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  #11  
Old Saturday, May 23, 2009
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Partial Solution
Everyday Science Paper 2001


Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 100
Note: Attempt any ten questions. All questions carry equalmarks.

Q. 1. (a) What were the special characteristics of Muslim Scientists?

(b) What were the contributions of the following Muslim Scientists:


(i) Umar AI-Khayyam.
(ii) Abu Ali Sina
(iii) ibn Hayyan
(iv). Jhn al Baitar
(v) Zakariya Al-Razi.

Q. 2. (a) Differentiate clearly between Cyclone, Huriicane and tornado.


(b)

(i) Name two minerals which are exported from Pakistan.


Gypsum and Common salt

(ii) Name some gem-minerals used in Jewellery.

Topaz, Emerald, Jade, Opel, Saphire, Garnet, Diamond etc.

(iii) What is dead sea.



(iv) Why does the Sun appears orange-red at the time of Sunrise and Sunset.

The earth's dust, gas and air particles scatter the sun's light in different directions. Violet light has a peculiar property due to which it gets scattered the most. Red light gets scattered the least.
At sunrise the earth is rotating towards the sun. Similarly, during sunset, the earth is rotating away from the sun. During these times the sunlight has to travel at an angle and thus cover a longer distance through the atmosphere. It encounters more obstacles in its path. Most of the colours, like green and violet, get scattered before the light reaches the earth. Since red is scattered the least, it is this colour that we see as it reaches us.

(v) Why does the total Eclipse can happen only at the new Moon.

Lunar eclipses can only happen when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon, and that can only happen at full Moon. The moon passes completely into the earth's umbral shadow

For details

http://www.abc.net.au/science/features/lunaeclipse2007/

Q. 3. (a) Name popular forms of Energy. Write five various scientific devices used to convert one type of energy into another form of energy.


b) Write meaning of the following units:

(i) Barrel
(ii) Joule
(iii) Btu
(iv) KWh
(v) Newton.

Q. 4. Write short notes on any THREE of the following:

(i) Synthetic Polymers
(ii) Laser.
(iii) Pesticides
(iv) Fission and Fusion
(v) Pararnagnetism and Diamagnetism.

Q. 5. Write difference between:

(i) Microcomputer and minicomputer
(ii) Main frame and Super computer.
(iii) Hardware and Software.
(iv) Byte and Word.
(v) Ram and Cache memory.

Q. 6. Describe briefly the principle and working of any TWO of the following:

(i) Pressure cocker
(ii) Television
(iii) Microwave oven
(iv) Radar
(v) Tape recorder.

Q. 7. Differentiate between:

(i) DNA and RNA
(ii) Brass and Bronze
(iii) Blood and Lymph
(iv) Hard water and Heavy water
(v) Small pox and Measles
(vi) Pig iron and Stainless Steel.
(vii) Alloy and Amalgum
(viii) Isotopes and Isobars
(ix) Artery and Vein
(x) Barrage and Dam.

Q. 8. Explain the scientific reasons for the following:

(i) It is not advisable to sleep under trees during the night.
(ii) Water boils quicker on mountains.
(iii) Rainbow is produced in the sky after rain fall and sunlight.
(iv) Water remains cool in a Earthenware pitcher.
(v) Milk is considered as an ideal food.

Q. 9. Which of the following statements are true or false. Only write “True” or “False” in the answer book. Do not reproduce the statement.

(i) Urea is a phosphate fertilizer. (False)
(ii) Cellulose is a natural polymer. (True)
(iii) Magnetite is the ore of copper (False)
(iv) Malaria is caused by drinking polluted water. (False)
(v) The instrument used to measure velocity of wind is Barometer. (False)
(vi) Our eye is very sensitive to blue light. (False)
(vii) Sound can not travel through vacuum. (True)
(viii) Enzymes are biological catalyst. (True)
(ix) Leprosy is a disorder of Nervous System. (False)
(x) Mica is a non-conductor of electricity. (True)

Q.10 What are Endocrine glands? Name any four. From which part of the body are the followings secreted:


(i) Insulin
(ii) Thyroxin
(iii) Adrenaline
(iv) Oestrogen
(v) Testosterone and
(vi) Cortisol

(Discussed in paper 2000)

Q.11 (a) Name the important parts of a Flower.

A flower is regarded as a modified stem with shortened internodes and bearing, at its nodes, structures that may be highly modified leaves

Typical Flower Structure

Calyx:
the outer whorl of sepals; typically these are green, but are petal-like in some species.

Corolla:
the whorl of petals, which are usually thin, soft and colored to attract insects that help the process of pollination.

Androecium:
(from Greek andros oikia: man's house): one or two whorls of stamens, each a filament topped by an anther where pollen is produced. Pollen contains the male gametes.

Gynoecium:
(from Greek gynaikos oikia: woman's house): one or more pistils. The female reproductive organ is the carpel: this contains an ovary with ovules (which contain female gametes). A pistil may consist of a number of carpels merged together, in which case there is only one pistil to each flower, or of a single individual carpel (the flower is then called apocarpous). The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen. The supportive stalk, the style becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma, to the ovules, carrying the reproductive material.
b)




Explain the Pollination and Fertilization processes.


Pollination
The transfer of pollen from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or of another flower. Pollination is a prerequisite for
fertilization:

the fusion of nuclei from the pollen grain with nuclei in the ovule. Fertilization allows the flower to develop seeds.

Summary - Pollination and Fertilization

Flowers contain the structures necessary for sexual reproduction. The male component, or stamen, consists of a thin stalk called the filament, capped by the anther. The female component, the pistil, includes the stigma, a sticky surface that catches pollen; the ovary, which contains the ovule and embryo sac with its egg; and the style, a tube that connects the stigma and ovary (A).

Pollen is produced in the anther (B), and is released when mature (C). Each mature pollen grain contains two sperm cells. In self-pollinating plants, the pollen lands on the stigma of the same flower, but in cross-pollinating plants—the majority of plants—the pollen is carried by wind, water, insects, or small animals to another flower. If the pollen attaches to the stigma of a flower from the same species, the pollen produces a pollen tube, which grows down the neck of the style, transporting the sperm to the ovule (D).

Within the embryo sac of the ovule, one sperm cell fertilizes the egg, which develops into a seed. The second sperm cell unites with two cells in the embryo sac called polar nuclei, and this results in the development of the endosperm, the starchy food that feeds the developing seed. The ovary enlarges (E) and becomes a fruit.





Q.12 Write short notes on any FiVE of the following:

(i) Ecosystem
(ii) CNG
(iii) PVC
(iv) Hormones
(v) Antibiotics
(vi) Ceramics
(vii) Green House Effect
(viii) Photosynthesis
(ix) Pasteurization
(x) Vaccine.

Q.13 What are the factors of water pollution? What types of diseases are transmitted by using polluted the methods to control pollution of water.

Q.14 Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

(i) The purpose of computer is store, retrieve, and process information

(ii) polio is caused by Virus

(iii) The stalagmite is deposit of Calcium Carbonate

(iv) Bauxite is one of the ores of Aluminium

(v) The chemical name of washing soda is Sodium Carbonate

(vi) The main constituent of Sui gas is Methane

(vii) Violet color has the shortest wave length.

(viii) Glass is an amorphous solid.

(ix) Monomers of protein are Amino Acids

(x) Ascorbic acid is vitamin C

(xi) The solar system has 8 planets

(xii) Aids is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus

(xiii) In a normal resting person the rate of heart heat is 70 bpm

(slightly varying values from different sources)


(xiv) The science which deals with heredity is known as Genetics

(xv) In Pakistan Copper mineral is found in Saindak

(xvi) The most abundant element in the earth crust is Oxygen

(xvii) Manometer is an apparatus used tbr measuring the pressure of
gases.

(xviii) The smallest branches of an artery lead into tiny blood vessels are
called arterioles

(xix) The living part of a plant cell is composed of a nucleus and cellulose

(xx) The fastest revolving planet is Mercury


Disclaimer
This material is intended, but not promised or guaranteed to be accurate
I have only used "featured" or "protected" articles from Wikipedia (if they are used)
Aspirants are advised not to rely on the solution and use it for revision purpose only
I will try my best to post a paper each day till we reach the final 2009 paper
__________________
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  #12  
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Partial Solution
Every Day Science Paper 2002


Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 100
Note: Attempt any ten questions. All questions carry equal marks.


Q.1 Write short notes on any two of the following : 5 each

a. Acid Rain b. pesticides c. endocrine system

Q.2 Differentiate between any five of the following pairs : (2 each)

a) rotation and revolution of earth

b) monocot and dicot plants

c) pollination and fertilization

d) umbra and penumbra

e) nucleus and nucleolus

f) heavy water and hard water


Q.3 Draw a labeled diagram of human eye, indicating all essential parts, discuss its working (5,5)





Q.4 Fill in the blanks with suitable words : ( 1 each)

a. Heavenly objects, which resembles stars and emit radio waves are called Planets (kindly confirm)

b. Geysers are hot springs that erupt hot water and steam from time to time

c. Hot liquid rock beneath the earth’s surface is called Magma

d. The first simply microscope was invented by Robert Hook

e. Mitochondria is the power house of the cell

f. Ability of the air to absorb long heat waves from the earth after allowing the short waves from sun to pass through it is known as Green House Effect

g. Computer works on the principle introduced by the Muslim scientist Al Khawarzmi

h. Coldest planet of the solar system is Neptune

i. The rupture of red blood cells is called Hemolysis/Erythrolysis (both are correct)

j. Muslim Scientist Ali ibn Al Tabari is famous for his work on Medicine

Q.5 What is the solar system ? Indicate the position of planet pluto in it. State the characteristics that classify it as : (5,1,4)
a. a planet b. an asteroid

Q.6 which quantities are measured by the following SI units : (1 each)

a. Watt b. Coulomb c. Pascal d. Ohm e. Kelvin f. Joule g. meter h. Farady i. Hertz j. Ampere

Q.7 What are minerals ? For most of the part minerals are constituted of eight elements, name any six of them. State the six characteristics that are used to identify minerals


Minerals

Natural substance belonging to a group of inorganic (often crystalline) compounds which are found in the earth, that which is not animal or vegetable

A mineralis a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties

Elements as Parts of Minerals

Oxygen, Silicon, Carbon, Sulphur, Phosphorus, Halogens (Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine)

Characteristics to Identify Minerals

Color – this varies depending on the chemicals present and is the least informative in identifying a mineral variety

Luster – what the surface looks like in the light

Specific Gravity – how heavy it feels, heft

Crystal Form – shape of crystal, shape the mineral would take if it had room to grow in a cavity, not massive – some minerals have a number of different crystal shapes

Cleavage – pattern when mineral is broken – in planes or conchoidal

Fracture

Tenacity - toughness, how cohesive the mineral is, if it falls apart

Hardness – what it can scratch & what scratches it

Transparency - The ability to transmit light. Depending on a number of things, rocks & minerals can also transmit light.


Q.8 Define any five of the following terms using suitable examples :

a. Polymerization b. Ecosystem c. Antibiotics
d. Renewable energy resources e. Gene f. Software

Q.9 what do you understand by the term “Balanced Diet ? What are its essential constituents ? state the function of each constituent (2,3,5)


Q.10 Which of the following statements are true and which are false (1 each)


a. Haploid cells result from the process of mitosis (False)

b. All stars are of the same colour (False)

c. The left lung has two lobes while the right lung has three lobes (True)

d. The pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to the right atrium (False)

e. Muslim Scientist Ibn Haitham is famous for his work on planets (False)

f. Our galaxy milky way is shaped like a large thick concave lens with a
large central bulge (True)

g. DNA has a double helix structure while the RNA does not have a double
helix structure (True)

h. The normal temperature of Human Blood is 37 c (98.6 F) (True)

i. The liver is a part of gastrointestinal tract (True)

j. Movement of tectonic plates may cause eruption of a volcano (True)

Q.11 What do the following scientific abbreviations stand for ? ( 1 each)

a. LASER b. RADAR c. LPG d. PVC e. CFC f. AIDS g. ROM h. LAN i. WWW j. DNA

Q.12 Give brief scientific reasons for any five of the following statements : (2 each)

a. Lunar eclipse lasts much longer than solar eclipse

b. Goiter is common in people living in hilly areas

c. Mixture of ice and salt (sodium chloride) is used as a freezing mixture

d. Detergents are better cleaning agents compared to soap

e. Decomposers are important for life on land and water

f. Places near the sea are cooler in summer and warmer in winter than places farther inland

Q.13 Name ( 1 each )

a. A disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C (Scurvy)

b. The major fossil fuel impurity (Sulphur)

c. The instrument used to measure degree of humidity (Hygrometer)

d. An ore of Zinc (Zinc Blende)

e. Two most abundant elements present in the sun (Hydrogen & Helium)

f. The metal atom present in chlorophyll (Magnesium)
o
g. The gland responsible for the secretion of the hormone estrogen (Ovary)

h. An element used in the doping of silicon for the preparation of a p-type
semiconductor (Boron or Aluminium) (both are correct)

i. A synthetic fibre which is a polyamide (Nylon)

j. Major constituent of Biogas (Methane)

Q.14 What are fertilizers ? what do you understand by the term NPK fertilizer ? How do fertilizers contribute to water pollution ? (3,1,6)

Q.15 Choose the one alternative the best completes the statement or answer the question ( 1 each )

1). Glycogen is an example of

a) Carbohydrate b) Peptide c) Lipid d) steroids

2). The cell structure that controls movements of material into and out of the cell is the

a) mitochondria b) cell membrane c) Centriole d) golgi body

3). The unit that co-ordinates different devices of the computer system is

a) ALU b) register c) control unit d) logical instructions

4). _ _ _ _ manages and controls various functions of the computer

a) input/output device b) main memory c) operating system d) both a & b

5). The number of natural satellite orbiting around the planet Mars is

a) 1 b) 2 c) 5 d) 14

6). _ _ _ _ is an example of mechanical digestion

a) glycolysis b) hydrolysis c) Mastication d) defecation

7). Botanically a fruit is a/an

a) ripened ovule b) mature stigma c) ripened ovary d) fully mature flowering stalk

8). The vocal folds are part of the

a) nasal cavity b) larynx c) trachea d) laryngopharyn

9). Blood glucose is raised by all of the following excep

a) glycogen b) insulin c) cortisol d) epinephrine

10. The famous book Al-Qanoon was written by the Muslim scientist

a) Jabir-ibn-Hayan b) Zakriya Al-Razi c) Abu Ali Sina d) Abul-Qasim Majreeti


Disclaimer

This material is intended, but not promised or guaranteed to be accurate
I have only used "featured" or "protected" articles from Wikipedia (if they are used)
Aspirants are advised not to rely on the solution and use it for revision purpose only
I will try my best to post a paper each day till we reach the final 2009 paper
__________________
When you have to shoot, shoot. Don't talk. ~ The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly

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  #13  
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Partial Solution
Every Day Science Paper 2003

Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 100
Note: Attempt any ten questions. All questions carry equal marks.

1. Write short notes on any two of the following :

a). Microwave oven :

It is one of the great inventions of the 20th century. Microwave ovens are popular because they cook food quickly. They are also extremely efficient in their use of electricity because a microwave oven heats only the food - nothing else. A microwave oven uses microwaves to heat food. Microwaves are radio waves. In the case of microwave ovens, the commonly used radio wave frequency is roughly 2,500 megahertz (2.5 gigahertz). Radio waves in this frequency range are absorbed by water, fats and sugars. When they are absorbed they are converted directly into atomic motion - heat. Microwaves in this frequency range have another interesting property: they are not absorbed by most plastics, glass or ceramics. Metal reflects microwaves, that’s why metal pans do not work well in a microwave oven.

b). Optic fibre :

Optical fiber refers to the medium and the technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic wire or fiber. Optical fiber carries much more information than copper wire. Most telephone company long-distance lines are now of optical fiber.
Transmission on optical fiber wire requires repeaters at distance intervals. The glass fiber requires more protection within an outer cable than copper. For these reasons and because the installation of any new wiring is labor-intensive, few communities yet have optical fiber wires or cables from the phone company's branch office to local customers. A type of fiber known as single mode fiber is used for longer distances; multimode fiber is used for shorter distances.

c). Biotechnology:

The simplest definition of biotechnology is "applied biology" and the application of biological knowledge and techniques to develop products. It may be further defined as the use of living organisms to make a product or run a process. By this definition, the classic techniques used for plant and animal breeding, fermentation and enzyme purification would be considered biotechnology. Some people use the term only to refer to newer tools of genetic science. In this context, biotechnology may be defined as the use of biotechnical methods to modify the genetic materials of living cells so they will produce new substances or perform new functions. Examples include recombinant DNA technology, in which a copy of a piece of DNA containing one or a few genes is transferred between organisms or "recombined" within an organism.

2. Give names of the members of the solar system. Briefly write down main characteristics of : a). Mars b). venus


Mercury - Venus - Earth - Mars - Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus - Nepture - Pluto

Mars : It is the fourth planet in solar system. (Greek: Ares) is the god of War. The planet probably got this name due to its red color; Mars is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet. The name of the month March derives from Mars. The first spacecraft to visit Mars was Mariner 4 in 1965. Though Mars is much smaller than Earth, its surface area is about the same as the land surface area of Earth.

Venus : Venus is the second planet from the sun and the sixth largest. Venus' orbit is the most nearly circular of that of any planet. (Greek: Aphrodite; Babylonian: Ishtar) is the goddess of love and beauty. The planet is so named probably because it is the brigthest of the planets known to the ancients.

Q-3. Name :

a). The instrument used for the measurement of blood pressure : sphygmomanometer

b). A mammal, which can fly : bat

c). A disease which is more common in men than in women and is hereditary in character : daibetes millatus

d). One endangered animal species of Pakistan : snow leopard

e). An ore of mercury : Cinnabar

f). A cyanobacterium : Nostoc

g). A hormone secreted by pancreas : insulin

h). The nuclear reaction taking place on the surface of sun : fusion reaction

i). The scientist who discovered sulfuric acid : Jabir bin Hayan

j). The constituent elements of brass : Zinc and Copper

4). What do the following scientific abbreviations stand for :

a). SONAR : SOund NAvigation and Ranging
b). SARS : severe acute respiratory syndrome
c). NTP : network time protocol
d). RQ : respiratory quotient
e). PVC : polyvinyl chloride
f). NPN : negative positive negative
g). WAN : wide area network
h). ECG: electro cardio gram
i). CPU: central processing unit
j). BCG : bacillus calmette Guerin

Q 5 : what are pesticides ? discuss their classification commonly in use with agronomists.

Toxic chemicals that are used to destroy pests are known as pesticides. Fungicides (which kill fungi), herbicides (which kill plants), and insecticides (which kill insects) are types of pesticides.

Classification of Pesticides :

Acarcides, Algicides, Bactericides, Bird repellents, Fungicides, Herbicides, Insect attractants, Insect repellents, Insecticides, Nematacides , Mamal repellents, Rodenticides , Virucides and plant growth regulators

Each major group of pesticides (e.g. herbicides or plant growth regulators) is subdivided into chemical or other classes (e.g. chloroacetanilide herbicides or auxins).

Q 6 : Define any five of the following :

Acoustics : The science of sound dealing with the production, effects, and transmission of sound waves through various mediums. Includes the effects of reflection, refraction, diffraction, absorption, and interference

Quartz : It is a hard glossy mineral consisting of silicon dioxide in crystal form; present in most rocks (especially sandstone and granite); yellow sand is quartz with iron oxide impurities. It is a mineral composed of the elements silicon and oxygen (silicon dioxide) that occurs in multiple forms.

Cross Pollination : Mixing the pollen of one flowering plant with another to create a hybrid. It is done by transfer of pollen from one flower to another of a different variety but of same species. Necessary for the fruit development of many plants.

Allele : Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given gene locus. One of the variant forms of a gene at a particular locus, or location, on a chromosome. Different alleles produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type.

Optical Illusion : drawing or object that appears to have an effect that it does not really have, such as when a flat painting seems to have three-dimensional depth. When something appears different than it actually is. Example: Trompe de oil murals which "trick the eye" into thinking they are 3 dimensional, or when a ceiling appears higher than it is because of colors, etc. used.

Ovulation : The release of an egg (or eggs) from the ovary.

Aqua Regia : Aqua regia is a 3:1 mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Aqua regia is used to test gold and platinum; it is just about one of the few substances that can dissolve gold and platinum.

Q. 7 : Which physical quantities are measured by the following units :

a) Pascal - Sound Pressure
b) Torr - Pressure
c) Curie - Intensity of radioactivity
d) Angstrom - Unit of length
e) Light year - The distance light travels in a year
f) Dioptre - Lens refractive power
g) Horse power - Unit of Power
h) Radian - Unit of angular measure
i) Candela - Unit of luminous intensity
j) Mole - unit of molecular weight

Q. 8: Explain the structure of Earth and its Atmosphere

Atmosphere of Earth :

Gaseous envelope of the Earth, or any other celestial object. The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of nitrogen (78 per cent), oxygen (21 per cent), argon (0.9 per cent), carbon dioxide (0.03 per cent), varying amounts of water vapour, and trace amounts of hydrogen, ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon.

The atmosphere is divided into several layers. The lowest one, the troposphere, extends up to about 16 km (10 mi) in tropical regions and to about 9.7 km (6 mi) in temperate latitudes. Most clouds occur in this layer. Above the troposphere is the stratosphere, which has an upper boundary of almost 50 km (30 mi). The layer from 50 to 80 km (30 to 50 mi), called the mesosphere, is characterized by a marked decrease in temperature as the altitude increases. At an altitude of 80 km (50 mi), ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and showers of electrons from the sun ionize several layers of the atmosphere, causing them to conduct electricity. Because of the relatively high concentration of ions, this layer, extending to an altitude of 640 km (400 mi), is called the ionosphere. The region beyond the ionosphere is called the exosphere; it extends to about 9,600 km (6,000 mi), the outer limit of the atmosphere.

Air pressure is measured by a barometer and is expressed in torrs, which are related to the height of a column of mercury that the air pressure will support. Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760 torrs. At about 5.6 km (3.5 mi), it is 380 torrs; half of all the air in the atmosphere lies below this level.

Q. 9 : Fill in the blanks :

The conversion of non-diffuisalbe substances into diffusible ones by the action of enzymes in called Digestion

Diamond is the purest naturally occurring crystalline form of Carbon

Caustic soda is extensively used for making Surf

When a person can see nearer objects but not the distant ones he is said to be suffering from nearsightedness (myopia)

Marble is metaphoric rock

Curie is a unit of radioactivity

The brown colour of rust is because of oxidation

The movement of food through esophagus is by the muscular action known as peristalsis

Granite is a form of rock

Cellulose is the main chemical substance in the plant cell wall :

Cell was first discovered by Robert Brown :

Q 10. What are Endocrine Glands ? Name any two . From which of the body are the following secreted :

Group of organs and tissues of the body that release hormones. The endocrine glands and their hormones regulate the growth, development, and function of various tissues and coordinate many of the processes of metabolism.

Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland has three lobes: anterior, intermediate, and posterior. It is situated at the base of the brain and has been called the “master gland”. The pituitary secretes various hormones that stimulate the function of other endocrine glands; growth hormone; and endorphins, peptides that reduce sensitivity to pain. The pituitary also stores vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone secreted by the hypothalamus.

Adrenal Glands
The adrenal glands, located on top of each kidney, consist of a medulla (inner part) and a cortex (outer part). The adrenal medulla produces adrenaline and noradrenaline, which affect a number of functions that help the body deal with acute emergencies. The adrenal cortex secretes a group of steroid hormones, including cortisone and hydrocortisone, that are essential to the maintenance of life and adaptation to stress.

Insulin: Pancreas
Thyroxin: Thyroid
Adrenaline: Adrenal medulla
Estrogen: Ovaries
Testosterone: Testes
Cortisol: Adrenal cortex

Q. 11 Chose the best choice in the following statements :

1. Enzymes are organic catalysts made up of :

a. Carbohydrate b. Proteins c. Fats d. Nucleic Acid

2. A nanometer is :
a. 10 -3 meters b. 10-6 meters c. 10-9 meters d. 10-12 meters

3. The minimum speed of a Pentium II computer is :
a. 133 Mhz b. 233 Mhz c. 333 Mhz d. 433 Mhz

4. According to recent classifications the living organisms are divided into number of kingdoms :
a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5

5. Glycolysis is a process of :
a. Photosynthesis b. Reproduction c. Transpiration d. Respiration

6. The Unit that coordinates different devices of Computer system is :
a. ALU b. Register c. Control Unit d. Logical Instruction

7. Seed is technically :
a. Ripened Ovule b. Carpel c. Ripened Ovary d. Fully mature pollen grain

8. ADH is a harmone secreted by :
a. Anterior pituitary b. posterior pituitary c. Adrenal Cortex d. Adrenal Medulla

9. The number of natural satellites orbiting around the Mars is :
a. 1 b. 2 c. 5 d. 14

10. Permian Period belongs to :
a. Palaeozoic era b. Mesozoic era c. Coenozoic era d. Precambrian era

Q . 12 Differentiate between the following pairs :

a). Lava and Magma
Molten rock, when it is still beneath the earth's surface is Magma, and "lava" after it has erupted.

b). Ultraviolet and infrared

Ultraviolet :

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 4,000 nm, the wavelength of violet light, and 150 nm, the length of X-rays. (The nanometre, nm, equals a millionth of a millimetre). Natural ultraviolet radiation comes from the Sun, and artificial ultraviolet radiation comes from electric-arc lamps (Electric Arc).

Infrared :

Electromagnetic radiation in the portion of the spectrum just beyond the red portion of visible light. The wavelengths of infrared radiation are shorter than radio wavelengths and longer than those of light.

c). Fault and Fold

Fault :

The line of fracture along which one section of the Earth’s crust displace relative to another section, as a result of vertical or horizontal movement of earth.

Fold :

In geology, bends in layered, or stratified rocks. Most stratified rocks were originally sediments laid down as horizontal or near-horizontal layers, or beds. However, not only have they solidifed, but they are usually inclined, or dip, in one direction or another, and they have been tilted.

d). Caustic Soda and Caustic Potash

Caustic Soda:

A common name for sodium hydroxide strongly alkaline caustic used in manufacturing soap and paper and aluminum and various sodium compounds

Caustic Potash

It is potassium hydroxide, often used in agriculture and industry

e). S.E.M. and T.E.M.

S.E.M. :

Scanning electronic microscope an electronic microscope that produces a three-rdimensional image, allowing the surface stucture of a specimen to be examined.

T.E.M.:

Transmission electronic microscope.

Q.13 which of the following statements are true and which are false

a) Right kidney in man is slightly lower in position than the left kidney : True

b) Light is not visible : False

c) Steel is more elastic than rubber : True

d) Pitch of man’s voice is greater than that of woman : False

e) Diastolic blood pressure is greater than systolic blood pressure : False

f) Base metal can be converted into gold by heating : False

g) Guava contains more vitamin C than orange : False

h) A light year is a unit of time : False

i) Mercury is heavier than lead ; False

j) Movement of tectonic plates may cause eruption of a volcano : True

Q.14 Give scientific reason of the following :

a) Colour blindness is more common in men than in women

Women have the sex chromosomes XX, while men have the chromosomes XY. The gene for normal colour vision is found on the X-chromosome. If a woman has one X-chromosome with the gene and one without it, she will not be colour blind. On the other hand, a man with an X-chromosome that is missing the gene has no 'backup'. He will definitely be colour blind. Colour blind women have both X-chromosomes missing the colour vision gene. This is less probable mathematically than having just one X-chromosome missing the gene.

b) Light coloured clothes are generally worn in summer

c) A person is hurt more when he falls on hard ground than on soft

Force of friction is greater on a hard ground as compared to a soft ground. This force of friction becomes the cause of person being hurt and as it is greater on a hard ground hence the person falling on a hard ground is hurt more.

d) Deforestation causes more floods

Trees and Forests act as natural barriers in the way of flowing water. When these trees are cut the natural barriers ultimately vanish and more floods are caused

e) The man-hole covers are generally round

Answered in 2009 paper (will be updated)


Disclaimer
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I have only used "featured" or "protected" articles from Wikipedia (if they are used)
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Partial Solution
Every Day Science Paper 2004

Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 100
Note: Attempt any ten questions. All questions carry equal marks.


1. Write short notes on any two of the following :

a. Superconductivity

The pairing of electrons in certain materials when cooled below a critical temperature, causing the material to lose all resistance to electricity flow. Superconductors can carry electric current without any energy losses.
About one third of all metals loose all electrical resistance at temperatures below a specific critical temperature. Many elemental metals are superconductors.

Some critical temperatures are: lead Tc = 7.2 K, tin Tc = 3.7 K, niobium Tc = 9.2 K, aluminum Tc = 1.2 K, mercury Tc = 4.2 K, and vanadium Tc = 5.3 K.

Superconducting wires can carry currents with zero losses up to very high current densities. Above a critical current density Jc, superconductivity is supressed. A typical critical current density is 106 A/cm2. Superconductivity is also supressed by strong magnetic fields.

b. Night Vision Technology

Night vision works in the basis of the following two technologies
  • Image enhancement - This works by collecting the tiny amounts of light, including the lower portion of the infrared light spectrum, that are present but may be imperceptible to our eyes, and amplifying it to the point that we can easily observe the image.
  • Thermal imaging - This technology operates by capturing the upper portion of the infrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat by objects instead of simply reflected as light. Hotter objects, such as warm bodies, emit more of this light than cooler objects like trees or buildings.
For details see
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com...ightvision.htm

c. Seismograph

A measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake). It senses and records the vibrations that radiate out from the earthquake focus. It is a machine for measuring the intensity of earthquakes by recording the seismic waves that they generate.

2. Briefly write down characteristics of : (5 each)

a. Mercury

The closest planet to the Sun. Mercury is the smallest of the the terrestrial planets. It is somewhat similar in appearance to Earth's only natural satellite, the Moon, in that it is heavily cratered. It has a substantial core of ferrous metals which is thought to account for seventy per cent of the mass of the planet. This core is a very large region as well, accounting for three quarters of the volume of the planet. Mercury does not have an atmosphere, however, since it is too small to possess the gravity necessary to hold gases to its surface. Mercury has no natural satellites.

b. Pluto


Pluto , also designated 134340 Pluto, is the second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System (after Eris) and the tenth-largest body observed directly orbiting the Sun. Originally classified as a planet, Pluto is now recognised as the largest member of a distinct region called the Kuiper belt. Like other members of the belt, it is composed primarily of rock and ice and is relatively small; approximately a fifth the mass of the Earth's Moon and a third its volume. It has an eccentric orbit that takes it from 30 to 49 AU (4.4–7.4 billion km) from the Sun, and is highly inclined with respect to the planets. As a result, Pluto occasionally comes closer to the Sun than the planet Neptune.


3. Name :

a. The desert mammal which does not drink water :Knagaroo Rat/Addax

b. The mixture which can dissolve platinium : Aqua regia

c. The constituent elements of Bronze : Tin and Copper

d. The vitamin whose deficiency causes a disease called beri beri : Thiamine(B1)

e. The electrical device which transform voltage : transformer

f. A nuclear reaction in which two or more than two lighter nuclear are fused together to form a relatively heavier one : nuclear fusion

g. The purest naturally occurring crystalline form of carbon : diamond

h. The hormone secreted by adrenal cortex : aldosterone

i. The three colours combination which produces the sensation of white light : Red green and blue

j. The defect of vision because of which a person cannot see distant objects clearly : Myopia or Short sightedness

4. What are fertilizers ? what do you understand by the term NPK fertilizer ? How do fertilization contribute to the pollution ?

5. Write briefly about any five of the following

a. Nuclear radiation

Three are atomic nuclei of some elements that continuously emit some ultraviolet waves called radiation. When the process of radiation is stimulated through various nuclear processes it is called nuclear radiation. The important nuclear radiation, from a weapon standpoint, are alpha and beta particles, gamma rays and neutrons. All nuclear radiation is ionizing radiation, but the reverse is not true; X-rays for example, are included among ionizing radiation, but they are not nuclear radiation since they do not originate from atomic nuclei.

b. Theodolite

An instrument used in surveying to measure horizontal and vertical angles with a small telescope that can move in the horizontal and vertical planes.
It is a key tool in surveying and engineering work, but theodolites have been adapted for other specialized purposes in field like meteorology and rocket launch technology.

c. Dialysis


In medicine, dialysis is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal replacement therapy) due to renal failure. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly but temporarily, lost their kidney function (acute renal failure) or for quite stable patients who have permanently lost their kidney function (end stage renal failure).

When healthy, the kidneys maintain the body's internal equilibrium of water and minerals (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfate) and the kidneys remove from the blood the daily metabolic load of fixed hydrogen ions. The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system producing erythropoietin and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol).

Dialysis treatments imperfectly replace some of these functions through the diffusion (waste removal) and convection (fluid removal). Dialysis is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the endocrine functions of the kidney.

d. Enrichment of Uranium

Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in the earth's surface. Uranium is used as a fuel for nuclear reactors. Uranium-bearing ores are mined, and the uranium is processed to make reactor fuel.
In nature, uranium atoms exist in several forms called isotopes - primarily uranium-238, or U-238, and uranium-235, or U-235. In a typical sample of natural uranium, most of the mass (99.3%) would consist of atoms of U-238, and a very small portion of the total mass (0.7%) would consist of atoms of U-235.

To enrich the uranium, a process called gaseous diffusion was developed by the United States in the 1940s. The gaseous diffusion process creates two products: enriched uranium hexafluoride, and depleted uranium hexafluoride (depleted UF6).

Enriched uranium is used for the defense needs and in making fuel for commercial light water nuclear power reactors. Depleted UF6 has had only limited uses, and since gaseous diffusion was initiated in the 1940s, large quantities of depleted UF6 has accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants where it was created.

e. Richter Scale

A scale for measuring the magnitude of an earthquake devised by the American seismologist Charles Richter. The device measures the tremors originates during the earth quake and shows its intensity on scale which is from 1 to 10, ten being the highest while one is the lowest of scales in terms of intensity of earth quake.

f. Aqua regia

Aqua regia is a 3:1 mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Aqua regia is used to test gold and platinum; it is just about one of the few substances that can dissolve gold and platinum.

g. Iodized salt

Iodine is a natural element required by the human body for proper physical and mental development. It is essential to the production of hormones that affect many parts of the body, particularly muscles, the heart, liver, kidneys and the brain. While most people receive sufficient amounts of iodine from their daily diets, but number of people cannot get it as their soil lacks iodine and because they lack access to foods which contain iodine.
Physical manifestations of iodine deficiency (IDD) include mental retardation, coordination abnormalities, deaf-mutism, spastic diplegia (spastic paralysis of the lower limbs) and dwarfism. During childhood, mild IDD can result in permanent intellectual impairment, with the intelligence quotient lowered by 10-15 points

To overcome the deficiency, Salt has become the most accepted food for iodine fortification because it is one of the few commodities that is almost universally consumed by all sections of a community, and at approximately the same level throughout the year, irrespective of economic level.

6. Which physical quantities are measured by the following units ?

a. Rutherford : Atomic Spectrum
b. Torr: Atmospheric pressure
c. Fermi : metric unit of length for measuring nuclear distance
d. Sved berg unit: sedimentation rate
e. Diopter: refractive power of a lens
f. Mho : conductance
g. Henry: inductance
h. Maxwell: magnetic flux
i. Becquerel: radioactivity
j. Kilo watt hour: Energy

7. What are the various sources of energy ? How does energy is produced in the surface of the sun ? what will be the future of the sun ?


8. Which are the following statements true and which are false ?

a. a six feet tall lady can see her full image in a three feet Plane Mirror: (True)

b. Vanadium, a steel gray corrosion resistant metal occur naturally in oxide state :(False)

c. Fibre optics cable carries data in the form of light: (True)

d. Blue flame is hotter than red flame :(True)

e. The falling of yellow leaves during autumn is the seasonal time for plants to get rid of accumulated wastes : (True)

f. Friction is necessary evil: (True)

g. There are 9.5 x 10^15 m in one light year (True)

h. The velocity of a moving object is least where the pressure is greatest (True)

i. Heat reaches earth from the sun by means of convection : (False)

j. Meningitis is the inflammation of liver : (False)

9. Differentiate between the following pairs

a. periscope & pyrometer

periscope is an optical instrument
pyrometer is a meter used to measure high temperature

b. cell & battery

Cell is a small unit/device that delivers an electric current as the result of a chemical reaction
Battery is a device that produces electricity having several cells arranged in parallel or series

c. perimeter & altimeter


perimeter is the outer boundary of a figure or area; total length of the outer boundary

altimeter is an instrument for determining altitude attained, especially a barometric or radar device fitted in an aircraft.

d. pelage and plumage

pelage is growth of hair/fur/wool covering the skin of animals while
plumage are feathers covering the body of birds

e. smog and smoke

Smog is formed by the interaction of pollutants present in the air in presence of sun light (photochemical smog), it usually restricts visibility and is hazardous to health

Smoke are the thin fine particles usually result from the combustion

10. Fill in the blanks

a. the largest planet of solar system is Jupiter

b. the temperature of the dead human body on Celsius scale is according to the temperature around the body

c. for a large span of a long jump, two things are taken into account viz (i) angle with which one jumps and (ii) angle of projection

d. the number of the spinal nerves in the man is 31 pairs

e. a primary cell can not be charged again (not)

f. Halos around the moon are formed because of the phenomenon of dispersion of light

g. Scattering of light determines the duration of the day

h. Muscle stiffness is caused by a disease called Tatnus

i. Oil rises in a wick of oil lamp on account of a property of matter called Capillary action

j. Muslim scientist Ali al Tabari is famous for his work on medical sciences

11. Give scientific reason of the following

1. rain water is more fertile than water from tube well

after falling, the rain drops start moving on slope side, during this movements, the soluble salts and minerals solves from top soil in the flowing water, which increases its fertility, while the rain drops which percolates into deeper regions of soil are note able to absorb more salts and minerals so is less fertile as compared to rain water in streams

2. the man-hole covers are generally round

Manhole covers are round so that is doesn’t get dropped accidentally into the manhole. The round shape requires less space than a square and makes handling easier. Once removed, the cover can be transported by rolling.

3. clothes of a moving dancer bulge

due to movement of dancer the clothes got electric charge, which on fast movement collides with the opposite charge so the clothe bulge inside out

4. peoples are advised not to stand near a fast moving train

people are advised not to stand near a fast moving train as the train in tremendous speed cuts the pressure of air which can disbalance the objects after passing of train present near the railway line

5. the image of a tree looks inverted on the bank of a lake

This is due to the law of reflection according to which image is formed far and inverted

12. why are the scientists worried about the increase of carbon dioxide gas in the atmposphere ? is there any possible benefit for the mankind in case of global warming ?

13. what do the following scientific abbreviations stand for ?

a. STP standard temperature and pressure/ Shielded Twisted Pair
b. ATP Adenosine Tri-Phosphate
c. PNP proton – neutron – proton
[Positive-Negative-Positive (transistor) ]
d. LAN local area network
e. KWh kilo watt hour
f. BTU British Thermal Unit
g. LDL Low-density lipoprotein
[commonly referred to as bad cholesterol]
h. ROM Read only memory
i. MAF million acre feet
j. SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging

14. Match the column A and B but write the answers serial wise in column C

S.No... Column A.............. Column B......................... Column C
A ......Frank whittle ..............Fission ............................Jet Engine
B ........Addison................... Electricity........................ Electricity
C ..........Hahn ....................Genetics ............................Fission
D .........Mendel .............Lightening Conductor..................Genetics
E .....Benjamin Franklin ...../.Steam Engine........... Lightning Conductor
F .....Bardeen & Brattin .....Uncertaininty principle ..............Fusion
G ......Heisenberg ................Jet engine .................Uncertainity Principle
H ........Fermi ......................Cyclotron .........................Length
I .......Lawrence ............Electro magnetic waves........... Cyclotron
J .....Maxwell Hertz.................Fusion ................Electro Magnetic Waves
H.......James Watt .................Length.........................Steam Engine


15. Choose the best choice in the following statements

1. the three elements needed for healthy growth of plants are :
a. N, P, K b. N, C, P c N, K, C d N, S, P

2. the most abundant element in the human body is :
a. Carbon b. Hydrogen c. Oxygen d. Nitrogen

3. ammonium nitrate is not used for :
a. Rice crop b. wheat crop c. sugarcane crop d. cotton crop

4. sea divers use a mixture of gases for breathing during diving. The mixture is :
a. 80% He & 20%O2 b. 80% N2 & 20 O2 c. 20%O2 & 40% N2 40% CO2 d. 50% He & 50% O2

5. Which one of the following is a water soluble vitamin
a. Niacin b. Ascorbic acid c. trypsin d. riboflavin

6. Which of the following enzymes bring about hydrolysis of fats ?
a. urease b. zymase c. maltase d. lipase

7. the solution of which acid is used for seasoning of food :
a. formic acid b. acetic acid c. benzoic acid d. botanic acid

8. influenza is caused by :
a. fungi b. bacteria c. virus d. protoza

9. the blood glucose level is raised by the following except :
a. carbohydrates b. cholesterol c. insulin d. epinephrine

10. the energy possessed by water in a dam is :
a. electrical energy b. kinetic energy c. potential energy d. mechanical energy


Disclaimer
This material is intended, but not promised or guaranteed to be accurate
I have only used "featured" or "protected" articles from Wikipedia (if they are used)
Aspirants are advised not to rely on the solution and use it for revision purpose only
I will try my best to post a paper each day till we reach the final 2009 paper
__________________
When you have to shoot, shoot. Don't talk. ~ The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly

Last edited by Xeric; Wednesday, May 27, 2009 at 01:45 AM.
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Every Day Science Paper - 2005
Partial Solution


Part I


1. Write short notes on any TWO of the following: (5 each)

(a) Communication Satellite:


A communications satellite is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or low Earth orbits. For fixed services, communications satellites provide a technology complementary to that of fiber optic submarine communication cables. For mobile applications, such as communications to ships and planes, for which application of other technologies, such as cable, are impractical or impossible.

(b) Geo-thermal Energy:

The name "geothermal" comes from two Greek words: "geo" means "Earth" and "thermal" means "heat". Geothermal Energy is energy from heat inside the Earth.The centre of the Earth is around 6000 degrees Celsius - hot enough to melt rock. Even a few kilometers down, the temperature can be over 250 degrees Celsius. In general, the temperature rises one degree Celsius for every 36 meters you go down. In volcanic areas, molten rock can be very close to the surface. Geothermal energy has been used for thousands of years in some countries for cooking and heating.

(c) Ultrasonic:

Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, approximately 20 kilohertz. Some animals, such as dogs, dolphins, and bats, have an upper limit that is greater than that of the human ear and thus can hear ultrasound.

Ultrasound has industrial and medical applications. Medical Sonography (also called ultrasonography) can visualise muscle and soft tissue, making them useful for scanning the organs, and obstetric sonography is commonly used during pregnancy. Typical diagnostic ultrasound scanners operate in the frequency range of 2 to 13 megahertz. More powerful ultrasound sources may be used to generate local heating in biological tissue, with applications in physical therapy and cancer treatment. Focused ultrasound sources may be used to break up kidney stones or for cataract treatment by phacoemulsification.


2. Write short notes on the life and work of the following: (5 each)

(a) AI-Biruni (b) Ibn Al – Haitham


3. Name: (1 each)

(a) The alloy which consists of copper and tin.
Bronze

(b) The device used to measure radioactivity.
Geiger counter

(c) The organ in (the human body which is responsible for the digestion of protein only
Stomach

(d) The instrument used to measure very high temperature.
Pyrometer

(e) The scientist who designed the first internal combustion engine used to burn low grade fuel.
Francois Isaac de Rivaz

(f)The scientist who asserted the earth to be a huge magnet.
William Gilbert

(g) The metal known as quick silver.
Mercury

(h) The device which converts the chemical energy into electrical energy.
Battery

(i) The first person to orbit the earth in space.
Yuri Gagarin

(j) The scientist who discovered water.
Antoine Lavoisier


4-Write briefly about any FIVE of the following: (2each)

(a) Shock Waves

In fluid dynamics, a shock wave is a nonlinear or discontinuous pressure wave. It can also be when the actual molecular or particle speed is moving faster than the wave propagation speed (space shuttle through air). They can and do transport and transmit tremendous amounts of energy (hundreds of Megawatts per square meter for shocks generated by nuclear explosions).

(b) Sound Barrier

In aerodynamics, the sound barrier is the apparent physical boundary stopping large objects from becoming supersonic. The term came into use during World War II when a number of aircraft started to encounter the effects of compressibility, a grab-bag of unrelated aerodynamic effects, and fell out of use in the 1950s when aircraft started to routinely "break" the sound barrier.

(c) Solar Cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is a semiconductor device consisting of a large-area p-n junction diode, which, in the presence of sunlight is capable of generating usable electrical energy. This conversion is called the photovoltaic effect. The field of research related to solar cells is known as photovoltaic.

(d) Super Fluid

Super fluidity is a phase of matter characterized by the complete absence of viscosity. Thus super fluids, placed in a closed loop, can flow endlessly without friction. Super fluidity was discovered by Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, John F. Allen, and Don Misener in 1937. The study of super fluidity is called quantum hydrodynamics.

(e) Tsunami

Tsunami is a natural phenomenon consisting of a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and large meteorite impacts all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating.

(f) Photovoltaic Cell
Same As Solar Cell.

(g) Hygrometer

Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. The simplest form of a hygrometer consists of two thermometers, one of which has its bulb constantly kept wet. Evaporation from the bulb lowers the temperature so that this thermometer usually shows a lower temperature.

5. Which physical quantities are measured by the following units? (1 each)

(a) Coulomb
Unit of electrical charge

(b) Weber
Unit of magnetic flux

(c) Tesla
Unit of magnetic flux density

(d) Siemen
Unit of conductance

(e) Rutherford
Unit of rate of decay of radioactive material

(f) Faraday
Unit of electric charge

(g) Angstrom
Unit of length, used especially to specify radiation wavelengths

(h) Parsec
Unit of astronomical length

(i) Degree
Unit of measurement of an angle

(j) Steradian
Unit of solid angle measurement

6. How do our domestic and industrial activities pollute water? Explain with reference to two important industries of Pakistan. (5,5)


7- Which of the following statements are True and which are False: (1 each)

(a) To stay in the sunlight while circling the globe at the equator, one has to move with a speed of 1670 km/hour.
True

(b) Infrared waves have more wavelengths than the red colour.
True

(c) Liver produces bile which is involved in the breakdown of fats.
True

(d) A secondary cell can be charged again.
True

(e) Nucleic acids are responsible basically for protein synthesis in the human body,
True

(f) The quality of gasoline is checked by its octane number.
True

(g) Image in a plane mirror is not laterally inverted.
False

(h) Horse power is the unit of mechanical energy.
False

(i) Sound travels faster in vacuum than in water.
True

(j) Nitrogen is the most occurring element in the human body.
False


8. Differentiate between the following pairs. (2 each)

(a) Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy

Radiotherapy:

Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells. Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant cancer treatment. It is often used as a palliative treatment, where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief.

Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. In its modern-day use, it refers almost exclusively to cytostatic drugs used to treat cancer.
In its non-oncological use, the term may also refer to antibiotics (antibacterial chemotherapy).

(b) Penumbra & Umbra

Penumbra:

The penumbra (Latin for mid-shadow) is the portion of a shadow that results from the source of illumination being only partially blocked. Penumbras only occur when the source of light is not a point-source. As the sun is a visible disc, solar shadows have penumbras. The penumbra part of a shadow is contrasted with the umbra part of the shadow in which the light source is completely blocked.

Umbra:

The umbra (Latin for shadow) is the darkest part of a shadow. From within the umbra, the source of light is completely blocked by the object causing the shadow. This contrasts with the penumbra where the light source is only partially blocked and there is only a partial shadow.
The umbra is also the comparatively dark central region of a sunspot.

(c) Springtides & Neaptides

Neap Tides

When the moon is at first quarter or last quarter, it’s located at right angles to the sun. Then the gravity of the sun and moon pull at cross-purposes, and the range between high and low tides is at its least. These are neap tides, and at such times the difference between high and low tides might be only inches a day.

Spring tides

But whenever there’s a full moon or a new moon, the Earth, sun and moon make a straight line – more or less – in space. Then the sun and moon’s gravity combine to create extremely high and low tides, known as spring tides.

(d) Vertebrates &. Invertebrates

Vertebrates:

Living Beings which do have spinal columns or backbone are said to be vertebrates. The internal skeleton which defines vertebrates consists of cartilage or bone, or in some cases both. The skeleton provides support to the organism during the period of growth. For this reason vertebrates can achieve larger sizes than invertebrates.

Invertebrate:

Invertebrate is a term to describe any animal without a spinal column. It therefore includes all animals except vertebrates.

(e) Fluorescent light & Neon signs

Florescent Light:

The common fluorescent tube relies on fluorescence. Inside the glass tube is a partial vacuum and a small amount of mercury. An electric discharge in the tube causes the mercury atoms to emit light. The emitted light is in the ultraviolet range and is invisible, and also harmful to living organisms, so the tube is lined with a coating of a fluorescent material, called the phosphor, which absorbs the UV and re-emits visible light.

Neon Signs:

Neon signs are produced by the craft of bending glass tubing into shapes. A worker skilled in this craft is known as a glass bender, neon or tube bender.
The neon sign is an evolution of the earlier Geissler tube (also called a Crookes tube), which is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical discharge.


9. Fill in the blanks: (1 each) '

a)The variation in the blood flow can be heard with an instrument called stethoscope.

b)There is a place in the retina where the light sensitive cells are interrupted by the presence of the optic nerve head. It is known as Blind Spot.

(c) The study of human population is called Demography.

(d) Human beings belong to species called mammals.

(e) Defect of eye due to which nearly located objects arc not clearly visible is called Farsightedness also called Hypermetropia

(f) About 65% of the human body consists of water.

(g) All of the oxygen that you breathe has been produced by the splitting of water during Photosynthesis.

(h) The important ore of Chromium is Chromite.

(i) Nitric acid was discovered by Jabbar bin Hayyan.(HCL was also discovered by him)

(j) The measurement of rainfall is made by an instrument known as rain gauge.

10. What are the main reasons of water - logging in Pakistan? How does a tube-well reclaim a water logged soil? (5,5)


Part II


11 . Give scientific reason of the following: (2 each)


(1) Pole star is always seen in the north.

Because the pole star, which we have in the south, is too faint that it cannot be seen from the naked eye.

or

Because the earths motion is from east to west and not from south to north, around its own axis.

(2) We never see birds urinating.

They don’t have urethra in their body, by which normally mammals urinate.

(3) Pasteurized milk has more nourishment than the ordinary boiled milk.

Because its normally refrigerated, covered and protected. It is heated for a very short time, which not only kills the microbes but also prevents the delicate proteins and vitamins to loose.

(4) Bees die when they sting human beings.

Their stingers are actually ovipositors, tubular structures extending from the abdomen that sometimes contain eggs. When the barbed stinger is left inside the victim, the honeybee mortally tears her abdomen in the process. They leave their stingers in the wound with a tiny venom sac attached. Fortunately, only about one out of a hundred people are allergic to bee stings, but allergic reactions can be very serious.

(5) Cloudy nights are usually warmer than the clear ones.

Clouds will insolate the lower troposphere, causing the temperature to not cool off as much at night. The clouds form an attic over and entraps the air. This prevents to the heat to get lost in the atmosphere, above the clouds. Ultimately, the heat produced in the vicinity is restored.

12. What are Nuclear reactors?

A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate. Nuclear reactors are used for many purposes, but the most significant current uses are for the generation of electrical power and, in rare cases, for the production of plutonium for use in nuclear weapons.

--How the Electrical energy is produced by Nuclear Power Plants?

A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors generating nuclear power.

Nuclear power plants are base load stations, which work best when the power output is constant (although boiling water reactors can come down to half power at night). Their units range in power from about 40 MWe to almost 2000 MWe, typical of new units under construction in 2005 being in the range 600-1200 MWe.

As of 2005 there are 441 nuclear power reactors in operation around the world, which together produce about one-sixth of the world's electric power.


--Name the devices which convert:

(1) Mechanical energy into electrical energy
Electric Generator/Dynamo

(2) Heat energy into mechanical energy
Combustion Engines

(3) Electrical energy into mechanical energy
Electrical Motors

(4) Electrical energy into sound energy
Speakers

(5) Sound energy into electrical energy
Microphone

13. What do the following scientific abbreviations stand for: (1 each)

(a) I-1DL

(b) McV - Means Cell Volume

(c)UHF - Ultrahigh Frequency

(d) LED - Light-Emitting Diode

(e) LCD - Liquid Crystal Display

(f) BASIC - Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

(g) MASER - Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

(h) ETT - Educational Telecommunications and Technology

(i) HST - High-Speed Train or Hubble space telescope

(j) DBSDirect Broadcast Satellite or Direct Broadcasting by Satellite.

14-Compare the columns A and B and write the correct answer from the Column to the Column A (serial wise) in Column C,

Column A-------- Column B ------Column C


1. Gunpowder----Sulphur dioxide -- Sulphur Dioxide
2. Marble--------Fermi ----------- Calcium Carbonate
3. Ozone ------- Aqua regia----- - Dobson Unit
4. Argon --------Beta- Particle ----Blue purple light
5. Quartz -------Frequency -------Silicon Dioxide
6. Mirage -------Calcium Carbonate -Total Internal Reflection
7. Gold ---------Dobson Units----- -Aqua Regia
8. Modulation ---Silicon dioxide -----Frequency
9. Length -------Total internal reflection -Fermi
10. Solar Energy--Blue purple light ---Beta Particle

15. Choose the best choice in the following statements.

(I) Select the correct association :

(a) Oxidation-Loss of an electron
(b) Oxidation - gain of an electron
(c) Reduction - gain of a neutron
(d) Reduction - loss of a neutron

(2) Radioactive isotope of Uranium used in Nuclear Bomb is:

(a)92 U 235
(b)92 U 234
c)92 U 233
d)92 U 238

(3) Human population growth is greatest in developing countries because:

(a) the birth rate is high in developing countries
(b) the death rate is high in developing countries.
(c) much of the population has already reached the child bearing age.
(d) most of the world's population lives in industrialized countries.

(4) Which woody raw material is used for the manufacture of paper pulp?

(a) Cotton
(b) Poplar
(c) Bagasse
(d) Rice straw

(5) Rectified spirit contains alcohol about:

(a) 80%
(b) 95%
(c) 70%
(d) 85%

(6) Which of the following elements is not present abundantly in earth's crust:

(a) Silicon
(b) Radium
(c) Aluminum
(d) Carbon

(7) The famous book; Al - Qanoun was written by the Muslim scientist:

(a.) Jabar bin Hayyan
(b) Zakariya Al - Razi
(c) Abu Ali Sina
(d) Abdul Qasim Majreeti

(8) Basic metals can be converted into gold by:

(a) Heating
(b) Beating
(c) Artificial nuclear radioactivity
(d) Chemical reaction

(9) A light year is a unit of:

(a) Time
(b) Energy
(c) Length
(d) Mass

(10) One of the main function of the earth's ozone layer is to:

(a) Prevent global warming
(b) Filter out ultraviolet rays
(c) Absorb pollution
(d) All of the above
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Default Eds - 2006.

Every Day Science Paper - 2006
Partial Solution



Q.1. Write short notes on only TWO of the following: (5 each)


(a) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(b) Tidal Energy
(c) Supersonics

Q.2. What is Pollen Allergy? What preventive measures are to be taken to avoid it? (4, 6)

Q.3 Name. (1 each)

1) The alloy consisting of metals copper, zinc and nickel.
2) The instrument specially designed for recording earthquake waves, (Seismograph)
3) The electrical device which converts sound energy into electrical energy. (Microphone)
4) The ore of mercury metal. (Cinnabar)
5) The device with which variation of blood flow can be heard. (Sphygmomanometer)( stethoscope)
6) The element, which is abundantly present in the human body. (Hydrogen)
7) The scientist who discovered penicillin. (Sir Alexander Fleming)
8) The astronaut who first landed on the surface of the moon. (Neil Armstrong)
9) The desert mammal, which does not drink water. (Camel)
10) The mode of heat transfer from the sun to the earth. (Radiation)


Q.4. Write briefly (not more than four to five sentences) about only FIVE of the following: (2 each)


(a) Plaster of Paris:


Compound of Calcium.
When hydrated, the form is rigid.
Blessing for broken bones.
Also used for architecture designing(Model designing), Sculpures and for filling purposes in different areas.

(b) Theodolite

(c) Bird Flu :

A viral disease of birds.
It is not only effective in birds,but generally is, some viruseshave a strong tendency for mutations. the people who work at poultry farms and shops should be innoculated.
Recent attack in Pakistan
Preventive measures

(d) Gene:

A thread like nuclear structure in not only the nucleus, it is also found in the prokaryotic cells and viruses, the of a living cell
physiological traits determinant.
Some think that it is also reponsible character determination, in humans.

(e) Thermistor:

A type of an electrical device/A semiconductor, which regulates the current flow under the influence of heat.
Used in sensitive heat measuring/operative devices e.g thermocouples/ers

(f) Thermostat:

Thermo= Heat, Stat= Statically stable
Its a thermo-electrical device.
works on the principle of thermal expansion.
Used as a temperature regulator in home appliances like refrigerators, ac,and iron.
(g) Pedometer

Q.5. Which physical quantities are measured by the following units? (1 each)

(a) Foot-Pound (Energy)

(b) Torr (Pressure)

(c) Slug (Mass)

(d) Guass (Magnetism)

(e) Acre Foot (Volume of water)

(f) Becquerel (X-ray)

(g) Erg (Energy)

(h) Dyne (Force)

(i) Gilbert (Magneto motive force)

(j) Dioptre (Lens optical power)


Q.6. What is the difference between Dam and Barrage? What benefits are obtained by constructing a big dam? (2, 8)

Ans:A dam is a storage of water, while a barrage is made to increase the water depth.

Benefits of Dams:

Leverage to agriculture, by making use of the rain water also.
Ensures regulated flow in the streams. So is an agricultural blessing.
Electricity Production is cheaper for a big dam.
By the constructoin of big dams, we get an employment channel for our talented Pakistanis.

Q.7. Which of the following statements are True and which are False: (1 each)


1) Pitch of the dog sound is greater than the pitch of the cat sound.
False, because pitch is the ear response to a sound.

2) Ultraviolet light is visible but infrared light is not visible.

False, both are invisible

3) Earthquakes are the lamps illuminating the structure of the earth’s exterior.
False


4) Electricity does not move through the wire but through a field around the wire.
False, it moves through the wire and creates a field around the wire.

5) A guava contains more vitamin C than an orange. True

6) Sound travels faster in iron than in air.
True, the molecules of a metal are closely packed, hence the density is higher

7) Wheat Bridge is the name of an electrical circuit.
False, the correct name for it is wheatstone bridge


8) Morphine can cause constipation and lowering of blood pressure. True

9) A concave lens is used for the correction of the Hyperphobia.
False, since no lens is used so far to cure a mental disease.

10) The nucleic acids are responsible for proteins synthesis in the human body. True


Q.8. Differentiate between the following pairs: (2 each)


(a) Telemeter and Multimeter:

Telemeter is used to convey the physical statistics to a distance, while a multimeter is a complex device, having a potentiometer and ammeter.

(b) Perimeter and Altimeter

Perimeter is a conceptual term, while the altimeter is a device, for measuring the altitudes.

(c) Periscope and Microscope

In microscope, the channel of light waves is straigt, while in a periscope, it is bended by the use of a mirror o a prism.

(d) Nucleon and Photon

Nucleon is a sub-nuclear particle, while a photon is n energy packet.

(e) Cusec and Comet

Cusec is a measure of flow, while comet is an object.


Q.9. Fill in the blanks: (1 each)


1) The branch of zoology, which deals with the study of insects is called entomology.

2) The disease beriberi is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine).

3) Oil rises in a wick of oil lamp because of a property of matter, called capillary action.

4) The production of generally identical reproduction is called as Cloning.

5) Jupiter is the fastest planet of the solar system.

6) Mercury metal is 13.5 times heavier than water.

7) Relative density of milk is measured by an instrument known as lactometer.

8) The temperature of a human body is measured by an instrument known as thermometer.

9) Gold and silver are known as coinage metals.

10) The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is expressed in ppm. (4, 6)


Q.11. Give scientific reasons of the following: (2 each)


a) Why do some people snore?

In unconscious sleep, the tongue droops back due to muscular relaxation.
The tongue comes in the way of wir channel and flutters and hits the pallete.

b) Why do we sometimes sleep walk?

1- Sometimes our unconscious mind takes over.
2- The unconscious is derived by the conscious, that’s why we have fewer accidents.

c) Climber bends forward while climbing a mountain.

1- Drops his weight forward and uses the gravity effect to get a pull forwards.
2- The weight on the limbs is also lessened, so they get tired a little late then otherwise.

d) The manhole covers are generally round.

1- Because generally, the drain pipes are round and it is easy to connect through them in this way.
2- The weight is distributed at every angle evenly, So it is easy to lift them off from any corner.

e) Roads are bent inwards on curves.

1- The centrifugal force experienced by the vehicle is lowered by the raised end, so the vehicle doesn’t skit or goes off from the road.
2- The centripetal force is supplemented by the gravitaional forces from below.

Q.12. What are vitamins and minerals? Which vitamins and minerals play major role in the development of bones? (4, 6)


Minerals:

These are the ground matters, naturally occurring abundantly in the non-livings also.Examples are sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron, sulphur and molybdenum etc.

Vitamins:

These are chemical compounds which are synthesized naturally by living cells. They are vital for physical functions, but are not primarily required for the basic function of life like metabolism including both, the catabolism and anabolism.

b) For bones, calcium is the major component along with the phosphorous. While the absorption of these is vitalized by the vitamin D.


Q.13. what do the following scientific abbreviations stand for? (1 each)


(1) CRO-CRO - Cathode rays oscillator
(2) SARS - Severe Acute respiratory syndrome
(3) BOT - Built operate transfer
(4) AMU - Atomic mass unit
(5) EMF - Electromotive force
(6) ADH - Anti diuretic harmome
(7) STP - Standard Temperature Pressure
(8) GeV - Giga Electron Volt
(9) NTP - Normal Temperature Pressure OR Network Time Protocol

(10) CRT - Cathode ray tube

Q.14. Compare the columns A and B and write the correct answer from the column B corresponding to the column A (serial wise) in column C. (1 each)

Column A--- Column ----B -----Column C

Answers:

(1) Geiger Muller Counter Semi Conductor (1) Radioactivity
(2) Newton Magnet (2) Gravitation
(3) Addison Electricity (3) Electricity
(4) Bardeen and Brattin Radioactivity (4) Semiconductor
(5) Weber Fehner’s Law E.M Induction (5) Non-conductor
(6) Benjamin Franklin Lightening Conductor (6) Lightening Conductor
(7) Decibel Gravitation (7) Sound
(8) Dr. Gilbert Water (8) Magnet
(9) Henry Cavendish Sound (9) Water
(10) Faraday Non-conductor (10) E.M. Induction



Q.15. Choose the best choice in the following statements:


1) One of the countries through which equator passes is:

(a) Kenya
(b) Malaysia
(c) Malta
(d) Pakistan

2) Copper can be converted into gold by:

(a) Artificial radioactivity
(b) heating
(c) Electroplating
(d) Chemical reaction

3) The three elements needed for healthy growth of plants are:

(a) N, P, K
(b) N, C, P
(c) N, K,
(d) N, S, P

4) Clocks, which moves with the velocities compareable with the velocity of light, run:


(a) fast
(b) slow
(c) equal to the velocity of light
(d) with zero velocity

5) Max Planck received the noble prize in Physics in 1918 for his discovery of:

(a) electron
(b) energy quanta
(c) photon
(d) positron

6) Bronze medal is made up of metals:

(a) (copper,nickel)
(b) (copper, tin)
(c) (copper, silver)
(d) (copper, zinc)

7) Addison’s disease is caused by the excessive secretion of:

(a) Antiduretic Harmone
(b) Luteinising Harmone
(c) Melanophore stimulating Harmone
(d) Adrenocorticotrophic Harmone

8) Development of calf muscles in ladies who wear high heels is a common example of:

(a) Natural Selection
(b) inheritance of acquired character
(c) Use and disuse of organ
(d) Artificial selection

9) Margalla Hill is a branch of:

(a) Karakorum range
(b) Hindukash range
(c) Himalaya range
(d) Nanga Parbat range

10) Humming bird belongs to a category called:

(a) Ectotherm
(b) Endotherm
(c) Exotherm
(d) Heterotherm.
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Default Eds - 2007

Every Day Science Paper - 2007
Partial Solution



Q.1. write short notes on any two of the following (5 each).

(a) Laser
(b) Nuclear reactor
(c) Ceramics


a. Laser

Laser is a device which generates the coherent light or "well organised" light .Ordinary white light is made up of many different colours. Each colour has different wavelength and the photons of each colour are out of step with each other. In a beam of laser light, all the photon have the same wavelength and move in step , travelling along like a well drilled army. The mechanism relies on a process known as stimulated emission and the word laser is derived from light amplification by stimulated emission.


--The essential components of a typical laser are

1. The active medium such as a ruby rod or carbon dioxide gas

2. A method of introducing energy into the active medium, for instance a flash lamp

3. A pair of mirrors is placed on each side of the active medium, one of which transmits part of the radiation that strikes it.

A typical laser using Ruby rod as an active medium has a pulse duration of 20 nsec. with power of 10 MW and the laser beam has a wave length of 694 nm.

b. Nuclear Reactor


A device in which the fission reaction involving neutrons and nuclear fuel is controlled for the production of heat is called "nuclear reactor". It is also known as " The nuclear power plant". This heat is converted by means of turbines and generator to electrical energy for commercial use. A nuclear power plant works in a similar way to an oil-fired or a coal-fired power station. The difference between the two types of power plants is in the fuel they use to heat the boiler. Inside a nuclear power plant, energy is released by nuclear fission in the core of a piece of equipment called the reactor. The energy heats water in the boiler ( the water boils and produce steam). This steam turns the huge turbine wheels, and the turbines drive the generator that produces the electricity.

--There are three types of reactor which are given bellow.

1. Light water reactor (LWR)
2. Boiling water reactor (BWR)
3. Pressurized water reactor (PWR)
4. Heavy water reactor (HWR)
5. High-temperature Gas-Cooled reactor (HTGR)

Q.2. Write briefly (not more than three to four sentences) about any five of the following ( 2 each)


(a) Asteroids
(b) Black Hole
(c) Aurora
(d) Sedimentary Rock
(e) Epiphytes
(f) Ionosphere

a. Asteroids

Asteroids, also called minor planets or planetoids, are a class of astronomical objects. The asteroid is a small celestial body that drift in the solar system in orbit around the sun. Between the orbits of mars and Jupiter.

b. Black Hole

black hole is an object with a gravitational field so powerful that even electromagnetic radiation(such as light) cannot escape its pull.

c. Aurora

The aurora is a bright glow observed in the night sky, usually in the polar zone. For this reason some scientists call it a "polar aurora" .

d. Sedimentary Rock

A Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock groups (along with igneous and metamorphic rocks) . Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's land area. Sedimentary rocks include common types such as chalk, limestone, sandstone and shale.

e. Epiphytes

An epiphyte is an organism that grows upon or attached to a living plant. Epiphytic plants are sometimes called "air plants" because they do not root in soil.

f. Ionosphere

The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere.

Q.3 Differenitate between the following pairs: (2 each)

(a) BIT and BYTE


Bit: -the computer works with binary numbers, which are 0 and 1. Each binary digit is called a “bit”. Bit is the short for binary integer. It is the smallest piece of data used by the computer.

Byte: -the combination of eight bits is called a “Byte”. One byte represents one alphabetic, numeric and alphanumeric character.


(b) RAM and ROM


RAM:- RAM stands for Random access memory. it is also called as primary memory or main memory. It is the high-speed memory. The computer can access any location of this memory extremely fast. It can read or write at any location of this memory in 100 millionth of a second. Ram cannot store the data or instructions permanently. When the computer is turned off, all programs and data are erased from the RAM. It is a temporary storage unit also called as the volatile memory.

ROM:- ROM stands for read only memory. The instructions written in ROM can only be read but cannot be changed or deleted. It is not possible to write new information or instructions into the ROM. Unlike RAM; ROM stores data and instructions permanently. When the power is turned off, the instructions stored in ROM are not lost.


(c) Epidemic and endemic


Epidemic: -this terminology is usually concerned with the increased cases of bad happening especially in the case of diseases and crimes. It basically explains the increased cases of a particular disease happening at the same time in a particular community. For example, flu epidemic
while

Endemic: - it explains the condition that is regularly found in a particular area or particular group of people and it is difficult to get rid of it. Something that is very localized. Markhor is endemic to khunjerab

(d) Photosynthesis and respiration

Respiration: - it is one of the most important metabolic activities of all organisms, which occurs at two levels: the organism and cellular level. Organismic respiration is also called breathing or ventilation while in cellular respiration cell utilizes oxygen, produces CO2 , extracts and conserves the energy from food molecules by combustion in the form of ATP.

Photosynthesis: - it is the reverse of respiration, which involves the synthesis of carbohydrates with the help and water and carbon dioxide in the presence of light and chlorophyll. Photosynthesis is the characteristic feature of autotrophic plants and not found in heterotrophic organisms. Plants use CO2 and eliminate O2 into the environment.


Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy

Photosynthesis: 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
C6H12O6 + 6O2

(e) Herbivores and carnivores

Herbivores: - the animals that depend totally on plants or plant material for their food are called herbivores. Examples include rabbits, squirrels, cattle etc.

Carnivores: - the animals that depend on other animals for their food and eat flesh as their food are called as the carnivores. Such animals have the adaptive characters so that they may predate and tear the flesh easily. Examples include cat, dog, lion, tiger etc. Herbivores and carnivores constitute the food chain of a particular community.

Q.4 (i) What are the endocrine glands? Name any Two. (2+2)


Ans: Endocrine glands are the ductless glands which, with few exceptions, are the discrete group of cells which make specific chemical compounds called the hormones and secrete them in the stream of blood. Endocrine system consists of some 20 glands/tissues lying in different parts of the body.

1. Adrenal glands
2. thyroid glands

(ii) Name the parts of human body from where the following secreted: (6)

(a) Insulin- Pancreas
(b) thyroxin- thyroid gland
(c) adrenalin- Adrenal Medulla
(d) oestrogen- From ovaries (in females)
(e) cortisol- From adrenal cortex
(f) Testosterone- From testis (in males) and from adrenal cortex in both males and females.

Q.5 (a) Briefly discuss the classification of plants giving suitable examples: (6)


There are nearly half a million species of plants on the earth. With the exception of few , all of them need three basic ingredients to survive : air , light and water . Plants are found in almost every type of habitat. They take their own food using simple raw materials and energy from the sun. Plants requires water to grow. They cannot get this water unless it is available in the soil. Plants obtain water from the soil through their roots. It then passes up the stem to the leaves and flowers. The plant does not take all the water available in the soil. Much of the remaining water evaporates into the surrounding air. The plants can be divided in to the following categories.

Non-Green Plants :

This is a group of plants having simple plant body without root, stem and leaves. They do not contain chlorophyll and hence do not involve photosynthesis. They can grow without the aid of sunlight and seem to popout of the ground overnight. Typical examples of nongreen plants are bacteria , fungi and viruses.

Green Plants :

These are those plants which contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis. There are two categories of green plants : non-flowering and flowering plants.

a. Non-Flowering Plants (Cryptogams).

These are seedless green plants. They reproduce by means of spores. these plants have existed on earth for much longer than flowering plants. Many of them have remained almost unchanged for million of years. They generally have a simple structure and , with the exception of ferns , do not have supporting fiber.

b. Flowering Plants ( Phanerogams ).

These are seed containing green plants . There are two groups of seed plants : the gymnosperms and the angiosperms. This division is based on the type of seeds they have. The gymnosperms are the pine, fir , cedar , cypress and spruce three while the angiosperms include most other trees , the flowering plants, the grasses , crop plants , vegetable and weeds.


(b) define the following: (4)


(1) Vaccine: an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease.


(2) Antibiotic: a drug that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria.

(3) Solar eclipse: occurs when the moon passes between earth and the sun.

(4) Exothermic: A reaction that releases energy in the form of heat is called exothermic.

Q.5 Give scientific reasons of the following: (2 each)


(a) Why climbers get their food by climbing on other trees ?

Ans: By climbing on other trees, they get close to the light source.

(b) Mars is called red planet.

Ans: Mars is a barren desert. It is covered with red dust, that is why we call mars, the Red Planet.

(c) Vitamin D is the essential component of the Body.

Ans: Vitamin D is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the bones..

(d) The weight of the object is less at the equator than at the poles.

Ans: At equator, the distance from the earth's center is greater than any other point of the earth's surface. Since, weight is defined as the force with which a body is attracted towards the earth's center, so greater the distance, less is the force applied. Hence, the object's weight is lightest at the earth's equator, than at poles.

(e) Why do some people snore?

Ans: Throat weakness causing the throat to close during sleep

Q.7 Give description of satellites and also give their functions. (10)

Q.8 (a) What is balance diet? (5)
(b) How are characters transmitted from parents to offspring? (5)


Source:
EDS Paper - 2007.
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Every Day Science Paper - 2008
Partial Solution

PART-II (Subjective)


TIME ALLOWED: 100 MINUTES……..........……Maximum Marks: 50


NOTE:
(i) Attempt ONLY FIVE questions. All questions carry EQUAL marks.
(ii) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.

Q.1. Write briefly about the life and scientific contributions of the following Muslim Scientists: (5+5)

a. Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khawarizmi
b. Abu Ali Sina

Q.2. Differentiate clearly between the following pairs: (2 each)

a. Fission and Fusion:

Fission splits a massive element into fragments, releasing energy in the process. Fusion joins two light elements, forming a more massive element, and releasing energy in the process.

b. Star and Planet:

A star is a huge ball of hot glowing gases whirling in space. Our sun is a star and the only one close enough to earth for us to see its ball shape. all are made up of the same two gases, hydrogen and helium. The stars shine because atomic energy at their center makes them very hot. They shine night and day, but we see them only at night when the sky is dark.

A planet, on the other hand, is a smaller, solid body which does not shine by its own light, but rather by the light reflected from the sun. While planets shine steadily, stars seem to twinkle. This is because of the movement of layers of air between the stars and the earth.

b. Fertilization & Pollination:

Fertilization is a process in sexual reproduction that involves the union of male (sperm) and female (ovum) gametes (each with a single, haploid set of chromosomes) to produce a diploid zygote

Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in flowering plants, thereby enabling fertilisation and sexual reproduction.

c. Telescope & Microscepe:

A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects by the collection of electromagnetic radiation.

A microscope is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye.

d. Antibiotics & Vaccination:

An antibiotic is a substance or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics belong to the group of antimicrobial compounds used to treat infections caused by microorganisms, including fungi and protozoa.

Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material to produce immunity to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. It is considered to be the most effective and cost-effective method of preventing infectious diseases.

Q.3. a. Discuss briefly the SOLAR SYSTEM. (6)
b. How are EARTHQUAKES caused? (4)

Q.4. Write briefly (not more than four to five sentences) about any FIVE of the following: (2 each)

a. Supernova: star increasing suddenly in brightness.


b. Radioactivity: spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei, with the emission of usu. penetrating radiation or particles.

c. Laser: device that generates an intense beam of coherent light, or other electromagnetic radiation, in one direction. (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

d. Semiconductors: substance that in certain conditions has electrical conductivity intermediate between insulators and metals.

e. Geothermal Energy
: Geothermal power is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. This geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface.

f. Computer Virus: self-replicating code maliciously introduced into a computer program and intended to corrupt the system or destroy data.
g. Pasteurization:

Q.5. a. What are HORMONES? Name four important hormones and describe their functions in the human body. (2+4)

b. Explain the structure and function of an ANIMAL CELL with a labeled diagram. (2+2)

Q.6. a. What are the essential nutrients of BALANCED DIET? Describe one such nutrient in detail explaining its role in the metabolism. (2+4)

b. What do the following scientific abbreviations stand for? (1/2 each)

i. PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride

ii. BCG - Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, an anti-tuberculosis vaccine.
iii. ECG - Electrocardiogram.
iv. CFC - Chlorofluorocarbon
v. LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas
vi. DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
vii. AIDS - Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
viii. TNT - Trinitrotoluene
ix. EEG - Electroencephalogram

Q.7. a. Define ENERGY. Name four renewable sources of energy. How can our country come out of Energy Crisis? (1+2+3)

Energy:

In physics, energy ", is a scalar physical quantity that describes the amount of work that can be performed by a force, an attribute of objects and systems that is subject to a conservation law. Eight different forms of energy exist to explain all known natural phenomena. These forms include kinetic, potential, thermal, gravitational, sound, light, elastic, and electromagnetic energy. The forms of energy are often named after a related force.

Renewable sources of Energy:

Renewable energy sources can be replenished in a short period of time. The five renewable sources used most often are:

o Biomass - including wood and wood waste, municipal solid waste, landfill and biogas, ethanol, and biodiesel
o Water (hydropower)
o Geothermal
o Wind
o Solar

Recommendations to overcome Energy Crisis:

-New power generation and conservation projects.
-Replacement of inefficient plants.
-Reducing transmission and distribution loss.
-Construction of new Dams.
-Institutional and Administrative Improvement.
-Utilization of largest deposits of coal.
-Renewable sources of energy.
-Public Awareness.

b. Write a brief note on CERAMICS. (4)

Q.8. a. Describe very briefly the working of a CAMERA. How does it resemble in its function with that of the HUMAN EYE? (3+3)

b. What are PLASTCS? Describe briefly their characteristics and Limitations. (1+3)


Part - I (Objective Portion )

Note: Candidates were not allowed to take away the Question Paper of MCQs portion. The following MCQs are recalled by members of CSSForum.

~Japan is called:


-Land of earthquakes
-Land of rising sun
-Land of rivers

~Which of the following is used to kill rats?

-Rodenticides

~Which planet of our solar system is called as Morning star?

-Venus

~What is the diameter of the earth?

-12 756.2 kilometers

~ Opium is found in?

-Drug made from the juice of a certain poppy, used esp. as an analgesic and narcotic.

~Opium is used to make the following

-Heroine

~Which one of the following book was written by Ibn-al-haisham?

~Speed of light is?

~Which of the following energy in converted into electric in a generator?

-Chemical
-Mechanical
-Thermal

~Diamond is the refined form of

- Carbon
-Coal

12) Dry Ice is?

-Co2

~Telephone was invented by?

-Alexander Graham Bell

~Name the instrument used to measure electric current?

-Ammeter

~Ascorbic is vitamin?

-A, B, C, K

~Total number of bones in human face are?


~Name of vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid

~The sky appears blue due to: Tyndal effect

~Fat soluble vitamins

~Mixture used for welding - Chemical composition

~(which of the following is not a thermoplasic? Bakelite

~Hematite (a mineral) is the important source of? Iron

~fat soluble vitamins are? A,D,E and K.

~Bauxite is the mineral of? Aluminium.


~Abu Ali Sina, Al Biruni, Ibn Al Haitham belonged to which century - 10the
century


~Bakelite, Polyester are which type of plastics - Thermosetting plastics

~Bronze is an alloy of - Copper and tin

~which of the following is an invertebrate - Insects

~identify the animal - rudimentary wings, long bill, lives in burrows - Kiwi

~Largest organ of human body - Skin

~Vaccine for T.B - Bacille calmine gurette ( BCG )

~Power house of cell - Mitochondria
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Partial Solution
Every Day Science Paper 2009

TIME ALLOWED:
(PART-I) 80 MINUTES MAXIMUM MARKS: 50
(PART-II) MINUTES MAXIMUM MARKS: 50

NOTE:
(i) First attempt PART-I (MCQ) on separate Answer Sheet which shall be taken back after 80 minutes.
(ii) Overwriting/cutting of the options/answers will not be given credit.

PART – I (MCQs)
(COMPULSORY)


Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate Box on the Answer Sheet: (50)

(1) Person with following blood group are considered to be universal recipient.

a. A+
b. B+
c. AB+
d. O+
e. None of these

The AB group is considered to be universal recipient

(2) Study of life in outer space is known as:

a. Endobiology
b. Exobiology
c. Enterobiology
d. Neobiology
e. Micro biology

(3) The name of the common mineral salt present in sweat is:

a. Calcium Oxalate
b. Potassium Sulphate
c. Sodium Chloride
d. Iron Sulphate
e. None of these

(4) Sensitive layer of the eye is:

a. Choriods
b. Sclerotic
c. Retina
d. Cornea
e. None of these

(5) Laughing gas has chemical composition of following two elements.

a. Nitrogen + Hydrogen
b. Nitrogen + Carbon
c. Nitrogen + Oxygen
d. Oxygen + Carbon
e. None of these

(6) Dr. Abdus Salam of Pakistan was one of the contributors of the unification of:

a. Electromagnetic force and gravitational force
b. Electromagnetic force and weak nuclear force
c. Gravitational force and weak nuclear force
d. Weak nuclear force and strong nuclear force
e. None of these

(7) Which triplet in DNA codes for valine:

a. CTT
b. AGU
c. CAT
d. AAT
e. None of these

(8) What is the chance of diabetic baby born to parents both heterozygous normal ?

a. Zero
b. ¼
c. ½
d. ¾
e. None of these

(9) Which of the following is not a part of Darwinism:

a. Over production
b. Natural selection
c. Inheritance for acquired characters
d. Competition for survival
e. None of these

(10) Role of biotechnology in the production of food based on:

a. Decomposition
b. Respiration
c. Digestion
d. Fermentation
e. None of these

(11) Which form of drug abuse involves most risk of infection with the HIV (AIDS) virus:

a. Cigarette smoking
b. Using alcholo
c. Injection of heroine
d. Taking too much aspirin
e. None of these

(12) Founder of modern astronomy was:

a. Archimedes
b. William Gilbert
c. Nicolas Copernicus
d. Michael Faraday
e. None of these

(13) The instrument which measures very high temperature is:

a. Manometer
b. Thermostat
c. Chronometer
d. Pyrometer
e. None of these

(14) The science which deals with study of manners and customs of people is:

a. Ethnology (branch of anthropology)
b. Morphology
c. Ethics
d. Genetics
e. None of these

(15) Chemical used to kill rats and mice are:

a. Insecticides
b. Rodenticides
c. Fungicides
d. Herbicides
e. None of these

(16) Dry ice is:

a. Methane hydrate
b. Liquid Nitrogen
c. Solid Carbon dioxide
d. Frozen Water
e. None of these

(17) Chemical name of vinegar is:

a. Sodium Nitrate
b. Dilute acetic acid
c. Chloride of lime
d. Calcium
e. None of these

(18) Defeciency of following vitamin decreases hemoglobin production:

a. Biotin
b. Thiamine
c. Niacin
d. Pyridoxine (known as Vitamin B6, causes anemia i.e. deficiency of hemoglobin)
e. None of these

(19) Hygrometer is used for measuring the:

a. Speed of sound
b. Density of milk
c. Humidity of air
d. Specific gravity of liquids
e. None of these

(20) Bronze is an alloy of:

a. Copper and Zinc
b. Tin and Zinc
c. Copper and Tin
d. Iron and Zinc
e. None of these

(21) Which of the following is most elastic ?

a. Steel
b. Rubber
c. Glass
d. Sponge
e. None of these

(22) Orbital period of the planet Mercury around the sun is:

a. 88 days
b. 365 days
c. 2 years
d. 98 days
e. None of these

(23) The most splendid and the most magnificient constellation on the sky is:

a. Orion
b. Columbia
c. Canis Major
d. Taurus
e. None of these

(24) “Black holes” refer to:

a. Hole occurring in heavenly bodies
b. Bright spots on the sun
c. Collapsing objects of high density
d. Collapsing of low density
e. None of these

(25) Eugenics is the study of:

a. Altering human beings by changing their genetic components (close to the actual definition)
b. People of European region
c. Different races of mankind
d. Genetic of plants
e. None of these

Eugenics: study of the possibility of racial improvement through selective breeding and other methods

(26) The position of earth in its orbit, when it is at its greatest distance from the sun causing northern summer is called:

a. Aphelion
b. Perihelion
c. Perigee
d. Apogee
e. None of these

(27) Diamond is a very expensive ornament. It is composed of a single element:

a. Carbon
b. Gold
c. Silver
d. Platinum
e. None of these

(28) Which of the following layers make radio transmission possible?

a. Troposphere
b. Ionosphere
c. Mesosphere
d. Stratosphere
e. None of these

(29) Which of the following explains the reason why there is no total eclipse of the sun?

a. Size of the earth in relation to that of moon
b. Orbit of moon around earth
c. Direction of rotation of earth around sun
d. Area of the sun covered by the moon

e. None of these

(30) Television signals are converted into light signals by:

a. Optical fiber
b. Transistor
c. Decoder
d. Photo diode
e. None of these

(31) Where do most of Asteroids lie?

a. In asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
b. In asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Venus
c. In asteroid belt between the orbits of Jupiter and Venus
d. Everywhere in the sky
e. None of these

(32) The number of spark plugs needed in a diesel engine is:

a. 2
b. 3
c. 0
d. 4
e. None of these

(33) The half life of a radioactive element is 8-days. How long it take to reduce it from 10 mg to 5 mg?

a. 4 days
b. 12 days
c. 16 days
d. 8 days
e. None of these

(34) The term ‘Blue Shift’ is used to indicate:

a. Doppler effect in which an object appears bluer when it is moving towards the observer or observer is moving towards the object.
b. Turning a star from white to blue
c. In future sun would become blue
d. Black hole was blue at its start
e. None of these

The opposite is the famous red shift which indicated the universe is expanding away from us.

(35) Kilowatt-hour is a unit of:

a. Power
b. Electric Current
c. Energy
d. Time
e. None of these

(36) Fuel used in a Fast Breeder Reactor is:

a. Uranium Oxide
b. Uranium Plutonium carbide
c. Uranium Plutonium Oxide
d. Uranium thorium Oxide
e. None of these

FBRs usually use a mixed oxide fuel core of up to 20% plutonium dioxide (PuO2) and at least 80% uranium dioxide (UO2).

(37) Monsoon is caused by:

a. Seasonal reversal of winds
b. Revolution of earth
c. Movement of clouds
d. Rise in temperature
e. Rain forests

(38) Which of the following atmospheric layers help in radio communication?

a. Exosphere
b. Ionosphere
c. Troposphere
d. Stratosphere
e. Ozone layer

(39) A moderator is used in nuclear reactor in order to:

a. Accelerate the neutrons
b. Slow down the speed of the neutrons
c. Increase the number of elections
d. Decrease the number of electrons
e. None of these

(40) Sedimentary rocks are:

a. Porous
b. Hard
c. Rough
d. Brittle
e. Volcanic

(41) Which one of the following is a non-metallic mineral?

a. Manganese
b. Magnesium
c. Gypsum
d. Bauxite
e. None of these

(42) Ozone layer prevents the following radiation from entering the atmosphere:

a. Infra-red
b. Ultraviolet
c. X-rays
d. Gamma rays
e. None of these

(43) The phenomenon of Aurora Borealis, the display of red and green lights in northern hemisphere is due to radiations from:

a. Ionosphere
b. Troposphere
c. Mesosphere
d. Stratosphere
e. None of these

(44) Yeast is used in making bread because it produces:

a. Carbon dioxide
b. Sugar
c. Bacteria
d. Oxygen
e. None of these

(45) Oasis is associated with:

a. Glaciers
b. Desert
c. Islands
d. Volcanoes
e. Fertile land

(46) Quartz crystal in quartz watches work on the principle called:

a. Photoelectric effect
b. Stark effect
c. Thermionic effect
d. Piezo-electric effect
e. None of these

Piezo-electric effect
electric polarization produced in certain crystals by the application of mechanical stress.


(47) The fruits without seed, like banana, are called:

a. seedless fruits
b. parthenogenesis fruits
c. parthenocarpic fruits
d. placental fruits
e. Organic fruits

parthenocarpy (literally meaning virgin fruit) is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules. The fruit is therefore seedless

(48) Animal which captures and readily kills living animals for its food is called:

a. Parasite
b. Scavenger
c. Predator
d. Mammal
e. None of these

(49) In a railway track, two rails are joined end to end with a gap tin between them because:

a. Steel can be saved
b. Accidents due to contraction in winter can be avoided
c. Air gaps are necessary for bearing the weight of running train
d. Accidents due to expansion in summer can be avoided
e. All of these

(50) Name the famous book of Ibn-Sina in which he discussed human physiology and medicine:

a. Al-Qanoon
b. Al-Masudi
c. New Renaissance
d. Tadhkira
e. None of these


PART – II (Subjective)
Q.2. Write short note on the following by giving their exact life span and contribution to the field of science (Accurate facts will be appreciated) (5x2)

(a) Umer Al Khayam
(b) Zakariya Al Razi


Q.3. Differentiate between ANY FIVE of the following pairs. (2x5)

(a) Umbra and Penumbra

Umbra - area of the shadow of an eclipse, dark center of a sunspot
Penumbra - partly lighted area around any shadow

(b) Heavy water and hard water

Heavy Water
- water with a higher average molecular weight than ordinary water, water used for cooling the core of an atomic reactor
Hard Water - water containing a high concentration of minerals and calcium

(c) Smog and Smoke

Smog -
mixture of smoke and fog
Smoke - visible vapor given off by burning material;

(d) Myopia and Hypropia

Myopia -
nearsightedness, condition of the eyes in which objects that are far away cannot be seen clearly (Ophthalmology); lack of insight and forethought
Hyperopia -
far-sightedness, ability to see distant objects more clearly than near ones

(e) Lava and Magma

Lava
- molten rock expelled from a volcano; solidified volcanic rock
Magma - molten rock beneath the earth's crust from which igneous rocks are formed (Geology)

(f) Periscope and perimeter

Periscope -
optical scope that allows one to see objects that are located above one's line of sight
perimeter - outer boundary of a figure or area; total length of the outer boundary

(g) X-rays and Gamma rays


X-Rays - High energy electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths in the range 10 to 0.1 nanometres. X-rays are extra-nuclear and have two sources: (1). A characteristic (e.g.K- or L-) X-ray photon is created and emitted when an electron drops down orbits to fill a vacancy in an innermost shell.
2). A bremsstrahlung photon is produced when a high speed positive or negative electron decelerates when passing through the electric field in the close vicinity of an atomic nucleus

Gamma Rays - The wavelength of gamma rays is typically less than 10-12 metres. They differ from X-rays in that they originate in the nucleus of atoms. A gamma ray is a photon, i.e. a discrete packet of many waves


Q.4. Sun is glorious star in our sky. Write down its characteristics with reference to the following date:

(a) Distance from earth

149,600,000 kilometers, or 92,960,000 miles

(b) Mean distance from center of galaxy

26,000 light-years

(c) Velocity around centre of galaxy

251 km/s

(d) Revolution period around centre of galaxy

225–250 million years (one Galactic year).

(e) Equatorial diameter

6.955 × 10 power 8 m
This is the equatorial radius, the diameter wud be the double of that

(f) Rotation period at the equator

25.05 days

(g) Core temperature

15.7 × 10 power 6 K

(h) Solar wind


A steady stream of charged particles that boil off the sun's outer atmosphere and which stream away along magnetic field lines which lead into the interplanetary medium. It is composed of charged particles such as protons , electrons and helium nuclei.

(i) The lovely Diamond Ring effect

large gush of light that shows up a few seconds before and after totality during a solar eclipse (caused by the last bit of sunlight that shines through valleys on the edge of the moon);

(j) Future of sun

The Sun does not have enough mass to explode as a supernova. Instead, in about 5 billion years, it will enter a red giant phase, its outer layers expanding as the hydrogen fuel in the core is consumed and the core contracts and heats up. Helium fusion will begin when the core temperature reaches around 100 million kelvins and will produce carbon, entering the asymptotic giant branch phase

Q.5. Write briefly (not more than three to four senetences) about ANY FIVE of the following: (2x5)


(a)Allotropy

existence of a chemical element in two or more different forms
For example, the element carbon has two common allotropes: diamond, where the carbon atoms are bonded together in a tetrahedral lattice arrangement, and graphite, where the carbon atoms are bonded together in sheets of a hexagonal lattice.

(b) Nebula

an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen gas and plasma. It is the first stage of a star's cycle. Originally nebula was a general name for any extended astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way (some examples of the older usage survive; for example, the Andromeda Galaxy was referred to as the Andromeda Nebula before galaxies were discovered by Edwin Hubble). Nebulae often form star-forming regions, such as in the Eagle Nebula

(c) Enrichment of Uranium

Enrichment of Uranium corresponds to percent composition of uranium-235 being increased through the process of isotope separation. Natural uranium is 99.284% U-238 isotope, with U-235 only constituting about 0.711 % of its weight. However, U-235 is the only isotope existing in nature (in any appreciable amount) that is fissionable by thermal neutrons.

(d) Aqua Regia

Aqua regia (Latin for "royal water") is a highly corrosive, fuming yellow or red solution. The mixture is formed by freshly mixing concentrated nitric acid and concentrated hydrochloric acid, usually in a volumetric ratio of one to three respectively. It is one of the few reagents that dissolves gold and platinum. It was so named because it can dissolve the so-called royal, or noble metals, although tantalum, iridium, and a few other metals are able to withstand it.

(e) Greenhouse effect

The effect produced as greenhouse gases allow incoming solar radiation to pass through the Earth's atmosphere, but prevent part of the outgoing infrared radiation from the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere from escaping into outer space. This process occurs naturally and has kept the Earth's temperature about 59 degrees F warmer than it would otherwise be. Current life on Earth could not be sustained without the natural greenhouse effect.

(f) Igneous rocks

rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either the Earth's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of the following processes — an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition. Over 700 types of igneous rocks have been described, most of them formed beneath the surface of the Earth's crust. Q.6. (a) Define GENETIC ENGINEERING. In how many ways Genetic Engineering can be applied in different fields of life? Does it benefit society ? Discuss. (1+3+2)

(b) What do the following abbreviations stand for? (1/2 each)


i. SONAR
SOund NAvigation and Ranging

ii. CNS
Central Nervous System

iii. PTFE
polytetrafluoroethylene.

iv. LDL
low-density lipoprotein.

v. SARS
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

vi. GUT
Grand unified theory

vii. BASIC
Beginner's All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

viii. BTU
British Thermal Unit

Q.7. (a) What are
MINERALS? Discuss ANY TWO physical properties thereof. Also mention the names of four precious minerals of high commercial value.

(b) Define the following: (1 each)

(a) Amphibion

cold-blooded vertebrate animal able to live both on land and water

(b) Synchronous satellite

A satellite in a synchronous orbit
A synchronous orbit is one in which an orbiting object has a period equal to the average rotational period of the body being orbited.

(c) Big Dipper

group of seven stars (in the constellation Ursa Major)

(d) Fermentation

chemical conversion of organic compounds by means of enzymes; agitation, unrest

(e) Millennium Bug

an inability in older computing software to deal correctly with dates of 1 January 2000 or later.

Q.8. (a) Define RECEPTORS in man. Name different receptor organs in human body. Also discuss ANY TWO of them briefly.

In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a sensory nerve ending that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism.
Following are the different sensory receptors
  • Ampullae of Lorenzini respond to electric fields, salinity, and to temperature, but function primarily as electroreceptors
  • Baroreceptors respond to pressure
  • Chemoreceptors respond to chemical stimuli
  • Hydroreceptors respond to changes in humidity
  • Mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical stress or mechanical strain
  • Nociceptors respond to damage to body tissues leading to pain perception
  • Osmoreceptors respond to the osmolarity of fluids (such as in the hypothalamus)
  • Photoreceptors respond to light
  • Proprioceptors provide the sense of position
  • Thermoreceptors respond to temperature, either heat, cold or both
  • Electromagnetic Receptors's respond to electromagnetic waves
(b). Give Scientific reasons of the following: (1 each)

i. The dogs pant, the birds open their mouth and the elephants move rapidly their ears.

I think all of these do not sweat, they use the above mentioned mechanisms to cool themselves

ii. The manholes covers are generally round.

It is impossible to drop a round lid into a smaller round hole.
It is because round is the only shape that if turned or flipped over, it still retains the same length across its center. If you used a square, rectangle, triangle, hexagon or any other shaped lid, it could be rotated and fall into the hole.

Other reasons
A round cover can be moved by rolling it on its edge.
A round cover contains less metal than a same-sized cover of any other shape.

iii. A geostationary satellite appears standstill to a viewer on the equator of earth.

Because these satellites are in the geosynchronous orbit (an orbit around the Earth with an orbital period matching the Earth's sidereal rotation period)

Geostationary orbit is a type of geosynchronous orbit that is directly above the equator

iv. We never see birds urinating.

Birds do not have a urinary bladder or external urethral opening and uric acid is excreted along with feces as a semisolid waste

v. Pasteurized milk has more noureishment than the ordinary boild milk.

(Kindly contribute the answer to this question, My search is going against the statement as a whole)

Q.9. (a) Highlight the similarities and differences between animals and plants. (3+3)

Kindly have a look at the following link
http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm

(b) Write short note on ANY TWO of the following. (2 each)


(i) Teleprinter (ii) Dengue Virus (iii) Vacuum Cleaner


Disclaimer
This material is intended, but not promised or guaranteed to be accurate
I have only used "featured" or "protected" articles from Wikipedia (if they are used)
Aspirants are advised not to rely on the solution and use it for revision purpose only
I will try my best to post a paper each day till we reach the final 2009 paper
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