rural areas. Affected seriously the domestic life, offices, hospitals and education.

2) Industries: Many industrial units have closed and many shifted their installation to Bangladesh. This poor industrial production has ultimately affected the GDP of Pakistan. Downsizing of the workers in industries. Many workers turned jobless. The buying capacity of people has reduced sharply.

→ Rise in the price of commodities.

3) Market: Markets are closed early due to the load shedding. Secondly production cost of commodities have raised.

4) Agriculture: the agricultural land that is dependent on tube well and dug wells, its yielding capacity has sharply reduced due to load shedding. As crops do not get water in time.


5) Strikes and agitation: Due to load shedding many strikes have occurred across the country, destroyed government installations.

6) Low National growth: load shedding has affected the national growth badly. Less progress or no progress at all in all walks of the country. Ultimately, less GDP growth rate.

(C) Measures:
Three kinds of measures should be taken;

1) immediate measures: Firstly, the problem of circular debt should be solved on proiority basis, in order to enable the power companies to clear their debts. Secondly, the agreement of importing electricity from Iron and Tajikistan needs to be implemented in a quick fashion. The Pak- Iron gas pipe line project needs to be completed on the earliest dates.










2) Mid term plan: First, all the gas and inefficient WAPDA plants should be replaced by more efficient and combined cycle plants. Second, there is an urgent need of modernizing the overloaded transmission and distribution system. The expenditure of updating our electricity system could be recovered in only three years through savings from the line loss.


3) Long term plans:


(i) Dams construction:
the longer term solution of energy crisis will be to restore the hydro thermal mix to 60:40 or at least 50:50 in the coming five years. According to world report Pak can create above 50000 MW through water. The previous wapda chief said that Pak could produce 100000 MW from water. There is a need of building kalabagh dam of 4500 MW capacity, Basha dam 4200 MW, Neelum Jehlum 996 MW, extension of Tarbella dam 960 MW, Suki Kinari 840 MW, Munda 700 MW etc. Need of foreign investment for this institution like World Bank, A. B. bank etc. are needed to be attracted to invest in this project.

(ii) Gas exploration:
Licenses should be issued to foreign and local exploration companies. As there is a high untapped gas capacity in Pak. On 18th of June a wale near Mianwali, Punjab started gas. It is considered to be the large wale in the subcontinent. There new wale in Karak, one in Sindh and one in Sui discovered. Such more Wales are needed to be explored to meet out the energy needs of the country.
iii) Coal:
Pak has the second largest coal deposits in the world i.e. 185 billion metric tons, most of it is in “Thar”, Sindh. The initiative being taken by government to facilitate Dr. summer Mubarak Mand’s step of gasification and then turning this coal into electrical energy, must be implemented on larger scale, once his first experiment is succeeded. “we can produce 50 thousands MW electricity from Thar coal for the coming 200 years”. (Sammer Mubarak Mand)
vi) Wind energy:
Pakistan is blessed with a 1000 kilometer long coast and touring mountains of Himalayas, which provide excellent source for wind energy. The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) needs to plant wind turbines in these areas. More projects on the model of Wind Mill, Jhimpir, Sindh, that produces 50 MW electricity, are required to be planted in Pakistan.

v) Solar Energy:
Pakistan gets abundance of sunshine throughout the year. Around 1800 KW/h per square meter can be produced annually through sunshine.
iv) Peace and Security in the Country:
Peace and security is necessary for implementing all the plans about the generation of power resources in Pakistan.

Conclusion:
God has blessed Pakistan with variety of energy resources and those also in abundance. There is a need of proper planning and political will to take out these. It is high time to formulate such polices that could bridge the gap between the demand and supply of energy in the country. Once a proper policy is formulated and steps were taken with nationalistic zeal, than we would not only have enough energy to be utilized domestically but we would be among its exporter.


GOOD GOVERNANCE

Introduction:-

When there is a rule of law and the writ of the state prevails everywhere. When the government establishes peace and brings developmental projects for the betterment of its people and makes the state strong, When such a government prepares people-centric policies and then implements them with full honesty and zeal, When the government transforms the state into a welfare state. We call such a rule as "Good Governance" .But unfortunately, the situation in Pakistan is totally opposite.

• The failure to introduce transparency in the country, Pakistan's government and civil services are undermining governance and providing opportunities for the military to subvert the democratic transition as well as to the extremists to destabilize the state. Pakistan's major crisis, presently, is that of a poor governance which has spawned many of the ills that plagued the country; insecurity, growing poverty, widening class divide, corruption and paralysis of the administration.


• Military intervened on its self-assured role of savior on several occasions, but it has not only failed to rectify the problem, rather confounded them.
Militants pose a bigger challenge than military, since they do not operate in a structured environment. They do not offer a solution but appeal to the religiosity of the people who are the victims of the poor governance, corruption, inaptitude of the civil servants, of the politicians and all the other branches and unfavorable steps of the government

Measures Necessary for Establishment of Good Governance:-

1. Increase in the salaries of Civil servants.

2. Long lasting economic policies.

3. Check by media.

4. Empowering local government.

5. Reducing the discretionary powers of Civil servants and making them answerable for each of their steps.

6. True democracy: allowing all the three tiers of government to work in their jurisdictions and also allowing the provincial governments to work in their allotted spheres

Causes of bad Governance:-

Following are the causes of bad governance:-

1. Weak political system and it's dependency on the bureaucracy for it's survival: Every time we have a coalition government in Pakistan, which is normally a weak government. Small political parties oftenly try to topple down such a government. Such a government turns towards bureaucracy for it's continuation.

2. Lack of Transparency: Corruption has entered into all facets of national life.
“Every year in Pakistan more than 500 billion rupees lapse in civil Bureaucracy". (Qaiser Bangali)

3. Lack of Accountability: There is no inter-departmental and intra-departmental audit in a free sense.

4. Wide and discretionary powers of the e Civil servants.

5. Imbalance in the tricotmy; the three tiers of the government.

6. Politics of obstruction and opportunism.

7. No true national level party that represents the whole federation.


Effects of Bad Governance:-

1. Disintegration of the state

2. Wide spread corruption

3. Sectarianism / Terrorism

4. Military inventions

5. Worsening Law and Order situations

6. Economic meltdown

Measures/ Remedies to Prevent Bad Governance:-

1. To make civil servants a non-partisan as it was designed to be. It should kept away from doing politics.

2. True Accountability from top to bottom. Strong judiciary, for minimizing corruption in the country.

3. Transparency in every department, every project.




NATIONAL INTEGRATION



INTRODUCTION:-

"The process of achieving national cohesion and a feeling of being united as a nation".
The society in the state of Pakistan has been caught in the whirlpool of divergent and cross-cutting socio-econmic fibres. In 1971, half of the country physically fell off. The rest is being eroded by ethnic strife, political division, provincial hatred, economic depravation, political insanity, rich and poor gap. This situation has dashed the ideals of Quaid-e-Azam to the ground. All these crisis jeopardize the integration of the state and threaten the federal structure itself. In the words of Stephen Cohen;
“Pakistan is a sate like S.S Titanic leading towards a giant ice-burg unless, it changes its course, soon its fate would be sealed."

History:-
Even before independence, the divisive forces worked against the very concept of Pakistan. Finally, once it emerged on the map of the world as a reality, the process of national integration, so vital to fight against the divisive forces, could not go unhampered. The ethnic divide, economic disparity and political intrigues and injustices resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.

Causes of Disintegration:-

1. Strong Feudal Culture: the continuation of the colonial legacy.

2. Ethnocentrism: the linguistic division like Punjabi, Sindhi, Saraiki, Pashtun and Baluchi etc.

3. Inequitable Distribution of Wealth: Provincial and regional divisions. For example,
i:Concerns of the small provinces against Punjab.
ii: Saraiki concerns against Punjabi and Hindko speakers against Pashtoons.
iii: Royalty issues like Baluchistan demands for the royalty of gas in it's province. KPK deamnds for the ownership of Tarbela, Warsak dam etc.

4. Sectarianism, Afghan War, Religious extremism, Terrorism etc.

5. Apartheid education

6. Poor management of resources.

7. Politics of regionalism/ Provincialism

8. Over centralization: centre, powerful while provincial government is weak.

9. Indian involvement in Baluchistan and FATA.


Suggested Measures:-

1. Federation in Letter and In Spirit: Bringing provincial autonomy: The 18th amendment to the constitution of Pakistan is a step towards provincial autonomy, as 19 ministries would go to the provinces.

2. Equitable Distribution of Economic Resources: Preference must be given to the uplift of the backward areas, provinces. The settlement of the NFC issue would greatly help national cohesion.

3. Royalty of Resources must be given to the provinces: This would boost up confidence in the ignored provinces. To a great extent, this issue has been settled down by the amicable solution of NFC. But it must be ensured that these resources are not only used by the respective provinces but are also utilized for the larger interest of the country.

4. Good Governance: Transparent, accountable, democratic, progressive, National in character.

5. Disbanding Feudalism.

6. Comprehensive and nationalistic education policy and its implementation.

7. Role of Religion.

8. Role of Media.

9. Appropriate measures must be taken to bring the dissatisfied Baluch leaders and the trouble by giving miscreants in FATA, under the national umbrella. Foreign involvement must be countered.


Conclusion:-

In the wake of changing world politics, where inner fronts are measured susceptible than the outer. An integrated nation is must to guard against all external and internal challenges to the solidarity and security of Pakistan. We have contributed a great deal to the sorry state of affairs. Pakistan, indeed, is endowed with plenty of human and natural resources to be a viable nation and state. There is a need to determine the national identity through an objective analysis of all the facets of the problems of national integration, without any regard to our social, cultural, ethnic or religious obsessions and prejudices.


Gender Discrimination
Why is it still so bad and what can you do about it?
o Girls: Household Servants
o Geatest Obstacles Affecting Girls
o Dowry
o Infanticide and Sex-Selective Abortion
o Abuse
o Labor
o Sex Trafficking
o Breaking The Pattern
o How To Help
"When you grow up, you can be whatever you want to be." Little girls in the United States
hear this all the time, from their mothers to teachers to "Sesame Street" characters. Almost everywhere they go, they are encouraged to believe that girls can be just as smart, athletic, and successful as boys. Even the pictures of spunky women on magazine covers at the checkout stand tell them that
when you're a girl, anything is possible.
But for little girls in developing countries, the message is just the opposite.
From the day they are born, they are constantly reminded of the things they are not allowed to do.
Girls: Household Servants
When a boy is born in most developing countries, friends and relatives exclaim congratulations. A son means insurance. He will inherit his father's property and get a job to help support the family. When a girl is born, the reaction is very different. Some women weep when they find out their baby is a girl because, to them, a daughter is just another expense. Her place is in the home, not in the world of men. In some parts of India, it's traditional to greet a family with a newborn girl by saying, "The servant of your household has been born."
A girl can't help but feel inferior when everything around her tells her that she is worth less than a boy. Her identity is forged as soon as her family and society limit her opportunities and declare her to be second-rate.
A combination of extreme poverty and deep biases against women creates a remorseless cycle of discrimination that keeps girls in developing countries from living up to their full potential. It also leaves them vulnerable to severe physical and emotional abuse. These "servants of the household" come to accept that life will never be any different.
Greatest Obstacles Affecting Girls
Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Studies show there is a direct link between a country's attitude toward women and its progress socially and economically. The status of women is central to the health of a society. If one part suffers, so does the whole.

Tragically, female children are most defenseless against the trauma of gender discrimination. The following obstacles are stark examples of what girls worldwide face. But the good news is that new generations of girls represent the most promising source of change for women—and men—in the developing world today.
Dowry
In developing countries, the birth of a girl causes great upheaval for poor families. When there is barely enough food to survive, any child puts a strain on a family's resources. But the monetary drain of a daughter feels even more severe, especially in regions where dowry is practiced.

Dowry is goods and money a bride's family pays to the husband's family. Originally intended to help with marriage expenses, dowry came to be seen as payment to the groom's family for taking on the burden of another woman. In some countries, dowries are extravagant, costing years' worth of wages, and often throwing a woman's family into debt. The dowry practice makes the prospect of having a girl even more distasteful to poor families. It also puts young women in danger: A new bride is at the mercy of her in-laws should they decide her dowry is too small. UNICEF estimates that around 5,000 Indian women are killed in dowry-related incidents each year.
Neglect

The developing world is full of poverty-stricken families who see their daughters as an economic predicament. That attitude has resulted in the widespread neglect of baby girls in Africa, Asia, and South America. In many communities, it's a regular practice to breastfeed girls for a shorter time than boys so that women can try to get pregnant again with a boy as soon as possible. As a result, girls miss out on life-giving nutrition during a crucial window of their development, which stunts their growth and weakens their resistance to disease.

Statistics show that the neglect continues as they grow up. Young girls receive less food, healthcare and fewer vaccinations overall than boys. Not much changes as they become women. Tradition calls for women to eat last, often reduced to picking over the leftovers from the men and boys.
Infanticide and Sex-Selective Abortion
In extreme cases, parents make the horrific choice to end their baby girl's life. One woman named Lakshmi from Tamil Nadu, an impoverished region of India, fed her baby sap from an oleander bush mixed with castor oil until the girl bled from the nose and died. "A daughter is always liabilities. How can I bring up a second?" said Lakshmi to explain why she chose to end her baby's life. "Instead of her suffering the way I do, I thought it was better to get rid of her."

Sex-selective abortions are even more common than infanticides in India. They are growing ever more frequent as technology makes it simple and cheap to determine a fetus' gender. In Jaipur, a Western Indian city of 2 million people, 3,500 sex-determined abortions are carried out every year. The gender ratio across India has dropped to an unnatural low of 927 females to 1,000 males due to infanticide and sex-based abortions.

China has its own long legacy of female infanticide. In the last two decades, the government's infamous one-child policy has weakened the country's track record even more. By restricting household size to limit the population, the policy gives parents just one chance to produce a coveted son before being forced to pay heavy fines for additional children. In 1997, the World Health Organization declared, "…more than 50 million women were estimated to be 'missing' in China because of the institutionalized killing and neglect of girls due to Beijing's population control program." The Chinese government says that sex-selective abortion is one major explanation for the staggering number of Chinese girls who have simply vanished from the population in the last 20 years.
Abuse
Even after infancy, the threat of physical harm follows girls throughout their lives. Women in every society are vulnerable to abuse. But the threat is more severe for girls and women who live in societies where women's rights mean practically nothing. Mothers who lack their own rights have little protection to offer their daughters, much less themselves, from male relatives and other authority figures. The frequency of rape and violent attacks against women in the developing world is alarming. Forty-five percent of Ethiopian women say that they have been assaulted in their lifetimes. In 1998, 48 percent of Palestinian women admitted to being abused by an intimate partner within the past year.

In some cultures, the physical and psychological trauma of rape is compounded by an additional stigma. In cultures that maintain strict sexual codes for women, if a woman steps out of bounds—by choosing her own husband, flirting in public, or seeking divorce from an abusive partner—she has brought dishonor to her family and must be disciplined. Often, discipline means execution. Families commit "honor killings" to salvage their reputation tainted by disobedient women.

Appallingly, this "disobedience" includes rape. In 1999, a 16-year-old mentally handicapped girl in Pakistan who had been raped was brought before her tribe's judicial counsel. Although she was the victim and her attacker had been arrested, the counsel decided she had brought shame to the tribe and ordered her public execution. This case, which received a lot of publicity at the time, is not unusual. Three women fall victim to honor killings in Pakistan every day—including victims of rape. In areas of Asia, the Middle East, and even Europe, all responsibility for sexual misconduct falls, by default, to women.
Labor

For the young girls who escape these pitfalls and grow up relatively safely, daily life is still incredibly hard. School might be an option for a few years, but most girls are pulled out at age 9 or 10 when they're useful enough to work all day at home. Nine million more girls than boys miss out on school every year, according to UNICEF. While their brothers continue to go to classes or pursue their hobbies and play, they join the women to do the bulk of the housework.

Housework in developing countries consists of continuous, difficult physical labor. A girl is likely to work from before daybreak until the light drains away. She walks barefoot long distances several times a day carrying heavy buckets of water, most likely polluted, just to keep her family alive. She cleans, grinds corn, gathers fuel, tends to the fields, bathes her younger siblings, and prepares meals until she sits down to her own after all the men in the family have eaten. Most families can't afford modern appliances, so her tasks must be done by hand—crushing corn into meal with heavy rocks, scrubbing laundry against rough stones, kneading bread and cooking gruel over a blistering open fire. There is no time left in the day to learn to read and write or to play with friends. She collapses exhausted each night, ready to wake up the next morning to start another long workday.

Most of this labor is performed without recognition or reward. UN statistics show that although women produce half the world's food, they own only 1 percent of its farmland. In most African and Asian countries, women's work isn't even considered real labor. Should a woman take a job, she is expected to keep up all her responsibilities at home in addition to her new ones, with no extra help. Women's labor goes overlooked, even though it is crucial to the survival of each family.
Sex Trafficking

Some families decide it's more lucrative to send their daughters to a nearby town or city to get jobs that usually involve hard labor and little pay. That desperate need for income leaves girls easy prey to sex traffickers, particularly in Southeast Asia, where international tourism gorges the illegal industry. In Thailand, the sex trade has swelled without check into a main sector of the national economy. Families in small villages along the Chinese border are regularly approached by recruiters called "aunties" who ask for their daughters in exchange for six years' wages. Most Thai farmers earn only $150 a year. The offer can be too tempting to refuse.

The girls who are forced into prostitution to support their families often feel their burden deeply. "When I was at work, 50 percent of me hated what I was doing," said one 14-year-old girl, who felt conflicted about being taken out of a brothel in Chiang Mai, Thailand. "But the other 50 percent wanted to stay so that I could earn money for my parents. My father cannot work. He is very old and I must support the family. It is my job."

It's estimated that 1 million children around the world are involved in the sex trade; a third of all sex workers in Southeast Asia are between the ages of 12 and 17.

Girls' Education: Breaking the Pattern of Gender Discrimination

Education is the tool that can help break the pattern of gender discrimination and bring lasting change for women in developing countries.

Educated women are essential to ending gender bias, starting by reducing the poverty that makes discrimination even worse in the developing world. The most basic skills in literacy and arithmetic open up opportunities for better-paying jobs for women. Uneducated women in rural areas of Zambia, for instance, are twice as likely to live in poverty as those who have had eight or more years of education. The longer a girl is able to stay in school, the greater her chances to pursue worthwhile employment, higher education, and a life without the hazards of extreme poverty.

Women who have had some schooling are more likely to get married later, survive childbirth, have fewer and healthier children, and make sure their own children complete school. They also understand hygiene and nutrition better and are more likely to prevent disease by visiting health care facilities. The UN estimates that for every year a woman spends in primary school, the risk of her child dying prematurely is reduced by 8 percent.

Girls' education also means comprehensive change for a society. As women get the opportunity to go to school and obtain higher-level jobs, they gain status in their communities. Status translates into the power to influence their families and societies.

Even bigger changes become possible as girls' education becomes the cultural norm. Women can't defend themselves against physical and sexual abuse until they have the authority to speak against it without fear. Knowledge gives that authority. Women who have been educated are half as likely to undergo harmful cultural practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM) and four times as likely to protect their daughters from it. The Global Campaign for Education also states that a primary education defends women against HIV/AIDS infection—disproportionately high for women in developing countries—by giving "the most marginalized groups in society—notably young women—the status and confidence needed to act on information and refuse unsafe sex."

FGM and HIV/AIDS are too large to adequately address in this article, but they represent desperate challenges to the basic health and well-being of women in developing countries.

How to Help

You can help pull down the barriers that keep girls from attending school and begin to bring change for women in developing countries. The most direct way is by easing the financial need that forces families to take their children out of school in the first place.

Dozens of international organizations are working to improve the livelihood of impoverished people. By building infrastructure and providing aid, vocational training, and education programs, they give families in developing countries resources to create healthy and stable lives. That takes the burden of mere survival off young women and gives them the time to get an education. With practical help and encouragement, girls are more likely to enroll and stay in school.

UNICEF is encouraging all international organizations to come up with strategies for girls' education as part of their initial development plans. It has also started a movement to monitor school materials, facilities, and teachers to ensure that girls get a quality education that promotes appropriate perceptions of women, and that female students are given the same privileges as male students. All UNICEF and other reputable organizations need now are the resources to fund their efforts.

You can help begin to change the lives of women around the world by making a financial gift or raising awareness about girls in the developing world today. Children In Need offers internships and volunteer opportunities to people who want to help raise awareness of the issues tha impact children. You can support Amnesty International, UNICEF, UNIFEM and INSTRAW. Or find another organization you’d like to support through Interaction. The need is clear, and though the obstacles to ending gender discrimination are high, they are not insurmountable.

Muslim Ummah
Challenges, Issues and Solutions
OUT LINE:
Concept of Ummah
What is Muslim Ummah
The Past_Glorious
The Present_Turmoil
The Future_ ?????
Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah
• Illiteracy
• Terrorism
• Poverty
• Autocracy
• Far behind in Science and Technology
• No Veto Powers
• Concentration of wealth
• Redefining the role of women
Causes of debacle
Responsibilities
Suggestions
Problems in implementation
Epilogue


Introduction:
Ummah
Ummah (Arabic: أمة‎) is an Arabic word meaning "community" or "nation". It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or the whole Arab world.
Muslim Ummah
In the context of Islam, the word Ummah is used to mean the diaspora or Commonwealth of the Believers (ummat al-mu'minin), and thus the whole Muslim world.
Concepts of Allama Iqbal, Jamal-ud-Din Afghani and Shah Wali Ullah
Allama Iqbal, Syed Jamal-ud-Din Afghani and Shah Wali Ullah have their own concept of Muslim Ummah.
Allama Iqbal: All the Muslims beyond any difference of color, caste, nation, state, ideology at the basis of religion are called Muslim Ummah.
Syed Jamal-ud-din Afghani: All the Muslim states constitute Ummah. He was preacher of Pa Islamism.
Shah Wali Ullah: Muslims belonging to Muslim states only constitute Muslim Ummah.
In the light of all above definitions we conclude that Muslims present in any part of the world are part of Muslim Ummah.
The Past- Glorious
00-100
• Period of Nabuwat
• Period of Khilafat
In the period of second Caliph Hazrat Umer Farooq (R.A) Iran, Iraq, Palestine and Egypt were conquered.
In the period of third Caliph Hazrat Usman (R.A) Afghanistan, Qabris, Tunis and Moroc were conquered.
Hazrat Ali (R.A) in his period took part in Jang-e-Nehrwan with Kharji, Jang-e-Jaml with Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) and Jang-e-Safeen with Hazrat Ameer Muawia.
• During the period of Hazrat Ameer Muawia Muslims got military strength. After Ameer Muawia long chain of government is being followed.
Muawia---Yazid---Muawia II---Merwan---Abdul Malik---Waleed Bin Malik
• In the period of Waleed Bin Malik great victories came in part of Muslims.
Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh
Qateebah Bin Muslim Conquered Turkistan
Tariq Bin Ziyad conquered Spain, Portugal
Musa Bin Naseer conquered Undlus, Africa
After this Islam emerged as power and penetrated in whole world quickly.




A good leader must follow the sequence of victories, annexation and then administration or practical establishment of government. By adopting this way one can strengthen its control over empires.
100-500 AH
• Period of Umer Bin Abdul Aziz
• Hasham Bin Malik ruled over Central Asia, Roam
• Periodof Khilafat-e-Bnu Abbas
• Haroon-ur-Rasheed laid stress on education and he developed schools and colleges to spread education. Muslims got strength in education in his period.
• Bring the period 300-400AH Khilafat was divided.
Aal-e-boya Iran
Fatimi Egypt
Ghazni Alpatagin
Banu Idrees Africa
Umvi Undlus
• From 400-500 AH Shia-Suni split happened.
500-1000 AH
500-600 Crusades (Noor-ud-Din Zangi and Salah-u-Din Ayubi)
600-700 was a period of Tatars attacks and falloff Baghdad
First Qibla captured by Crusaders
700-800 Ameer Taimoor-Mahood Garan accepted Islam. And havoc was turned
800-900 height of Ottoman Empire
Rule of Banu Abbass ended in 923 AH
900-1000 Saleem Usmani, Ottoman Empire
1000-1400 AH
1000-1100 period of fall
1100-1200 wars with Russia, Astria, Attack of Abdall on India
1200-1300 egypt Vs Ottomans, rebellion in Bosnia, Napoleon’s attacks, Wahabiz at Hijaz
1300-1400 fall of Khilafat
Achievements in Past:
• Muslims enjoyed victories
• They had strong military
• They were at peak in education, justice and culture
• They had strong economy and Jihad was basic tool of strong economy.
The Present-Turmoil
56-57 total Muslim states
Democracy: Most OIC countries are non democratic. There are no OIC countries which are rated as full democracy under the democracy index guidelines; only 3 out of 57 countries are rated as high as a flawed democracy. The rest are rated either Authoritarian Regime or a hybrid Regime.
Freedom: Only 3 OIC member states were rated as free in the freedom in the world reposrt in 2010 based on political rights and civil liberties in member countries.
Reporters without borders in its 2011 Press Freedom Index rated only Mali and Suriname among the OIC members as having satisfactory situation. All other members had worse rating ranging from noticeable problems to very serious situation.
Freedom of religion is most severely restricted in most OIC member states. In US Department of state cited OIC members Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Uzbekistan as being countries of particular concern where religious freedom is severely violated.

The Future???
Future of Muslim Ummah is bright if they come under one roof and united struggle is required for the restoration of glorious past. It is evident from history of Muslim Ummah that they have enjoyed a prestigious place in different fields. This movement towards growth can be accelerated by the contribution of OIC.
Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah

• Illiteracy
• Terrorism
• Poverty
• Autocracy
• Far behind in Science and Technology
• No Veto Powers
• Concentration of wealth
• Redefining the role of women
Causes of Debacles:
• Forgetting shariah
• Materialism
• Internal conflicts
• Internal and international conspiracies
• Regionalism (Arab, Non Arab or Arab, African)
• Illiteracy, poverty and conservatism
• Leaving Jihad and spirituality
• Acting off beam philosophies including deen-eIlahi, Wahdat-ul-Wujood, Mootazilla
• Aqeedat and Taqleed, Khangahi approach
• Irrational customs
• Sectarianism
• Ignorance
• Traitor
o 1757, Battle Palassi, Nawab Siraj-ud-Dola
o 177, saranga Patam, Tipu Sultan
o 1857, dehli, Bahadur Shah Zafar
o 1739, meisoor, Sultan Nizam-ul-Mulk
o Meer Jaffar was traitor of Tipu Sultan and Meer Sadiq was traitorof Sultan Nizam-ul-Mulk
Responsibilities of Ummah:
• Understanding, implementation and preaching of shariah
• Establishment of Khilafat shariah
• Jihad and Ijtehad
Suggestions for future development:
• Attainment of Veto power by Muslim countries
• Islamic banking system, which ensures a system of interest and exploitation free principles
• Effective role of OIC
• Collective media of all countries to protect Muslim world
• Common currency
• Less reliance on USD
• Common trade market
• Common court of justice
• Intellectual development
• Ijtehad
• Development of Science and Technology
• Court of conflict resolution
Problems in implementing solutions:
• Linguistic issues
• Economic disparity
• Leadership crises
• Political, military and economic strengths are distributed. No one nation is willing to surrender before other. Iran is politically strong, Pakistan had influential military, and Saudia is economically rich, if all the nations surrender power for Iran. Together Muslim world can bring revolution in their situation.
• Disparity between population and physical area. Pakistan has more population less area while Sudan has more geographical area and less population.
• Internal law & order situation is disturbed due to terrorism and other crimes.
• Terrorism itself is big cause. Global terrorism is somehow attributed with Muslims. It is a kind of vicious circle. Terrorism is phenomena not an act. It is projected that Muslims are responsible for it and Muslims are victims as well.

Epilogue:
Muslims have seen period of excellence in civilization, education, science and technology, Military in fact every field. But now they are facing decline due to their internal conflicts and leaving away teaching of Allah. Need of the hour is unity among Muslim Ummah to regain the glory which they had in past and this is only possible when they will start thinking as united Muslim Ummah.

Kashmir issue
Caught in the web of claims and counter claims by Pakistan and India, the Kashmir issue remains unresolved. Each country claims that Kashmir is a necessity for its territorial and national survival and ideological purity. These claims are often reinforced with partisan interpretation of history and selective evidence. The real attitude and concrete policies towards the dispute, however, are often governed by perception of short term “national interests” as defined by dominant political elite of the two countries the interests that apparently are irreconcilable and non-negotiable.
This has been a complex, volatile and intractable Issue which has plagued both countries since independence in 1947 and it is still a matter of International interest. In many ways, Kashmir is an ethnic, religious and territorial issue with the potential for strategic and economic gains to India and Pakistan. Both nations have strong legal and moral claims to Kashmir, which has virtually reconciled itself to accepting the status quo and has even practically abandoned its insistence on the right of the Kashmir’s to self-determination. Since 1989, a major uprising against Indian rule by the Kashmiri Muslims has changed the face of Kashmir and a gun culture has converted the paradise into a martyrs' graveyard. However, the September 11 (2001) incident has changed the shape of world politics and in the new scenario; Pakistan launched a new political initiative on Kashmir to reaffirm its long*standing policy of supporting the right of self* determination for the people of Kashmir. India accused Pakistan of involvement in terrorism, extremism and militancy, but proactive stance of Islamabad in this regard, put India’s hawks on the back foot and projected the Kashmir cause as a popular struggle. Moreover, Kashmir is a major flashpoint in South Asia and it is widely believed that the nuclear dimension in the region has already created a dooms day scenario and that tension needs to be defused through the active role of external forces. Nevertheless, both countries have an opportunity to extricate themselves from the dispute by means of an acceptable solution without any further human and material loss.
While each side sticks to its claims over Kashmir, the Kashmiri Muslims continue to pay a heavy price for their defiant struggle against overwhelming odds in order to exercise their right of self determination. For more than half a century the Kashmiris are oscillating between uncertainty and destitution. They continue to suffer misery and repression under illegal Indian occupation, and despite a stream of strong words and resolutions passed by the Security Council the Kashmir issue is still a bone o f contention between Pakistan and India. Rather the situation has taken a quantum leap for the worse.
Indian has conceded the Security Council resolutions vindicating the right of self determination for the Kashmiris but has since reneged on its solemn commitment to the international community and the people of Kashmir. The brutal and blatant Indian repression and state sponsored terrorism against innocent Kashmiri men, women and children had few parallels in the annals of history. The valley has become a festering sore and the miseries of the oppressed people of this valley and the “terror let loose” by Indian forces is not less cataclysmic in nature than that of Jaliawala massacre ordered by infamous General Rex Dyer.
In spite of facing all these hazards, the freedom fighters are exuberant. They have not only caused the military and political debacle to India but they have also done irreparable damage to Indian’s much touted and trumpeted secularism. Would it be too much to assume that Kashmir might well be the graveyard of Indian secularism? Unless sanity prevails to make the BJP leadership realize the sheer folly o f their politico military aggression against the Kashmiris.
In the name of freedom and self determination, the Kashmiris are being inured, mutilated and killed, their women raped, and their children robbed of hope for a better future. The dispute has shattered their economy polarized their society and festered a culture of violence among the people known for their non violent character.
But the Kashmiris are not only the one’s who suffer from the adverse consequences of the dispute. Millions in Pakistan and India are paying a high cost form direct or indirect effects of this issue. Both counties spend huge and unaffordable resources on defense which could be spent more productively on improving the lot of their people.
The Kashmir issue has also led both counties to use their limited scientific knowledge and skills to develop weapons of mass destruction exposing them the unimaginable holocaust. The dispute and military activities related to it have strengthened the pre-existing culture of violence, promoted glorification of material values and intensified the desire to take revenge from the enemy for the past humiliations. The culture will be a breeding ground for future conflicts between the two countries. Even if the Kashmir problem, itself is somehow solved.
The events which have taken place in the valley have made it imperative (vital) that we reevaluate all the aspects of the situation with a cool head, draft a correct and principled policy and pursue it with a single mind. We have to consider four aspects of the situation in Kashmir. First, our responsibilities from religious point of view, and then the implications of the present situation on Pakistan, the Indian Muslims and the Kashmiri Muslims. Till date, Pakistan has tried both political and armed struggle, with varying strategies, to solve this quagmire (dilemma). Sometimes, it was on the UN agendas for several straight years while in less fortunate times, it eluded the attention of the world body for years. Sometimes, Pakistan would report all the violations of the LoC to UN and conversely, it failed to report the Indian occupation of Siachen. The war of 1965 was the result of our incursions (invasion) into the occupied Kashmir in the guise of freedom fighters. It is manifest that Kashmir was the chief determinant, directly or indirectly, in our economy, Defense, Foreign and Home policies and even in our internal politics.
The Kashmiris have long history of sufferings and oppression, the worst chapter of which was written by the Dogra rule, particularly from 1931 onwards. Contrary to their hopes the partition of the sub-continent and the emergence of two new states, instead of ending the woes of Kashmiris, multiplied them. Since then they have suffered the consequences of three wars, well documented atrocities by the Indian army since 1989 and often violent activities of the militants, a umber of them religiously motivated non Kashmiris.
Since the days of Muslim Mughal Empire, Kashmir has got a prominent Muslim majority population. There are more than eighty percent Muslims and the Hindu population is less than twenty percent. Unfortunately, on the fall of Mughal Empire, the State fell to the British East Company in 1840, which sold it to the Sikh traitor “Raja Gulab Singh” in 1846, as reward for his betrayal of the Sikhs at a very negligible price of Rs. 7.5 millions. Hence onward the Muslim population of Kashmir came under continuous torment of the cruel Sikh rulers. They tried to strengthen their hold on the State with the singular aim of shattering the will of their Muslim subjects, crushing their religious zeal. They cowed them down into accepting the slavery of the Hindu minority.
The genesis of the Kashmir issue is that in August 1947, when partition of the sub-continent took place, Lord Mountbatten, the viceroy of undivided India, influenced Radcliff into awarding the predominantly Muslim district of Gurdaspur, situated in the East Punjab, to India. By this treacherous act, admitted by Lord Mountbatten himself on nation wide British television, the cruel Viceroy not only subjected a Muslim majority area to the cursed Hindu domination, it also sowed the seed from which could crop up the domination of India on another predominantly Muslim State Kashmir, because it is only through a narrow strap in the Gurdaspur district that India was linked with Kashmir. The canker in no time cropped up into the “Kashmir Problem” that has ever since proved to be a serious threat to the security of the South Asian region.
Pakistan has made a lot of efforts to break the strangled hold of India on Kashmir, including third party’s mediations but the fate of Kashmiris is still trembling in the balance. The first effort was made when immediate after partition India airlifted its forces to Srinagar. When Quaid-e-Azam was informed he ordered Incharge of Pak Army General Gracy, to send forces to Srinagar but the General refused to do so. Mujahideen tried their level best to capture the valley but they were defeated by Indian army as they were not well equipped and trained. Then India took this dispute to the Security Council. The Security Council decided that a plebiscite must be held in Kashmir. At that time India agreed but after sometime she backed out of her promise.
In 1962 Pakistan lost a golden opportunity to conquer Kashmir during Indo-china war. As India requested President Kennedy of America to influence Pakistan for not taking any step regarding Kashmir during Indo-China war. Kennedy pressurized Ayub Khan and he accepted the America influence on these conditions that after Indo-China war America would help in resolving the Kashmir issue through discussion. In this regard after the Indo-China war Sheikh Abdullah came to Pakistan to initiate some discussion on Kashmir. During his tour of Pakistan Jawahar Lal Nehru died and he had to rush back.
Ayub Khan tried to atone for his mistake and he prepared five thousand gorillas form army to capture Kashmir. This operation was given the name of “operation Gibraltar” and it was done in 1965. All these gorillas caused a lot of destruction in the valley but at least they all were captured or killed by the Indian forces due to lack of planning. In revenge, India made heavy shelling on Awan Sharif, a village near border. In response to these incident Pakistani forces along with Azad Kashmir forces crossed the ceasefire line by making official announcement.
During this war of 1965, at one stage the Pakistani forces advanced up to Akhnoor and they were in a position to capture Srinagar as well but under Soviet Union’s influence Ayub Khan declared ceasefire. In this way Pakistan also lost this opportunity to get Kashmir. The Indian areas occupied by the Pakistani forces were also given bank to India according to “Tashkent Accord”.
After this war, tension mounted between the two countries up to this extent that they had another war in 1971. This war resulted in separation of East Pakistan as an independent State now known as Bangladesh.
Since 1990, the Kashmir insurgency, concentrated in the Muslim-majority state of Jammu and Kashmir, has gained momentum. By the mid-1990s, it was not only the most serious flashpoint in the region but also among the most likely accelerants for a nuclear crisis anywhere on the globe. Thus, an internally driven crisis evolved into a regional security threat that also provides a political rallying point, particularly among nationalist groups who favor a more overt program of nuclear weapons acquisition.
Although the origins of the crisis are quintessentially indigenous, there is widespread propaganda by India that the Inter-Services Intelligence Agency of Pakistan has actively aided and abetted some of the insurgent groups, most notably, the radical Islamic Hezb-ul-Mujahideen. It has been the ISI's practice to use and discard militant organizations in Kashmir. The Pak army first used Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) to start terrorist activities in Kashmir and then dropped it in favor of pro-Pakistan fundamentalist groups. Then many of these groups were discarded and more and more Pakistani and Afghan terrorists inducted.
Kashmir's demographics illustrate the complexity of the issue. The territory can be divided into three regions -- Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, and Ladakh -- each of which is dominated by a different ethnic group. Jammu is inhabited mainly by a Hindu majority, the Kashmir Valley is settled by a Muslim majority, and a Buddhist majority resides in Ladakh. While there is an identifiable Kashmiri ethnicity, the three groups are ethnically distinct, complicating any notion of "Kashmiri nationalism." The implications of these divisions have to be acknowledged whenever the call arises for an independent Kashmir, determined by plebiscite and with its future tied to neither India nor Pakistan.
The Kashmir crisis compelled both governments to expend enormous sums to support the deployment of forces in this region. The costs to both India and Pakistan of the Siachen Glacier deployment alone were estimated at more than $1 million a day, amounting to more than $5 billion since the sporadic fighting on the glacier began in 1984.
As of 1997 more than 350,000 Indian soldiers were deployed throughout Kashmir, a portion of them occupying the Indian side of the Siachen Glacier in the far northeastern region of Kashmir in the eastern Karakoram Mountains. Their Pakistani counterparts were dug in seven miles away on the Baltoro Glacier. At nearly 18,000 feet above sea level, howitzer shells are lobbed back and forth, out of sight and hearing of the rest of the world. Popular interest in this decades-old stalemate seems as thin as the atmosphere, yet scores of deaths a week (most resulting from harsh conditions) are attributed to the continuing efforts for getting hold over Kashmir through militant aspect.
The Kashmiri freedom fighters took inspiration from brave freedom fighting display of Afghanis and an upgrade uprising began in the valley. But due to lack of planning and poor diplomatic approach, this brilliant tactical move ended in a terrible strategic blunder. Before Kargil episode, international opinion was focused on Indian army repression in Kashmir. What a pity that Kargil changed this focus completely. India achieved the world’s sympathies through its excellent diplomatic policies and quickly made propaganda against Pakistan mainly through its electronic media. On the other hand Pakistan became isolated in international politics and even China the most reliable friend of Pakistan gave a cold shoulder in these circumstances. The ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan had to call off the whole operation due to huge international pressure. The most unfortunate aspect of the whole Kargil operation was that although jawans, officers and Mujahedeen won the war at Kargil hills, yet they had to descend as Pakistani government lost this war on the diplomatic front. The great uprising is still going on in the valley. Pakistan tried to internationalize the Kashmiri freedom fighting and inhuman behavior of Indian forces through Kargil operation in 1999.
Under this scenario of events, it is clear that a change in policy direction is necessary. New objectives have to be formed. Almost certainly the wings of our hawks have to clipped. For this purpose the following steps can be taken:
• One, the line of control can be transformed into the international border between Pakistan and India . India itself has been moving in this direction for a while now- in the event of its inability to stamp out the freedom struggle in Kashmir. This option is, from the Indian perspective, the least disturbing and the most aligned to its prevailing Kashmir stance.
However, despite this option having support amongst some Western analysts, it is unworkable. This is because the line of control has never been accepted by the Kashmir’s. Rather, it is simply a temporary cease fire line which marks a cessation of military hostilities between two antagonists and is expected to remain in place until the dispute is resolved.
• Two, the valley of Kashmir along with some Northern areas, must be given independence. This option although sounds very well, yet from India’s point of view it is not beneficial because an independent Kashmir bordering China will become a permanent thereat to India.
• Three, Northern areas in control of Pakistan whereas Jammu and Laddakh should be given under trusteeship of United Nations for twenty years in order to eliminate the Pakistan and Indian influence and than after twenty years it should be asked from the people of Kashmir whether they want to become independent or they want to become a part of Pakistan or India. In the light of above mentioned options for the solution of Kashmir issue, the third option is very much applicable as it looks neutral in all respects.

So, conceived in this way that the basic principle in this problem is that every people have the right to live according to its free will. This unshakable and inalienable right is a living reality in human conscience. The Kashmiris have the right to freely decide their future as a part of India or Pakistan or an independent people. India cannot deny them this right on the pretext of an alleged piece of paper, written by a despotic dictator. Nor can Pakistan deny it to them under any circumstances. It is a reality that Kashmir continues to define parameters of the Pak-India relationship. And unless it is resolved there is a détente between these two states, there con not be meaningful stability in South Asia, which would allow India the power status is seeks. But as a matter of fact, India has ignored the realities of history its own leaders commitments to a plebiscite in Kashmir, India has denied itself a role commensurate with its power indicators. This is the time now that India must act with the confidence of a great power and more beyond its unacceptable status quo stance in Kashmir. It is clear that India can not maintain status quo in Kashmir indefinitely that is untenable. Even if Kargil had not happen in 1999, India would have had to accept that it has failed to make Kashmir an integral part of Indian Union through a bizarre mix of the use of military force and elections. Despite the horrible facts of Indian repression in the valley and the failure of lot of efforts mentioned above one may hope that according to the concrete stance taken by Pakistan the things will be changed for Kashmiris and that day is not far away when the Kashmiris will get the reward of their sacrifices and hey would also be able to get the palm.


























Unresolved
Necessity
territorial
survival
ideological
purity
often
reinforced
partisan
interpretation
evidence
attitude
dispute
perception
short term
dominant political elite
apparently
irreconcilable
non-negotiable.
complex,
volatile
intractable
plagued
ethnic
virtually
status quo
insistence
gun culture
converted
paradise
martyrs' graveyard.
Scenario
Launched
Initiative
accused
extremism
militancy
proactive stance
hawks
dooms day scenario
defused
external forces
Nevertheless
Extricate
overwhelming
odds
oscillating
uncertainty
destitution
misery
repression
occupation
bone o f contention
quantum leap for the worse.
Conceded
Reneged
Solemn
brutal and blatant
innocent
parallels
annals of history
festering sore
terror let loose
cataclysmic
massacre
infamous
hazards
freedom fighters
exuberant
debacle
irreparable
touted
trumpeted
graveyard
sanity
sheer folly
aggression
mutilated
robbed
shattered
polarized
festered
adverse consequences
weapons of mass destruction
unimaginable
holocaust
glorification
desire
past humiliations
breeding ground
conflicts
events
imperative (vital)
pursue
quagmire (dilemma)
eluded
violations
incursions (invasion)
guise
manifest
determinant
worst
Contrary
Emergence
Instead
Woes
Atrocities
prominent
Unfortunately
Betrayal
Negligible
Onward
Torment
religious zeal.
cowed them down
slavery
genesis
treacherous act
cropped up
strangled hold
mediations
trembling in the balance
plebiscite
backed out
conquer
destruction
insurgency
acquisition.
quintessentially
indigenous
abetted
inducted.
Compelled
Enormous
Deployment
Inspiration
terrible strategic blunder
sympathies
cold shoulder
diplomatic front
pretext
alleged
despotic dictator
parameters
commensurate
to get the palm.




Critically Examine the main theoretical explanations of women’s inequality in developing countries and discuss them with reference to Case Studies


Outlines:
1. Introduction
2. What do we mean by women rights?
3. What do we mean by inequality?
4. Inequality and its types
5. Historical background about woman status in the developing world
6. Women in south Asia
• Women in Pakistan
• Women in India
• Woman in Nepal
• Women in Bangladesh
• Women in Afghanistan
7. Women in Arab world
• Women Saudi Arabia
8. Woman and UN
9. God and Social Stratification
10. Is equality of women is just a roar or real?
11. Mukhtar Mai: A case Study
12. Naseem Bibi: A case Study
13. Rights of women
• Spiritual rights
• Economical rights
• Social rights
• Political rights
• Educational rights
• Cultural rights
14. Modes of Violation of women Rights in the Developing World
• Female genital mutilation
• Honor killing
• Karo kari
• Forced prostitution
• Forced marriages
• Forced abortion
• Harassment by “Morality Squads”
• Infanticide
• Rape
• Health issues
• Verbal abuse
• Acid throwing
• Political killings/ imprisonment
• Dowry issues
• Punishment on giving birth to daughter
• Love exploitations
• Trafficking
• Victims of gender discrimination in society
• Low importance on women education
15. How to eradicate this menace
• Following of UN Charter
• Human rights organizations due role
• Education and awareness programs
• Health reforms for women
• Tacking the socio-economic problems of women
• Moral support
• Role of media
• Role of civil society
• Solving the issues of unemployment, poverty
16. Conclusion



Introduction
“The first woman was created from the rib of a man. She was not made form his head to top him, nor from his feet to be trampled on by him but out of his side to be equal to him.”
(Men and Women Quotes)
‘Being a woman is terribly difficult task since it consists principally in dealing with men.”
(Joseph Conrad)
“Violence against women is the manifestation of historically unequal power relation between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to prevention of full advancement of women.”
(UN declaration 1993)
“A man willing to work, and unable to find work, is perhaps the saddest sight that fortune's inequality exhibits under this sun.”
(Thomas Carlyle)

“I do not think I ever opened a book in my life which had not something to say upon woman's inconstancy. Songs and proverbs, all talk of woman's fickleness. But perhaps you will say, these were all written by men."

"Perhaps I shall. Yes, yes, if you please, no reference to examples in books. Men have had every advantage of us in telling their own story. Education has been theirs in so much higher a degree; the pen has been in their hands. I will not allow books to prove anything.”
( Jane Austen, Persuasion)
The basic message of every divine message is always there to make a man man. All are equal in the divine sight. But we men, having beliefs in the commands of divinity, do not materialize them. These differences have made our green world a bloody some. Women rights around the world are an important indicator to understand the global well-being. Despite tremendous changes of the 20th century, discrimination and violence against women remains fully rooted in cultures around the world. The most widely cited reason for gender inequality is the developing countries relates to the social customs, values, traditions and beliefs. Social exclusion, honor killing, harassment in offices, feudal exploitation, female genital multination, restricted mobility and early marriages are the issues that deny the fundamental rights of woman. Although it is a global issue but it is more prevalent in the developing countries where inequalities include both discrimination and disempowerment of women.
The question on how gender inequality shapes peoples life is on one that has been echoing widely through minds of modern society in recent decades. The biological difference between men and women constitute as one of the main reason this inequality. The males were always branded the breadwinners of the family, whilst a female’s place was remained at home. Throughout the history, Women keep of fighting for their equal rights, opportunities, place and treatment. Although women’s inferior status to men exist in almost all developing countries like India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Burma and also in central Asian states but the reasons, intensity, shape and manifestation differ seeing the circumstances quite substantially as we move from one socio-economic class and region to another. The inability of women to make their own life choices that is the root of many injustices they suffer.
The afflicted world in which we live is characterized by deeply unequal sharing of the burden of adversities between women and men. In ancient times and even now at some places women are known as the root cause of all evils. Top of the list are the socio-economic constraints that compels a woman to even sell herself knowing it will never recover again.
What do we mean by Women Rights?
“[M]en, though they know full well how much women are worth and how great the benefits we bring them, nonetheless seek to destroy us out of envy for our merits. It's just like the crow, when it produces white nestlings: it is so stricken by envy, knowing how black it is itself, that it kills its own offspring out of pique.”
( Moderata Fonte, The Worth of Women: Wherein Is Clearly Revealed Their Nobility and Their Superiority to Men)
According to Oxford dictionary, “Women’s Rights are the rights that promote a position of social and legal equality, of women to men”.
“They are the rights, claimed for the women, equal to those of men, as regards to suffrage and right to vote, as regards to property, etc.”
The start of mankind was from Adam and Eve (May peace be upon them). Eve is the first woman and mother of the human race; God created Eve from Adam's rib and placed Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Women have been given the equal status from the day start. But women in the developing countries have been suffering from many issues and problem in the past, though this sticky situation in the society has not been fully rooted out, but almost melt down. Women are still yearning to get their equal rights in the society in almost all the developed counties. Women had to go through many aches from the day of the birth till they die. In Third world countries people had been very much conservative and narrow minded towards giving equal status to their women. However, in Muslim society women remained impregnable in contrast to other societies and religions. History has seen many changes and one of those changes was the restoration of the rights of the women in the society. Only in the last hundred years, women have been seen rightfully as equals to men. History, however, is not recent, and there are numerous examples to how the female gender was given inferior status to males. Surprisingly, the evolutions of women's rights were not particularly in chronological order. In different times and different societies, the status of females advanced or retrogressed depending on a variety of reasons. Women have seen some good days where they ruled and run over the states like Razia Sultana, Jhansi Ki Raani, who were brave and courageous as well. Women have seen rise and fall in the war of getting their rights and got success majorly yet it needs more to be improved. Because in recent times woman of developing countries is facing suchlike issues from the birthday to the day of death. Though today’s woman is not like the ancient one. But still she needs more awareness, education and moral as well as real legal support to stand up side by side to contribute in such a festinating time. This fact should be acknowledge that females have excessive ability to face the critical situations and challenges as they have the quality to resist with greater patience then that of males.

What do we mean by Inequality?
“In a world of increasing inequality, the legitimacy of institutions that give precedence to the property rights of "the Haves" over the human rights of "the Have Not’s" is inevitably called into serious question.”
(David Korten)
“When the gap between the rich and the poor is so huge that you can’t help pointing it out – that’s when you risk being labeled a pervert.”
(Benson Bruno)
The disposition to admire, and almost to worship, the rich and the powerful, and to despise, or, at least, to neglect persons of poor and mean condition is the great and most universal cause of the corruption of our moral sentiments.”
Adam Smith
Scottish political economist (1723-1790)
Inequality is basically a difference between the realization and provision of rights. Ineauality means shortage, limitization, difference in power, status, value, importance, say, affairs, dealings, consultancy, share and work etc.
Historical background of women status in developing countries:
“As of today, we do not need expert reports by the authoritative analytical institutions to realize that the reasons for such a situation in our community lie in global inequality, poverty and illiteracy.”
(Nursultan Nazarbayev)

“Our inequality materializes our upper class, vulgarizes our middle class, brutalizes our lower class.”
–Matthew Arnold
English essayist (1822-1888)

In ancient times, before Islam women were treated in worst manners, their rights were shattered, they were not given any respect in the society, and female infants were lively buried as they were considered as a symbol of disgrace in one’s family. They were considered as slaves, property or just autoerotic objects. But in Islam women were given equal rights in the society. And awarded more respect that in any other religion or society. Muhammad (PBUH) put the example by giving respect to his own daughter Hazrat Fatima (A.S) by standing up and stretching his own cloak for her honor signifying the high status of a daughter. In other civilizations like Egyptian civilization, women had the equal rights in all necessary parts of life. Yet there had been some discrimination prevailed in all the times of the history to deprive the women from their rights. They had to abide by many restrictions which were physically and morally awful to them. As time passed and society modernized, many changes took place which brought several positive moves in favor of women rights.
Women is South Asia
“Can one preach at home inequality of races and nations and advocate abroad good-will towards all men?”
(Dorothy Thompson)
Culturally and historically, South Asia is remained bleak in terms of women rights. In Hindustan woman was presented as the root cause of all misdeeds and was burnt alive with the death of her husband. In Pakistan and Bangladesh she has always been remained the victim of so-called mullahs and tribal leaders as well as in villages she is exploited in the hands of feudal lords. Same is the case with the other countries of the South Asian states. Member countries of the SAARC have remained at their lowest ebb in empowering the woman but in the current era a ray of hope is hoping the hopes of hope hoppers.
Women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Nepal
Being the similar culture, rites, rituals and traditions in the South Asian countries especially the India and Pakistan, the treatment of women both at household and offices is similar up to a greater extent. Same type of laws and traditions are found here and there. Hindustan where once the woman was burnt alive with the demise of her husband and considered the source of all evils is still struggling for her rights. Situation of woman in Pakistan is also not hidden. Tribal belts and villages of all the provinces show the hot and hard lined treatment of the women in the hands of ever dominating men. But the situation differs in the metropolitan cities where writ and rule of the law is strong and awareness is every where like a forest fire. Women are never considered women in the history of Afghanistan. They are always remained there confined to the house walls. Bangladesh being the former part of Hindustan, then Pakistan and then being the separate entity is not differ from the parent countries. Women have same fate there. Nepal being the immediate neighbor depicts the unequal treatments of women in her society.
Woman in Arab world
Arab world, a world of cruel and illiterate people, who used to burry their daughters alive before the advent of Islam are still dominant in terms of women rights. Arab countries from Yemen to Egypt and Palestine to Libya do not differ in the treatment of women. In real sense the mindset of the Arabs is not changed. It is almost same as it was centuries ago. Basically it is the mindset, a set of beliefs which shows the practices of the people. Mindset of a person truly depicts the personality of the keeper. Recent Arab uprising is one of the major examples of this uproar.
Women Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia, where the Islam was ad vented, and women due rights were first propagated, is still denying rights to women. Women are still fighting for their rights. Issue of driving for woman is a hot issue of the day. Women are not allowed to drive or ride on bike and men are not allowed to drive other than the closely relatives. The kingdom is facing a dilemma of how to get 367000 girls to school on buses that can only be driven by men. If any movement is started in this regard in the kingdom, it is forcefully shut down by the authorities.
Women and UN
“The form of law which I propose would be as follows: In a state which is desirous of being saved from the greatest of all plagues—not faction, but rather distraction—there should exist among the citizens neither extreme poverty nor, again, excessive wealth, for both are productive of great evil . . . Now the legislator should determine what is to be the limit of poverty or of wealth.”
–Plato
Greek philosopher (427-347 B.C.)


Sidelined once, women of the rejected and denied world are now gaining momentum within the UN system. If there were no UN, it may take more a century for woman to get her rights.
Milestones at UN: A Glance

Women of the world have always fought to defend their rights within the global decision-making body to be there in the United Nations since it came into being.. These are given some milestones of the movement for equality within the women’s savior, the UN:

1946
Commission on the Status of Women created; independent entity in 1947.

1947
Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict adopted.

1975
First UN Conference on Women in Mexico City; annual meeting as of 1987.

1976
UN Development for Women is created; becomes UNIFEM in 1984.

1979
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination (CEDAW) adopted.

1994
UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women appointed.

2000
UN Security Council Resolution 1325 mandates gender lens on conflicts.

2006
High level panel on coherence named to study gender reform of UN.

2010
UN approves creation of UN Women as new agency.

God and Social stratification
“God touches and moves, warns and desires all equally, and He wants one quite as much as another. The inequality lies in the way in which His touch, His warnings, and His gifts are received.”
(Johannes Tauler)

“If it is as evil to do lechery as the Bible and the Lord Himself tell us, then who is the more blameworthy: the one who instigates it, or the one who doesn't so much do it as suffer what men do to her? You know very well that it is the male who does it, and whoever says otherwise is wrong and is lying through his teeth, unless he has no teeth -- and would to God he hadn't.”
(Anonymous, the Southern Passion)
Gender inequality or Social stratification gender stratification is basically the structured form of social inequality in which a ranked group of people who brings about unequal financial rewards, such as a person’s income, and power or property, that is normally brought upon by money in a society. This system comes in many different ways and forms. They may be slavery; castes, social class, race, and gender are just few of the issues that are afflicted by this system. Gender inequality or also known as gender stratification, is actually the unequal distribution of a society’s wealth, power, and privilege between the tow basic genders females and males. it is crystal cleared from the reported reports that the majority of the women are the oppressed as in turn the men being the oppressor. The idea of the oppressed and the oppressor is against the justice of God. He created all the human beings on equal grounds with same importance and status. That is why none of the divine religion denies the women rights and status but the followers of that religion do being the part of their beliefs but not of actions. Therefore, “in the sight of God, all people whether male or female, black or white are equal. No one has greater importance but those who practice piety.” Al-Quran
There are we men who practice this impractical but it is not the commandment of God. God is just and preaches just and equity.

Inequality of women is just a roar or real?
Inequality of women is about the deprivation of fundamental rights not being properly dedicated to the women. It is real to some extent but there has been a rapid change since past few years in most of the developing countries. The problem is that once we compare the so called women right in western countries with eastern countries we come to know that the western talk of women’s liberation is actually a disguise from the exploitation of her body, deprivation of her honor and degradation of her soul. The Western society has actually reduced women status to concubines, to mistresses, to society butterflies, which are mere tools in the hands of sex marketers and pleasure seekers, which are disguised behind the colorful screen of art and culture. West is the trend setter of this abuse. Once we talk about the developing countries. Every country adopts and catches the ideas and practices being done by any developed nation. This evil has also been transformed from the developed countries those are now penetrated in the society of developing countries. Women in underdeveloped countries are awarded with more safety and social respect as compare to the developed countries, which a women deserves to have but still they are desperate to get their rights which should be equal to men. But the brutal cases are now a days going to be reported about the women’s in equality. That is why human rights activists are more active now days regarding the women rights.
Mukhtar Mai: A Case Study
“Women have served all these centuries as looking glasses possessing the magic and delicious power of reflecting the figure of man at twice its natural size.”
( Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own)
Mukhtar Mai, 30 years divorced women, belonging to Gujar family from a Village in Jatoi, Muzaffar Garh being the district in the Southern Punjab, Pakistan, was one day in mid 2002, caught, trapped and gang raped by four men named Abdul Khaliq, Allah Ditta, Fayyaz Hussain and Ghulam Farid, on the issue of her 12 years brother, Abdul Shakoor who was alleged in a matter. The decision was taken to the local Punhcayat and it made the traditional conservative decision justifying the Mai’s rape as good. But thanks to the media which highlighted the issue and the roar was roared in the deaf ears of the respective area’s bureaucrats as well as the upper courts and politicians. As a result a so motto action was taken, case if was exploited by the local police station but she was granted justice by the court and the culprits were caught and punished. Although they are recently released in December, 2011 fulfilling there time in the Jail. Actually this was the issue that was highlighted by the media and as result a victim got justice otherwise there a countless incidents in the jurisdiction of South Asia that are hardly reported and justified. Countless such incidents are exploited by the local Punchayats, feudal lords and politicians, deciding against the wishes of women creating inequality not only in Pakistan but the whole South Asia.
.

Naseem Bibi: A Case Study
Eyes glimmering with worry, Tasleem Bibi peered through the slits of her pitch-black veil. Seventeen years earlier, her father ad struck a devilish deal to stay out of the Jail. A rival family was demanding that Tasleem marry to their son. Her hand in marriage had been promised when she was just five years old. Her father was accused of killing another man in a bitter land dispute. To keep the case out of court, her family agreed to high price and five women.
She is the victim of Vani, an ugly tradition where young women are traded between the rival families in resolution of their disputes. Although, it was outlawed a few years back, vani is still prevalent in the conservative pockets across Pakistan.
The woman is traded like an animal. Once married, she is little better than a slave. A vani wife is treated like dirt; the men wear her like a pair of shoes. Most of the defenders of this bleak custom, being the pessimistic tribal elders, say, this way prevent bloodshed between the warring clans.


Gender Inequality and Its Types

“Everyone has an equal right to inequality.”
(John Ralston Saul)

Women inequality has many faces and manifestations from region to region, customs to custom and country to country. Normally there are counted seven types of inequality.
1) Mortality inequality:
Mortality in equality which is based on the matters of life and death and shows the predominance of the male sex is going to be common especially in developing world. It is mostly found in the regions of Africa, china and south Asia.

(2) Natality inequality:
Under this type of inequality boys being neo-Nate is given more importance than the girls. People wish to have their children more as boys and special focus is given on the first child born to any couple. It is seen that women are delivered divorced it they fail to give birth to a mail child. For this purpose selective and coercive abortion is forced compelling a woman to please the wishes of males.
(3) Basic facility inequality:
In this form of inequality women especially girls are denied the basic necessities of life. Education being the prime need and demand of the time is fully conferred on male child but Toto denied to a female child. Afghanistan is on top in this matter.
(4) Special opportunity inequality:
In this type of inequality women are denied the opportunities e.g. of higher education and high job trainings.
(5) Professional inequality:
Professional inequality is based on denying the due job and work promotions and job benefits.

(6) Ownership inequality:
It comprises the inequality in the inheritance and properties. Islam granted this right to woman but the followers of Islam are not fully inclined to give due share to woman except the Shia Muslim Sect. Hinduism and some other religions also do not grant this right to woman.
(7) Household inequality:
In houses biasness is found among the members of the family and a male child in any perspective is given more preference than a female child.

Types of Women Rights
“It is a wise man who said that there is no greater inequality than the equal treatment of unequal’s.”
“Felix Frankfurter”
Women must have their basic spiritual rights so that they can easily practice their religion with their own will and freedom. Women must have their economical rights they can share the burden of their family and contribute to the country’s economy. Women should have their social rights because the equal members of the society and they should the equal freedom and availability of the opportunities which are available to men. Women should have the equal educational rights so that they can get the similar educational facilities available to their opposite gender. Likely women must have the legal rights which can protect them from all social evils. Women should have the right to vote with their own will and should have reasonable representation in the politics.
Modes of Violation of women Rights in the Developing World

“The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal.”
(Aristotle)
Women in developing countries have been facing with severe challenges. There are a lot of social abuses and customary restrictions imposed on them even in today’s society as we are in 21st century. Problems as, female genital mutilation which is a custom in Somali), killing for the sake of honor is common in developing countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India (case is quoted where Shafilea Ahmed was the victim of a suspected honor killing. The 17-year-old's body was found months after she had returned from a trip to Pakistan in 2003. On the trip she drank bleach. The coroner said he saw it as a 'desperate measure' to avoid a forced marriage). Force prostitution is different countries is very common, where parents or husband forces the women to sell the body unwillingly. Selling of women (case is quoted where: In 1983, Zana Muhsen and her sister Nadia, from Birmingham, were pushed by their father to visit Yemen and forced to marry. Zana, now 35, escaped eight years later. Her father had sold her for a few thousand dollars. The experience is recounted in her book; 'Sold' Slavery is also common in Arab countries where women are treated as the slaves of her husband. Same is the case in some of Pakistan rural areas where women are treated as property, forced marriage (case is quoted where Narina Anwar, 29, and her two sisters claim they were tricked by their parents into going on a family holiday to a remote village in Pakistan, where they were held captive for five months in an attempt to force them to marry three illiterate villagers. These girls were later rescued as they contact the police and media). Karo Kari is also a customary tradition in the tribal areas of Pakistan; Karo Kari is the form of honor killings. Every year several women are murdered in the name of honor by the male family members (and these are only the registered cases. On 11th June 2000, four women and one man were killed in the Dera Jamali village in Sindh. Last year on the same dates a 13 year old girl, Sara, was subjected to this honor killing in Goth Khosa. Two young boys Imtiaz and Arshad were also killed in the same case. The boys had never met the young girl in their lives. But the brother of Sara declared it an honor killing to get less punishment in law. This law also gives some leniency to the killers in such cases. He actually wanted to grab the land of these boys and used this accusation to kill the boys along with his sister. Secondly In the village of Moratha there was a case of Karo Kari (honor killing). The motive of the killing was that the murderer wanted to marry a married woman. He killed the husband of that woman and his own innocent sister and he was released from jail after a few months). In the underdeveloped countries, forced abortion, restricted freedom of movement outside the house, harassment by morality squads, infanticide, rape (Mukhtaran Mai scandal), health problems, Acid dropping on the faces, verbal abuse, less emphasis on women education and the discrimination of being women in most of the social matters is common in very common. Political killings/imprisonment is also very common (Dr. Afia Siddiqi, who was sentenced to jail for 86 years , on an accusation of attempt to murder) and the women in Jammu and Kashmir have been the worst victims of Indian state terrorism during the past 22 years where approximately 15000 women have been martyred due to the state terrorism. (Report on Women's Day on March 08). The common reason being found is that the most of developing countries have the male dominated society and the women being lower in power have always been victimized in all the aspects.
Is there any brighter side of women rights in the developing world?
Despites of the deprivation and pains of getting the equal status, today’s women are cherishing and enjoying their life more than their status which few are fighting for. Women have got the equal rights in all sectors and parts of the life in most of the developed countries which were not vested to them in past. They have become the symbols of the society; they have got the equal rights in every walk of life. They are being given special quota in jobs which confirms their selection beyond the merit. They have been facilitated with separate and Co-educational institutions in most of the developing countries, where they can study according to their own choice without any restrictions being imposed on them. Women have got the right to vote and not only this they have got the facility to join the politics and represent their gender too. We have the example of Benazir Bhutto, who was the first youngest lady P.M of Pakistan; Bangladesh had his lady prime minister too. Suu kui and Sonia Gandhi are also the other prime examples while discussing the bright side.
Women have participated in Showbiz and become the modern and liberal due to their freedom they have got. In recent days we have a scandal of Veena Malik, who has probably done an act of giving a nude photo shoot which is against her religion but she has done that due to the freedom she has got and society has accepted in silently either she committed that act or not. Furthermore, Women have been educated than the past, this is not the case in all the developing countries but in most. In Pakistan literacy rate is already very low, but still women are much efficient in contributing the literacy rate by getting more education. The trend to get women educated is changing positively then the past.
How to Eradicate This Inequality:
“Under-representation of women and other inequality among researchers is a problem that will not solve itself as women acquire competence.”
(Tarja Halonen)

“It is the belief that extremes and excesses of inequality must be reduced so that each person is free to fully develop his or her full potential. This is why we take precious time out of our lives and give it to politics.”
(Paul Wellstone)
Inequality of women rights has been consistently under consideration in all the society in the past century and has got maximum results, Women rights have been protected in the Charter of United Nations 1948. Where it is stated, “the charter of United Nations forbids discrimination on the basis of “race, sex, language or religion.” Furthermore there are several human rights organizations which are actively working and fighting to protect the women rights especially in the underdeveloped countries. Moreover educational programs for women have been ongoing for last many years which have got success in creating awareness in women towards getting their fundamental rights. Several health reforms have been in action to fights with the dangerous diseases especially breast cancer. Gender inequality in education may hamper growth through its impact on child health. Better educated females have healthier children, which have been found to increase growth in the long run as said by Napoleon Bonaparte. Media has played a vital role by providing a bridge to pass on the actual information and facts of the society where women were deprived of their rights. Media has contributed a lot by plays T.V dramas, films, talk shows, which has created awareness in the society about the rights of the women.
• Provision of Education to Masses
• Eradication of socio economic constraints
• Awareness about the hazard of sex abuses in literature
• Community based programmed
• Overcoming the issue of poverty by giving due share to women in the production
• Safeguarding women at work place
• Enacting strict laws and their full enforcement
• Providing jobs to women to overcome the issue of inequality by making the women economically strong
• Making the customs, rites and rituals women friendly
• Giving women a due political representation in local, provincial and national Bodies/Assemblies
• Giving women a due share in national decision making process
• Equal representation of women at each and every forum to negate the concept of inequality
• Protection of women rights through Police and Vigilant teams
• Making the best health care centers for mother and neo-Nate
• Recruitment of women as judges, bureaucrats, land registration officers, and police officers.
• Giving due share to women in inheritance and properties
• Using media as an instrument and propagator of women rights
• Due role of civil society
• Due role of the Religious leaders of any religion
• Government special loans to empower the women

Conclusion:
“There is always inequality in life. Some men are killed in a war and some men are wounded and some men never leave the country. Life is unfair.”
(John F. Kennedy)
Women rights have been infringed and victimized in different orders and in different periods. Today Woman is much securer then it was in the past. Still the need is to improve the areas where the developing countries should concentrate, like the education of the women, steps to eradicate poverty from the society so that the basic needs should be fulfilled. Women should be encouraged to come ahead in all the field of life, because the only key to success is that there should be no discrimination between male and female, so that the society may prosper and develop in smooth ways. Otherwise no country would be able to stand in the row of developed nations.


1. References:
i. Daily Dawn.com
ii. Brainqoute.com
iii. Un.org
iv. Any Faces of Gender Inequality, an essay by Amartya Sen.
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Can You tell the source of your preparation for essay paper?
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Are these outlines compatible to the standard of assessment?
how to write the outline(format) in exam ?

your help will be much appreciated
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