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Old Monday, June 19, 2006
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Smile Some Diseases

Hi every one,


you would enjoy this informative work.


Quote:
Note: This thread intends to be complete guide for diseases and pathology. Conducive members are requested to post related material under this thread.

Your co-operation will be appreciated.



Some Diseases



AIDS


in full acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Fatal transmissible disorder caused by HIV.

AIDS, the last stage of HIV infection, is defined by the appearance of potentially lethal opportunistic infections. The first AIDS cases were identified in 1981, HIV was isolated in 1983, and blood tests were developed by 1985. In 2002 approximately 40,000,000 people worldwide were living with HIV, and more than 25,000,000 had died of AIDS. In the U.S. some 2,000,000 people had been infected with HIV, 800,000 had been diagnosed with AIDS, and 450,000 had died. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the focus of infection, but the number of cases in South and Southeast Asia and elsewhere continues to mount at an alarming rate as well. An initial acute illness usually resolves within weeks. Infected persons then generally have few or no symptoms for about 10 years. As the immune system deteriorates, they develop diseases such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV), lymphoma, or Kaposi sarcoma.




hepatitis


Inflammation of the liver.

There are seven known types of viral hepatitis (A-G). Types A, spread mainly through food contaminated with feces, and B, transmitted sexually or by injection, cause jaundice and flulike symptoms. The hepatitis C virus spreads mostly by shared needles in intravenous drug use and can cause liver cirrhosis and cancer after a long latent period. Until recently there was no test to detect it in blood, and many people were exposed through blood transfusions. Hepatitis D becomes active only in the presence of type B; it causes severe chronic liver disease. Type E, like Type A, is transmitted by contaminated food or water; its symptoms are more severe than Type A's and can result in death. The hepatitis F virus (HFV), which was first reported in 1994, is spread like Type A and E. The hepatitis G virus (HGV), isolated in 1996, is believed to be responsible for many sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. Vaccines exist for types A and B (the second also prevents type D). Drug treatment for B and C is not always effective. The other types may not need drug treatment. Chronic active hepatitis causes spidery and striated skin markings, acne, and abnormal hair growth. It results in liver tissue death (necrosis) progressing to cirrhosis. Alcoholic hepatitis, from long-term overconsumption of alcohol, can be reversed and cirrhosis prevented by early treatment including quitting or sharply reducing drinking. Other drugs can also cause noninfectious hepatitis. An autoimmune hepatitis affects mainly young women and is treated with corticosteroids to relieve symptoms.



cholera


Acute bacterial infection with Vibrio cholerae, causing massive diarrhea with severe depletion of body fluids and salts.

(See bacterial disease.) Cholera often occurs in epidemics, spreading in contaminated water or food. The bacteria secrete a toxin that causes the diarrhea, which along with vomiting leads to dehydration, with severe muscle cramps and intense thirst. Stupor and coma may precede death by shock. With fluid and salt replacement, the disease passes in two to seven days, sooner if antibiotics are taken the first day. Prevention requires good sanitation, especially clean drinking water.



hog cholera


or swine fever

Often fatal viral disease of swine in Europe, North America, and Africa, transmitted by vehicles used to carry pigs, people dealing with them, and uncooked garbage in feed.

Fever progresses to symptoms that include appetite loss; affected eyes and digestive tract; respiratory difficulty; rash; and inflamed mouth and throat. The pig moves reluctantly and staggers; later it cannot rise; coma follows. Antiserum is rarely effective. Survivors become chronically ill and can spread the virus. Illness must be reported, infected animals slaughtered, and quarantine instituted. A vaccine can control it. The African strain causes death sooner and has no effective prevention or treatment.


Constipation

Infrequent (and frequently incomplete) bowel movements. The opposite of diarrhea, constipation is commonly caused by irritable bowel syndrome, diverticulosis, and medications (constipation can paradoxically be caused by overuse of laxatives). Colon cancer can narrow the colon and thereby cause constipation. The large bowel (colon) can be visualized by barium enema x-rays, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Barring a condition such as cancer, high-fiber diets can frequently relieve the constipation.

Contusion

Another name for a bruise. What is a bruise ? A bruise, or contusion, is caused when blood vessels are damaged or broken as the result of a blow to the skin (be it bumping against something or hitting yourself with a hammer). The raised area of a bump or bruise results from blood leaking from these injured blood vessels into the tissues as well as from the body’s response to the injury. A purplish, flat bruise that occurs when blood leaks out into the top layers of skin is referred to as an ecchymosis.

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

Coronary artery disease develops because of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) that supply blood to the heart muscle. Diagnostic tests include EKG, stress test, echocardiography, and coronary angiography. CABG surgery is advised for selected groups of patients with significant narrowings and blockages of the heart arteries (coronary artery disease) to create new routes around narrowed and blocked arteries, permitting increased blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles. The bypass graft for a CABG can be a vein from the leg or an inner chest wall artery. CABG surgery is performed about 350,000 times annually in the United States, making it one of the most commonly performed major operations.

Costochondritis

Costochondritis is the result of inflammation of the cartilage of the chest wall, usually involving that which surrounds the breast bone (sternum). It causes local pain and tenderness of the chest around the sternum.

CPR

Cardiopulmonary resusitation. CPR involves breathing for the victim and applying external chest compression to make the heart pump. In the case of an early heart attack, death can often be avoided if a bystander starts CPR promptly (within 5 minutes of the onset of ventricular fibrillation). When paramedics arrive, medications and/or electrical shock (cardioversion) to the heart can be administered to convert ventricular fibrillation to a normal heart rhythm. Therefore, prompt CPR and rapid paramedic respronse can improve the survival chances from a heart attack.

Cracked tooth syndrome

A toothache caused by a broken tooth (tooth fracture) without associated cavity or advanced gum disease. Biting on the area of tooth fracture can cause severe sharp pains. These fractures are usually due to chewing or biting hard objects such as hard candies, pencils, nuts, etc. Sometimes, the fracture can be seen by painting a special dye on the cracked tooth. Treatment usually is to protect the tooth with a crown. However, if placing a crown does not relieve pain symptoms, a root canal procedure may be necessary.

Cranial arteritis

A serious disease characterized by inflammation of the walls of the blood vessels (vasculitis). The vessels affected by inflammation are the arteries (hence the name "arteritis"). The age of affected patients is usually over 50 years of age. Cranial arteritis is also known as temporal arteritis and as giant cell arteritis. It can lead to blindness and/or stroke. The disease is detected by a biopsy of an artery. It is treated with high dose cortisone-related medications.


Cranial dystonia

A term used to describe dystonia that affects the muscles of the head, face, and neck. Oromandibular dystonia affects the muscles of the jaw, lips, and tongue. The jaw may be pulled either open or shut, and speech and swallowing can be difficult. Spasmodic dysphonia involves the muscles of the throat that control speech. Also called spastic dysphonia or laryngeal dystonia, it causes strained and difficult speaking or breathy and effortful speech. Meige’s syndrome is the combination of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia and sometimes spasmodic dysphonia. Spasmodic torticollis can be classified as a type of cranial dystonia.



Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

A dementing disease of the brain. It is believed due to an unconventional (not a bacteria or virus), transmissible agent called a prion. Symptoms of CJD include forgetfulness, nervousness, jerky trembling hand movements, unsteady gait, muscle spasms, chronic dementia, balance disorder, and loss of facial expression. CJD is classified as a spongiform encephalopathy. Most cases occur randomly (sporadically), but inherited forms exist. There is neither treatment nor cure for CJD. Other names for CJD include Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome, Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, and spastic pseuodoparalysis.


Crib death

The sudden and unexpected death of a baby with no known illness, typically affecting infants from 2 weeks to 6 months of age while sleeping. Crib death is now called Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Babies at an increased risk for SIDS include those with a brother or sister who died of SIDS; children whose mothers smoked or used heroin, methadone, or cocaine during pregnancy; infants born weighing less than 4.4 pounds (2000 grams); children with an abnormal breathing pattern with long periods without taking a breath (apnea); and babies who sleep on their stomachs. Since babies who sleep on their stomachs are at least 3 times more likely to die of SIDS than babies who sleep on their backs, children’s health authorities such as the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend always placing infants on their backs to sleep.


Crohn’s disease

A chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine primarily in the small and large intestines but which can occur anywhere in the digestive system between the mouth and the anus. Named after Burrill Crohn who described the disease in 1932. The disease usually affects persons in their teens or early twenties. It tends to be a chronic, recurrent condition with periods of remission and exacerbation. In the early stages, Crohn’s disease causes small scattered shallow crater-like areas (erosions) called apthous ulcers in the inner surface of the bowel. With time, deeper and larger ulcers develop, causing scarring and stiffness of the bowel and the bowel becomes increasingly narrowed, leading to obstruction. Deep ulcers can puncture holes in the bowel wall, leading to infection in the abdominal cavity (peritonitis) and in adjacent organs.When only the large intestine (colon) is involved, the condition is called Crohn’s colitis. When only the small intestine is involved, the condition is called Crohn’s enteritis. When only the end of the small intestine (the terminal ileum) is involved, it is termed terminal ileitis. When both the small intestine and the large intestine are involved, the condition is called Crohn’s enterocolitis (or ileocolitis). Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss can be symptoms. Crohn’s disease can be associated with reddish tender skin nodules, and inflammation of the joints, spine, eyes, and liver. Diagnosis is by barium enema, barium x-ray of the small bowel, and colonoscopy. Treatment includes medications for inflammation, immune suppression, antibiotics, or surgery. (The disease is also called granulomatous enteritis or regional enteritis).


Croup

An infection of the larynx, trachea, and the bronchial tubes, mainly in children. Caused usually by viruses, less often by bacteria. Symptoms include a cough that sounds like a barking seal and a harsh crowing sound during inhaling. Treatment can include moist air, salt water nose drops, decongestants and cough suppressants, pain medication, fluids, and occasionally antibiotics. The major concern in croup is breathing difficulty as the air passages narrow. Close monitoring of the breathing of a child with croup is important, especially at night. While most children recover from croup without hospitalization, some children can develop life-threatening breathing difficulties. Therefore, close contact with the doctor during this illness is important.


Cushing’s syndrome

The constellation of symptoms and signs caused by an excess of cortisol hormone. Cushing syndrome is an extremely complex hormonal condition that involves many areas of the body. Common symptoms are thinning of the skin, weakness, weight gain, bruising, hypertension, diabetes, thin weak bones (osteoporosis), facial puffiness, and in women cessation of periods. Ironically, one of the commonest causes of Cushing’s syndrome is the administration of "cortisol-like medications" for the treatment of diverse diseases. All other cases of Cushing’s syndrome are due to excess production of cortisol by the adrenal gland including 1) an abnormal growth of the pituitary gland, which stimulates the adrenal gland, 2) a benign or malignant growth within the adrenal gland itself, which produces cortisol and 3) production within another part of the body (ectopic production) of a hormone that directly or indirectly stimulates the adrenal gland to make cortisol. Neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) described hyperadrenocorticism (excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal gland) due quite specifically to an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, a benign pituitary tumor that puts out ACTH (AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone) which, in turn, drives (or overdrives) the adrenal gland to overproduce cortisol.


Cuts

Severed skin. Washing a cut or scrape with soap and water and keeping it clean and dry is all that is required to care for most wounds. Putting alcohol hydrogen peroxide, and iodine into a wound can delay healing and should be avoided. Seek medical care early if you think that you might need stitches. Any delay can increase the rate of wound infection. Any puncture wound through tennis shoes has a high risk of infection and should be seen by your healthcare professional. Any redness, swelling, increased pain, or pus draining from the wound may indicate an infection that requires professional care.



Cystic fibrosis (CF)

One of the most common serious genetic (inherited) diseases. The CF gene is carried by 1/20 persons (in Caucasian populations) and 1 in 400 couples is at risk for having children with CF. CF is characterized by the production of abnormal secretions leading to mucous build-up. which can impair the pancreas (and, secondarily, the intestine). CF mucous build-up in lungs can impair respiration. Without treatment, CF results in death for 95% of children before age 5. Early diagnosis of CF is of great importance. Early and continuing treatment of CF is valuable.



Cystitis, interstitial (IC)

Disease that involves inflammation or irritation of the bladder wall. This inflammation can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, and even ulcerations and bleeding. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, findings on cystoscopy and biopsy, and eliminating other treatable causes such as infection. Because doctors do not know what causes IC, treatments are aimed at relieving symptoms. Most people are helped for variable periods of time by one or a combination of treatments.


Death rate

The number of deaths in the population divided by the average population (or the population at midyear) is the crude death rate. In 1994, for example, the crude death rate per 1,000 population was 8.8 in the United States, 7.1 in Australia, etc. A death rate can also be tabulated according to age or cause.



Decongestants

Drugs that shrink the swollen membranes in the nose and make it easier to breath. Decongestants can be taken orally or by nasal spray. Decongestant nasal spray should not be used for more than five days without the doctor"s advice, and if so, usually only when accompanied by a nasal steroid. Many decongestant nasal sprays often cause a rebound effect if taken too long. A rebound effect is the worsening of symptoms when a drug is discontinued. This is a result of a tissue dependence on the medication. Decongestants should not be used by patients with high blood pressure (hypertension) unless under doctor’s supervision.



Defect, enzyme

An abnormality in the protein (enzyme) important in catalyzing a normal biochemical reaction in the body. Disorders result from a deficiency (or functional abnormality) of an enzyme. Archibald Garrod in 1902 was the first to attribute a disease to an enzyme defect: an inborn error of metabolism. Today, newborns are routinely screened for certain enzyme defects such as phenylketonuria (PKU) and galactosemia, an error in the handling (metabolism) of the sugar galactose.


Deficiency dermatitis and diarrhea, zinc

A genetic disease called acrodermatitis enteropathica is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of skin inflammation (dermatitis) and diarrhea. The skin on the cheeks, elbows and knees and tissue about the mouth and anus are inflammed. There is also balding of the scalp, eyebrows and lashes, delayed wound healing and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections due to immune deficiency. The key laboratory finding is an abnormally low blood zinc level reflecting impaired zinc uptake. Oral treatment with zinc is curative.



Deficiency, alpha-1 antitrypsin

An inherited disease with little or no production of an important protein, alpha-1 antitrypsin. The lack of this protein leads to damage of various organs, mainly the lung and liver. The disease may become apparent at a very early age or in adulthood, as shortness of breath or liver-related symptoms (jaundice, fatigue, fluid in the abdomen, mental changes, or gastrointestinal bleeding). There are several options for treatment of the lung disease, including replacement of the missing protein. Treatment of the liver disease is a well-timed liver transplant.



Deficiency, calcium

A low blood calcium (hypocalcemia). Hypocalcemia makes the nervous system highly irritable with tetany (spasms of the hands and feet, muscle cramps, abdominal cramps, overly active reflexes, etc.). Chronic calcium deficiency contributes to poor mineralization of bones, soft bones (osteomalacia) and osteoporosis; and, in children, rickets and impaired growth. Food sources of calcium include dairy foods, some leafy green vegetables such as broccoli and collards, canned salmon, clams, oysters, calcium-fortified foods, and tofu. According to the National Academy of Sciences, adequate intake of calcium is 1 gram daily for both men and women. The upper limit for calcium intake is 2.5 grams daily.



Deficiency, glucocerebrosidase

Causes Gaucher’s disease (type 1), a progressive genetic disease, due to an enzyme defect. The enzyme, glucocerebrosidase, is needed to break down the chemical glucocerebroside. The enzyme defect in persons with Gaucher’s disease (GD) leads to the accumulation of glucocerebroside in the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. The most common early sign is enlargement of the spleen (located in the upper left abdomen). Other signs include low red blood cell counts (anemia), a decrease in blood clotting cells (platelets), increased pigmentation of the skin, and a yellow fatty spot on the white of the eye (a pinguecula). Severe bone involvement can lead to pain and collapse of the bone of the hips, shoulders, and spine. The GD gene is on chromosome 1. The disease is a recessive trait. Both parents carry a GD gene and transmit it for their child with the disease. The parents’ risk of a child with the disease is 1 in 4 with each pregnancy. This type of Gaucher’s disease (noncerebral juvenile Gaucher’s disease) is most common in Ashkenazi Jews (of European origin) and is the most common genetic disease among Jews in the United States.



Deficiency, iron

Deficiency of iron results in anemia because iron is necessary to make hemoglobin, the key molecule in red blood cells responsible for the transport of oxygen. In iron deficiency anemia, the red cells are unusally small (microcytic) and pale (hypochromic). Characteristic features of iron deficiency anemia in children include failure to thrive (grow) and increased infections. The treatment of iron deficiency anemia , whether it be in children or adults, is with iron and iron-containing foods. Food sources of iron include meat, poultry, eggs, vegetables and cereals (especially those fortified with iron). According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowances of iron are 15 milligrams per day for women and 10 milligrams per day for men.


Deficiency, magnesium

Can occur due to inadequate intake or impaired intestinal absorption of magnesium. Low magnesium (hypomagnesemia) is often associated with low calcium (hypocalcemia) and potassium (hypokalemia) levels. Deficiency of magnesium causes increased irritability of the nervous system with tetany (spasms of the hands and feet, muscular twitching and cramps, spasm of the larynx, etc.). According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowances of magnesium are 420milligrams per day for men and 320 milligrams per day for women. The upperlimit of magnesium as supplements is 350 milligrams daily, in addition to the magnesium from food and water.



Deficiency, selenium

Deficiency of the essential mineral selenium causes Keshan disease, a fatal form of cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle) first observed in Keshan province in China and since found elsewhere. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowances of selenium are 70 milligrams per day for men and 55 milligrams per day for women. Food sources of selenium include seafoods, some meats such as kidney and liver, and some grains and seeds.


Dehydration

Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract may lead to dehydration. One clue to dehydration is a rapid drop in weight. A loss of over 10% (15 pounds in a person weighing 150 pounds) is considered severe. Symptoms include increasing thirst, dry mouth, weakness or lightheadedness (particularly if worsening on standing), or a darkening/decrease in urination are suggestive. Severe dehydration can lead to changes in the body’s chemistry, kidney failure, and become life-threatening. The best way to treat dehydration is to prevent it from occurring. If one suspects fluid loss is excessive, notify a physician. Intravenous or oral fluid replacement may be needed.



Dental braces (orthodontics)

The use of devices to move teeth or adjust underlying bone. The ideal age for starting orthodontic treatment is between ages 3 to 12 years. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems can be corrected with splinting or dental braces. Teeth can be moved by removable appliances or by fixed braces. Crowding of teeth can require extraction of teeth. Retainers may be necessary long after dental braces are placed, especially with orthodontic treatment of adults.



Dental pain (toothache)

The most common cause of a toothache is a dental cavity. The second most common is gum disease. Toothache can be caused by a problem that does not originate from a tooth or the jaw.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

The molecule that encodes the genetic information. DNA is a double-stranded molecule that is held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides to form a double helix. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine ©, and thymine(T). Base pairs form naturally only between A and T and between G and C so the base sequence of each single strand of DNA can be simply deduced from that of its partner strand. The code is in triplets such as ATG. The base sequence of that triplet in the partner strand is therefore TAC.


Depression

Low spirits; dejection. Symptoms of depression include apathy, anorexia, lack of emotional expression (flat affect), social withdrawal and fatigue. Prevalent types of depression are major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder. Some types of depression run in families. The first step to getting appropriate treatment is a complete physical and psychological evaluation to determine whether one, in fact, has a depressive illness.


Depression, bipolar

Formerly called manic- depressive illness. Not nearly as prevalent as other forms of depressive disorders, bipolar disorder involves cycles of depression and elation or mania. Sometimes the mood switches are dramatic and rapid, but most often they are gradual. When in the depressed cycle, you can have any or all of the symptoms of a depressive disorder. When in the manic cycle, any or all symptoms listed under mania may be experienced. Mania often affects thinking, judgment, and social behavior in ways that cause serious problems and embarrassment. For example, unwise business or financial decisions may be made when an individual is in a manic phase. Bipolar disorder is often a chronic recurring condition.



Desensitization, allergy

Stimulation of the immune system with gradually increasing doses of the substances to which a person is allergic, the aim being to modify or stop the allergy "war" (by reducing the strength of the IgE and its effect on the mast cells). This form of treatment is very effective for allergies to pollen, mites, cats, and especially stinging insects (eg, bees, hornets, yellowjackets, wasps, velvet ants, fire ants). Allergy immunotherapy usually takes 6 months to a year to become effective and shots (injections) are usually required for 3-5 years.



Diabetes mellitus

A chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.. Absence or insufficient production of insulin (which is produced by the pancreas and lowers blood glucose) causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as insulin dependent (type I) and non-insulin dependent (type II). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output and appetite as well as fatigue. Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed by blood sugar (glucose) testing. The major complications of diabetes mellitus include dangerously elevated blood sugar, abnormally low blood sugar due to diabetes medications, and disease of the blood vessels which can damage the eye, kidneys, nerves, and heart. Treatment depends on the type of the diabetes.


Dialysis

The process of cleansing the blood by passing it through a special machine. Dialysis is necessary when the kidneys are not able to filter the blood. Dialysis allows patients with kidney failure a chance to live productive lives. There are two types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Each type of dialysis has advantages and disadvantages. Patients can often choose the type of long term dialysis that best matches their needs.


Dialysis, peritoneal

Technique that uses the patient’s own body tissues inside of the belly (abdominal cavity) to act as a filter. The intestines lie in the abdominal cavity, the space between the abdominal wall and the spine. A plastic tube called a "dialysis catheter" is placed through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity. A special fluid is then flushed into the abdominal cavity and washes around the intestines. The intestinal walls act as a filter between this fluid and the blood stream. By using different types of solutions, waste products and excess water can be removed from the body through this process.



Diaphragmatic hernia

Passage of a loop of bowel through the diaphragm muscle. This type of hernia occurs as the bowel from the abdomen "herniates" upward through the diaphragm into the chest (thoracic) cavity.


Diarrhea, antibiotic-induced

A bacterium called Clostridium difficile (C.difficile), one of the most common causes of infection of the large bowel (colon). Patients taking antibiotics are at particular risk of becoming infected with C. difficile. Antibiotics disrupt the normal bacteria of the bowel, allowing C. difficile bacteria (and other bacteria) to become established and overgrow the colon. Many persons infected with C. difficile bacteria have no symptoms but can become carriers of the bacteria and infect others. In other people, a toxin produced by C. difficile causes diarrhea, abdominal pain, severe inflammation of the colon (colitis), fever, an elevated white blood count, vomiting and dehydration. In severely affected patients, the inner lining of the colon becomes severely inflamed (a condition called pseudomembranous colitis). Rarely, the walls of the colon wear away and holes develop (colon perforation), which can lead to a life-threatening infection of the abdomen.



Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)

A form of degenerative arthritis characteristically associated with flowing calcification along the sides of the vertebrae of the spine and commonly with inflammation (tendinitis) and calcification of the tendons at their attachments points to bone. Because areas of the spine and tendons can become inflamed, antiinflammatory medications (NSAIDs), such ibuprofen, can be helpful in both relieving pain and inflammation. Also called Forestier’s disease.



Ear cleaning (yourself)

Never put anything smaller than your elbow in your ear! Wax is not formed in the deep part of the ear canal near the eardrum, but only in the outer part of the canal. So when a patient has wax pushed up against the eardrum, it is often because he has been probing his ear with such things as cotton-tipped swabs (such as Q-Tips), bobby pins, or twisted napkin corners. Such objects only serve as ramrods to push the wax in deeper. Also, the skin of the ear canal and the eardrum is very thin, fragile and easily injured. The ear canal is more prone to infection after it has been whipped clean of the "good" coating type wax. In addition, we have seen many perforated eardrums as a result of these efforts.

Ear cleaning (yourself)

Never put anything smaller than your elbow in your ear! Wax is not formed in the deep part of the ear canal near the eardrum, but only in the outer part of the canal. So when a patient has wax pushed up against the eardrum, it is often because he has been probing his ear with such things as cotton-tipped swabs (such as Q-Tips), bobby pins, or twisted napkin corners. Such objects only serve as ramrods to push the wax in deeper. Also, the skin of the ear canal and the eardrum is very thin, fragile and easily injured. The ear canal is more prone to infection after it has been whipped clean of the "good" coating type wax. In addition, we have seen many perforated eardrums as a result of these efforts.



malaria


A serious relapsing infection caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium (see plasmodium), transmitted by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito.

Known since before the 5th century BC, it occurs in tropical and subtropical regions near swamps. The roles of the mosquito and the parasite were proved in the early 20th century. Annual cases worldwide are estimated at 250 million and deaths at 2 million. Malaria from different Plasmodium species differs in severity, mortality, and geographic distribution. The parasites have an extremely complex life cycle; in one stage they develop synchronously inside red blood cells. Their mass fissions at 48-or 72-hour intervals cause attacks lasting 4–10 hours. Shaking and chills are followed by fever of up to 105 °F (40.6 °C), with severe headache and then profuse sweating as temperature returns to normal. Patients often have anemia, spleen enlargement, and general weakness. Complications can be fatal. Malaria is diagnosed by detecting the parasites in blood. Quinine was long used to alleviate the fevers. Synthetic drugs, such as chloroquine, destroy the parasites in blood cells, but many strains are now resistant. Carriers of a gene for a hemoglobinopathy have natural resistance. Malaria prevention requires preventing mosquito bites: eliminating mosquito breeding places and using insecticides or natural predators, window screens, netting, and insect repellent. See also protozoal disease.




Jaundice

Jaundice is a yellowish staining of the skin and white of the eyes (sclerae) with pigment of bile. Jaundice can be an indicator of liver or gallbladder disease or result from red blood cells rupturing (hemolysis).



hepatitis


Inflammation of the liver.

There are seven known types of viral hepatitis (A-G). Types A, spread mainly through food contaminated with feces, and B, transmitted sexually or by injection, cause jaundice and flulike symptoms. The hepatitis C virus spreads mostly by shared needles in intravenous drug use and can cause liver cirrhosis and cancer after a long latent period. Until recently there was no test to detect it in blood, and many people were exposed through blood transfusions. Hepatitis D becomes active only in the presence of type B; it causes severe chronic liver disease. Type E, like Type A, is transmitted by contaminated food or water; its symptoms are more severe than Type A's and can result in death. The hepatitis F virus (HFV), which was first reported in 1994, is spread like Type A and E. The hepatitis G virus (HGV), isolated in 1996, is believed to be responsible for many sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. Vaccines exist for types A and B (the second also prevents type D). Drug treatment for B and C is not always effective. The other types may not need drug treatment. Chronic active hepatitis causes spidery and striated skin markings, acne, and abnormal hair growth. It results in liver tissue death (necrosis) progressing to cirrhosis. Alcoholic hepatitis, from long-term overconsumption of alcohol, can be reversed and cirrhosis prevented by early treatment including quitting or sharply reducing drinking. Other drugs can also cause noninfectious hepatitis. An autoimmune hepatitis affects mainly young women and is treated with corticosteroids to relieve symptoms.



cancer


Uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal cells.

Cancerous cells and tissues have abnormal growth rates, shapes, sizes, and functioning. Cancer may progress in stages from a localized tumour (confined to the site of origin) to direct extension (spread into nearby tissue or lymph nodes) and metastasis (spread to more distant sites via the blood or lymphatic system). This malignant growth pattern distinguishes cancerous tumours from benign ones. Cancer is also classified by grade, the extent to which cell characteristics remain specific to their tissue of origin. Both stage and grade affect the chances of survival. Genetic factors and immune status affect susceptibility. Triggers include hormones, viruses, smoking, diet, and radiation. Cancer can begin in almost any tissue, including blood (see leukemia) and lymph (see lymphoma). When it metastasizes, it remains a cancer of its tissue of origin. Early diagnosis and treatment increase the chance of cure. Treatment may include chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. See also bladder cancer; breast cancer; carcinogen; colorectal cancer; Kaposi sarcoma; laryngeal cancer; lung cancer; ovarian cancer; pancreatic cancer; prostate cancer; skin cancer; stomach cancer; uterine cancer.



Cancer

Also called malignancy. Cancer refers to a abnormal growths which have a tendency to grow uncontrolled and metastasize. It can involve any tissue of the body and can have many different forms in each body area. Cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases. Benign tumors are not cancer; malignant tumors are cancer. Most cancers are named for the type of cell or the organ in which they begin. When cancer spreads (metastasizes), the new tumor has the same name as the original (primary) tumor. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer for both men and women. The second most common cancer in men is prostate cancer, in women it is breast cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer for both men and women in the U.S. Cancer is NOT contagious.


rabies


Acute, usually fatal infectious disease of warm-blooded animals that attacks the central nervous system.

It is spread by contact with an infected animal's saliva, usually from a bite. The rhabdovirus that causes it spreads along nerve tissue from the wound to the brain. Symptoms usually appear four to six weeks later, often beginning with irritability and aggressiveness. Wild animals lose their fear of humans and are easily provoked to bite, as are pets. Depression and paralysis soon follow. Death usually comes three to five days after symptoms begin. In humans, death can result from a seizure in the early phase even before symptoms of central nervous system depression develop. One name for rabies, hydrophobia ("fear of water"), comes from painful throat contraction on trying to swallow. If not treated in time (within a day or two) with a serum containing antibodies and then a series of vaccinations, rabies in humans is almost always fatal. Immediate cleansing of animal bites with soap and water can remove much of the virus.



Rabies

Virus disease of warmblooded animals transmitted to people by a bite (or other means). Animals capable of carrying rabies include dogs, bats, cats, racoons and skunks. In Latin, rabies means madness or rage.


insomnia


Inability to sleep adequately.

The causes may include poor sleeping conditions, circulatory or brain disorders, breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea), mental distress (e.g., tension or depression), or physical discomfort. Mild insomnia may be treated by improving sleeping conditions or through traditional remedies such as warm baths, milk, or systematic relaxation. Apnea and its associated insomnia may be treated surgically or mechanically with breathing apparatus. Severe or chronic insomnia may necessitate the temporary use of barbiturates or tranquilizers, but such drugs are often addictive and may be decreasingly effective as the body builds up tolerance. Other methods of treatment include psychotherapy and hypnosis.




scurvy


or vitamin C deficiency

Nutritional disorder caused by deficiency of vitamin C.

Deficiency interferes with tissue synthesis, causing swollen, bleeding gums; loose teeth; sore, stiff joints and legs; bleeding under the skin and in deep tissues; slow wound healing; and anemia. The scourge of sailors on long sea voyages, scurvy was recognized as diet-related in 1753, when James Lind showed that drinking citrus juice could cure and prevent it, leading to the concept of deficiency diseases. Full-blown scurvy is now rare, and adequate vitamin C usually cures even severe cases in days.




pneumonia


Inflammation and solidification of lung tissue caused by infection, foreign particle inhalation, or irradiation but usually by bacteria.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common cause in healthy individuals. The bronchi and alveoli may be inflamed. Coughing becomes severe and may bring up flecks of blood. It can be serious but is rarely fatal. Streptococcus pneumoniae is more common and generally more severe but usually affects only those with low resistance, especially in hospitals. A highly lethal form caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae is almost always confined to hospitalized patients with low immunity. Other bacterial pneumonias include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (rare except in AIDS) and Legionnaire disease. Most respond to antibiotic treatment. Viruses set the stage for bacterial pneumonia by weakening the individual's immune system more often than they cause pneumonia directly. Fungal pneumonia usually occurs in hospitalized persons with low resistance, but contaminated dusts can cause it in healthy individuals. It can develop rapidly and may be fatal. X-ray treatment (see radiation therapy) of structures in the chest may cause temporary lung inflammation.




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Default Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer often begins at a site where the stomach lining is inflamed or irritated. However, many experts argue that inflammation is the result of stomach cancer, not its cause.
Some studies have suggested that stomach ulcers can lead to cancer, but other experts believe most people with ulcers and stomach cancer probably had an undetected cancer before the ulcers developed.
Stomach polyps are thought to be forerunners of cancer and are removed as a precaution. Cancer is increasingly likely with certain types of polyp, a polyp larger than ? inch, or when a number of polyps are present.
Medical conditions that may contribute to stomach cancer include:
Two types of anemia (megaloblastic anemia and pernicious anemia).
Partial removal of the stomach (gastrectomy) .
A stomach disorder called atrophic gastritis, or Menetrier's disease.
Environmental Factors
Exposure to certain dusts, molds, fumes, and other environmental agents at home or in the workplace has been linked to a higher than average risk of stomach cancer.
Some experts believe that smoking might increase stomach cancer risk.
Infection
Helicobacter pylori bacteria associated with duodenal ulcers, has been implicated in stomach cancers.
Diet
Some dietary factors are believed to play a role in the development of stomach cancer. If followed over a long period of time, these dietary practices may increase your risk. These include:
A high salt intake.
High intake of preservatives called nitrates, which are found in salted, pickled, or smoked foods.
A low intake of green leafy vegetables and fruit.
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Arrow Polio

DEFINITION
Polio (pronounced POH-lee-oh) is a serious disease caused by a virus called the poliovirus. The full medical name for the disease is poliomyelitis (pronounced POH-lee-oh-mi-uh-LI-tis). In its severest form, polio causes paralysis of the muscles of the legs, arms, and respiratory (breathing) system.

DESCRIPTION

The poliovirus causes most of its infections in the summer and fall. At one time, summer epidemics of polio were common and greatly feared.
The poliovirus primarily affects younger children. But it can also infect older children and adults. Poor hygiene and crowded living conditions encourage the spread of the poliovirus.
Paralysis is the most serious symptom of polio. Only about 1 percent to 2 percent of those infected with the virus are paralyzed, however. Risk factors for paralysis include older age, pregnancy, problems with the immune system, a recent tonsillectomy, and a recent episode of very strenuous exercise.

Polio: Words to Know
Brain stem:
A mass of nervous tissue that connects the main part of the brain to the spinal cord.
Epidemic:
The widespread occurrence of a disease over a large geographic area for an extended period of time.
Paralysis:
The inability to move one's muscles.

CAUSES
Poliovirus is transmitted through saliva and feces. It is passed on when people do not wash their hands after eating or using the bathroom. Once a person is infected with the virus, it can remain in the mouth and throat for about three weeks. It then travels to the intestine. It can remain in the intestine for up to eight weeks.
Inside the intestine, the virus multiplies rapidly. It may invade the lymphatic (pronounced lim-FAT-ic) system. The lymphatic system consists of organs and tissues that help protect a person against disease. The virus eventually enters the bloodstream. It can then pass to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). The virus can also pass directly into nerves. It can then travel along a nerve to the brain.

SYMPTOMS
About 90 percent of those infected with poliovirus have mild or no symptoms. These symptoms include a low fever, fatigue, headache, sore throat, and nausea and vomiting. These symptoms usually last two or three days. People with these symptoms are still infectious and can pass the disease on to other people.
Another 10 percent of those infected with the virus experience more serious symptoms, including severe headache and pain and stiffness of the neck and back. The stiffness is caused when the tissues around the spinal cord and brain become inflamed. These symptoms usually disappear after several days. The patient usually experiences complete recovery.

THE IRON LUNG
People with polio often lose the ability to move their legs and/or arms. This disability is a terrible disaster. But it does not necessarily cause death. If polio also causes loss of control over the respiratory muscles, however, death can and often does occur. For polio patients, then, a device to help them breathe is an absolute necessity.
In 1982, the American physiologist Philip Drinker (1893–1977) invented the most famous of all devices for helping polio patients to breathe. The device was called the Drinker tank respirator. It is more commonly known as an iron lung.
The iron lung is an airtight cylindrical steel drum. It encloses the entire body with only the patient's head exposed. Pumps connected to the device lower and raise air pressure within the drum. As the drum contracts and expands, it forces the patient's chest to contract and expand also. The iron lung forces the patient's body to continue breathing.
Many polio patients were kept alive by the iron lung. They had to spend many years enclosed in the lung, with only short periods outside it. With the development of the Salk and Sabin vaccines, polio has nearly become extinct. As a result, the iron lung no longer finds much use in today's hospitals.
About 1 percent of people infected with the poliovirus develop the most serious symptoms of the disease. At first, they experience only mild symptoms. After a few days, however, the symptoms become much worse. They include severe headache and neck and back pain.
The worst effects of polio are caused when the virus invades motor nerves. Motor nerves are nerves that control the movement of muscles. The virus can destroy these nerves. As the nerves die, muscles lose their ability to move. They first become floppy and weak. Eventually they become paralyzed and lose the ability to move at all. After a few days, the muscles actually begin to decrease in size. The person does not lose the sense of touch in the affected areas, however.
The virus can also infect the brain stem. The brain stem is located at the base of the brain. It connects the brain to the spinal cord. A person may have trouble breathing and swallowing. In the severest cases, the heart rate and blood pressure may be disturbed. These changes can lead to the patient's death.
The maximum degree of paralysis usually occurs within a few days. After that time, some healthy nerves may try to take the place of the damaged nerves. This process lasts about six months. After that time, no further improvement is likely.

[SIZE="5"]DIAGNOSIS

Polio is now a rare disease in the United States. Many doctors have never seen a case of polio. A few symptoms are quite distinctive, however. A fever and paralysis without the loss of feeling is one clue to the presence of polio.
If a doctor suspects polio, the usual follow-up test is a lumbar puncture, or "spinal tap." A lumbar puncture is a procedure in which a sample of spinal fluid is removed with a long, thin needle. The spinal fluid can be examined for an elevated level of white blood cells and the absence of bacteria. These two factors taken together are a strong indication of polio.
The spinal fluid can also be tested for the presence of polio antibodies. Antibodies are chemicals produced by the immune system to fight against specific foreign invaders, such as the poliovirus.

TREATMENT
There is no cure for polio. Patients can be treated to make them more comfortable, however. For example, medications can reduce pain. Hot packs help soothe sore muscles. Artificial ventilation (breathing machines) may be necessary if a person's respiratory system is affected. Walking aids, such as crutches and walkers, may be necessary for someone whose leg muscles are damaged by the disease.
The prognosis for mild and moderate polio is good. Most patients recover completely within a short period of time. Of those who have the severest form of polio, about half will recover completely. A quarter will experience some disability, and another quarter will have permanent and serious disability. About 1 percent of all those who have the most serious form of polio die of the disease.
In recent years, a new medical problem known as postpolio syndrome has been diagnosed. The condition shows up thirty years or more after a person has had a mild or moderate form of the disease. Postpolio syndrome affects about 25 percent of polio patients. The major symptom of postpolio syndrome is a very slow decrease in muscle strength.

PREVENTION
Polio can now be prevented by immunizations. An immunization is an injection that protects a person against some type of infectious disease. Two kinds of polio immunizations are available in the United States. The Salk vaccine contains dead polioviruses. It is injected just under the skin. The dead viruses cause the immune system to start making antibodies against the poliovirus. If a person is infected with the poliovirus later in life, the immune system can protect the body against the disease.
The Sabin vaccine contains polioviruses that are very weak but not dead. They produce the same effect on the immune system as dead viruses. Both vaccines are highly effective in preventing polio. In fact, some public-health experts think the disease may be completely wiped out in the next decade.[/SIZE]
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Post Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) describes an infectious disease that has plagued humans since the Neolithic times. Two organisms cause tuberculosis–Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis.

Physicians in ancient Greece called this illness "phthisis" to reflect its wasting character. During the 17th and 18th centuries, TB caused up to 25% of all deaths in Europe. In more recent times, tuberculosis has been called "consumption."

Robert Koch isolated the tubercle bacillus in 1882 and established TB as an infectious disease.


In the 19th century, patients were isolated in sanatoria and given treatments such as injecting air into the chest cavity. Attempts were made to decrease lung size by surgery called thoracoplasty.


During the first half of the 20th century, no effective treatment was available.


Streptomycin, the first antibiotic to fight TB, was introduced in 1946, and isoniazid (Laniazid, Nydrazid) became available in 1952.


M tuberculosis is a rod-shaped, slow-growing bacterium.


M tuberculosis' cell wall has high acid content, which makes it hydrophobic, resistant to oral fluids.


The cell wall absorbs a certain dye and maintains a red color despite attempts at decolorization, hence the name acid-fast bacilli.


M tuberculosis continues to kill millions of people yearly worldwide. In 1995, 3 million deaths from TB occurred.


Up to 8 million new cases of TB develop each year.


More than 90% of these cases occur in developing nations that have poor resources and high numbers of people infected with HIV.
In the United States, incidence of TB began to decline around 1900, because of improved living conditions.


TB cases have increased since 1985, most likely due to the increase in HIV.
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. In 1997, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 32% of the global population was infected with TB bacteria.


7.9 million new cases of TB developed.


1.87 million people died of this disease.


With the spread of AIDS, tuberculosis continues to lay waste to large populations. The emergence of drug-resistant organisms threatens to make this disease once again incurable.


In 1993, the WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency.
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Arrow Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. Common worldwide, it is transmitted by ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected person. The bacteria then multiply in the blood stream of the infected person and are absorbed into the digestive tract and eliminated with the waste.


SymptomsPersons with typhoid fever usually have a sustained fever as high as 103° to 104° F (39° to 40° C). They may also feel weak, or have stomach pains, headache, or loss of appetite. In some cases, patients have a rash of flat, rose-colored spots. The only way to know for sure if an illness is typhoid fever is to have samples of stool or blood tested for the presence of S. Typhi.

Typhoid fever has an insidious onset characterized by fever, headache, constipation, malaise, chills, and myalgia with few clinical features that reliably distinguish it from a variety of other infectious diseases. Diarrhea is uncommon, and vomiting is not usually severe. Confusion, delirium, intestinal perforation, and death may occur in severe cases.

DiagnosisDiagnosis is made by blood, bone marrow or stool cultures and with the Widal test (demonstration of salmonella antibodies against antigens O-somatic and H-flagellar). In epidemics and less wealthy countries, after excluding malaria, dysentery or pneumonia, a therapeutic trial with chloramphenicol is generally undertaken while awaiting the results of Widal test and blood cultures.

TreatmentTyphoid fever can be fatal. Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, have been commonly used to treat typhoid fever in developed countries. Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case-fatality rate to approximately 1%. Usage of Ofloxacin along with Lactobacillus acidophilus is also recommended.

When untreated, typhoid fever persists for three weeks to a month. Death occurs in between 10% and 30% of untreated cases. Vaccines for typhoid fever are available and are advised for persons traveling in regions where the disease is common (especially Asia, Africa and Latin America). Typhim Vi is an intramuscular killed-bacteria vaccination and Vivotif is an oral live bacteria vaccination, both of which protect against typhoid fever. Neither vaccine is 100% effective against typhoid fever and neither protects against unrelated typhus.
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Default Oral cancer

Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. It may arise as a primary lesion originating in any of the oral tissues, by metastasis from a distant site of origin, or by extension from a neighboring anatomic structure, such as the nasal cavity or the maxillary sinus. Oral cancers may originate in any of the tissues of the mouth, and may be of varied histologic types: adenocarcinoma derived from a major or minor salivary gland, lymphoma from tonsillar or other lymphoid tissue, or melanoma from the pigment producing cells of the oral mucosa. Far and away the most common oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, originating in the tissues that line the mouth and lips. Oral or mouth cancer most commonly involves the tissue of the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the floor of the mouth, cheek lining, gingiva (gums), or palate (roof of the mouth). Most oral cancers look very similar under the microscope and are called squamous cell carcinoma. These are malignant and tend to spread rapidly.

Known risk factors
In 2006, in the US alone, about 31,000 individuals will be diagnosed with oral cancer. 66% of the time these will be found as late stage three and four disease. Low public awareness of the disease is a significant factor, but these cancers could be found at early highly survivable stages through a simple, painless, 5 minute examination by a trained medical or dental professional.

All cancers are diseases of the DNA in the cancer cells. Oncogenes are activated as a result of mutation of the DNA. The exact cause is often unknown. Risk factors that predispose a person to oral cancer have been identified in epidemiological studies.

Smoking and other tobacco use are associated with 70 percent to 80 percent of oral cancer cases, caused by irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth from smoke and heat of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Tobacco contains over 19 known carcinogens, and the combustion of it, and by products from this process, is the primary mode of involvement. Use of chewing tobacco or snuff causes irritation from direct contact with the mucous membranes.

In many Asian cultures chewing betel, paan and Areca is known to be a strong risk factor for developing oral cancer. In India where such practices are common, oral cancer represents up to 40% of all cancers, compared to just 4% in the UK.

Alcohol use is another high-risk activity associated with oral cancer. There is known to be a strong synergistic effect on oral cancer risk when a person is both a heavy smoker and a drinker. Their risk is greatly increased compared to a heavy smoker, or a heavy drinker alone.

Other risks include chronic irritation (such as that from rough teeth, dentures, or fillings). Some oral cancers begin as leukoplakia a white patch (lesion), red patches, (erythroplakia) or non healing sores that have existed for more than 14 days. In the US oral cancer accounts for about 8 percent of all malignant growths. Men are affected twice as often as women, particularly men older than 40/60.

Human Papilloma Virus, (HPV) particularly versions 16 and 18 ( there are over 100 varieties) is a known risk factor for oral cancer. A fast growing segment of those diagnosed does not present with the historic stereotypical demographics. Historically that has been people over 50, blacks over whites 2 to 1, males over females 3 to 1, and 75% of the time people who have used tobacco products or are heavy users of alcohol. This new and rapidly growing sub population between 20 and 50 years old is predominantly non smoking, white, and females slightly outnumber males. Recent research from Johns Hopkins indicates that HPV is the primary risk factor in this new population of oral cancer victims. HPV16/18 is the same virus responsible for the vast majority of all cervical cancers and is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the US. Oral cancer in this group tends to favor the tonsil and tonsillar pillars, and the oropharnyx.

Symptoms
Skin lesion, lump, or ulcer:

On the tongue, lip, or other mouth area
Usually small
Most often pale colored, may be dark or discolored
Early sign may be a white patch (leukoplakia) or a red patch (erythroplakia) on the soft tissues of the mouth
May be a deep, hard edged crack in the tissue
Usually painless initially
May develop a burning sensation or pain when the tumor is advanced
Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:

Tongue problems
Swallowing difficulty
Mouth sores
Abnormal taste
Pain and paraesthesia are late symptoms.

Signs and tests
An examination of the mouth by the health care provider or dentist shows a visible and/or palpable (can be felt) lesion of the lip, tongue, or other mouth area. As the tumor enlarges, it may become an ulcer and bleed. Speech difficulties, chewing problems, or swallowing difficulties may develop, particularly if the cancer is on the tongue.

While a dentist, physician or other medical professional may suspect a particular lesion is malignant, the only definitive method for determining this is through biopsy and microscopic evaluation of the cells in the removed sample. A tissue biopsy, whether of the tongue or other oral tissues, and microscopic examination of the lesion confirm the diagnosis of oral cancer.


Treatment
Surgical excision (removal) of the tumor is usually recommended if the tumor is small enough, and if surgery is likely to result in a functionally satisfactory result. Radiation therapy is often used in conjunction with surgery, or as the definitive radical treatment, especially if the tumour is inoperable. Chemotherapy is commonly used for more advanced tumours, often in combination with radiotherapy and surgery. Biological agents, such as Cetuximab have recently been shown to be effective in the treatment of squamous cell head and neck cancers, and are likely to have an increasing role in the future management of this condition.

Owing to the vital nature of the structures in the head and neck area, surgery for larger cancers is technically demanding. Reconstructive surgery may be required to give an acceptable cosmtetic and functional result. Bone grafts and surgical flaps such as the radial forearm flap are used to help rebuild the structures removed during excision of the cancer.

Survival rates for oral cancer depend on the precise site, and the stage of the cancer at diagnosis. Overall, survival is around 50% at five years when all stages of initial diagnosis are considered. Survival rates for stage 1 cancers are 90%, hence the emphasis on early detection to increase survival outcome for patients.

Following treatment, rehabilitation may be necessary to improve movement, chewing, swallowing, and speech. Speech therapists may be involved at this stage.


Complications

Postoperative disfigurement of the face, head and neck
Complications of radiation therapy, including dry mouth and difficulty swallowing
Other metastasis (spread) of the cancer
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Cool Biological Diseases

BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
ANTRHAX DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-1



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving ANTHRAX.


Anthrax

A deadly infection caused by bacteria spores commonly found in cows and sheep. It is not contagious.


Symptoms


Infection from inhalation resembles common cold, progresses to severe breathing problems and shock after several days. Inhaled anthrax is usually fatal.


Treatment

Antibiotics such as penicillin or ciprofloxacin must be taken immediately.


Vaccine

Yes. Generally given only to active duty military personnel.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Relatively easy to manufacture and store, but difficult to disperse in large quantities. Bright sunlight kills the spores, and thousands must be inhaled for an infection to develop.


Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
BOTULISM DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-2



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving BOTULISM.


Botulism

A muscle-paralyzing disease usually caused by a toxin found in contamination food.


Symptoms

About 18 to 36 hours after exposure, victims develop blurry vision and slurred speech, and paralysis spread through the body. About 8 percent of those infected die.


Treatment

If diagnosed early, an antitoxin can block spread of toxins. Hospital care is essential.


Vaccine

No.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Lethal strains are hard to grow in large quantities and would be difficult to disperse.





Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
CHOLERA DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-3


Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving CHOLERA.


CHOLERA

An acute diarrheal illness transmitted through contaminated food and water.


Symptoms

Often mild. About 1 in 20 cases are severe, with diarrhea, vomiting and leg cramps. Fewer than 1 percent of those infected die if treated promptly.


Treatment

Replace lost fluids and salts. Antibiotics are sometimes used.


Vaccine

Yes, but not in U.S.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Likelihood of use as a weapon is very low.



Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University




BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
PLAGUE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-4



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving PLAGUE.


PLAGUE

Highly contagious disease has killed millions through history but is very rare today.


Symptoms

Fever, chills and a cough with blood appear one to six days after exposure. Is fatal in almost all untreated cases.


Treatment

Antibiotics (for pneumonic plague, the type most likely to be spread in a terrorist attack).


Vaccine

No.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Bacteria is widely available in microbe banks around the world. Could be transmitted by infecting fleas or by aerosol.





Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
SALMONELLOSIS DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-5



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving SALMONELLOSIS


Salmonellosis

Infection caused by bacteria usually spread by eating foods tainted by animal feces..


Symptoms

Diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. Very rarely causes death.


Treatment

Often not required unless dehydration is severe. Recovery is usually 5 to 7 days.


Vaccine

No.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Relatively easy to obtain and manufacture.






Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
SMALLPOX DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-6



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving SMALLPOX


Smallpox

Eradicated from people in 1970’s, highly transmissible virus is universally feared as most devastating infectious disease.


Symptoms

About 12 to 14 days after exposure, high fever and headache give way to rash on the mouth and face. It is fatal about 30 percent of the time.


Treatment

There is no proven treatment. Vaccine within four days of exposure can lessen severity.


Vaccine


Yes. Emergency supplies are available.


Possibilities as a Weapon

U.S. and Russia have only known stores but other countries may have samples. Large-scale manufacture is difficult; would be hard to spread through aerosol.



Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
TULAREMIA DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-7



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving TULAREMIA


Tularemia

Hardy, highly infectious organism usually transmitted by rabbits and mice.


Symptoms

Flulike symptoms usually begin within three days of exposure. Affects the lymph glands; can be fatal in up to 60 percent of untreated cases.


Treatment

Antibiotics are usually effective.


Vaccine

Yes, but not FDA approved. Not available to public.


Possibilities as a Weapon

As few as 10 organisms, which can survive for weeks, can cause disease. Has been stockpiled in the past by U.s., Soviet Union and Japan militaries.





Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
Q FEVER DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-8



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving Q FEVER.


Q Fever

Very infectious, airborne agent commonly found in livestock. A single organism can cause disease.


Symptoms

About half of victims show signs, ranging from high fever and headache to pneumonia. Fewer than 2 percent of infected people die.


Treatment

Antibiotics are effective, though most patients recover without treatment.


Vaccine

Yes, but not widely used.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Organism is resistant to heat and drying.





Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
BIOLOGICAL DISEASES MABAS DIVISION XX
VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-9



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a biological attack involving VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS.


Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

Highly contagious fevers such as Ebola and Marburg diseases are usually caught from animals.


Symptoms

Vary greatly, but generally include high fevers and dizziness with signs of bleeding under the skin. Shock follows, and most cases are fatal.


Treatment

Generally none.


Vaccine

No.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Manufacturing, storing and transporting a little-understood virus like Ebola would be very difficult.




Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
CHEMICAL AGENTS MABAS DIVISION XX
SARIN DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-10



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a chemical attack involving SARIN.


Sarin

A colorless, odorless gas dispersed in a droplet or mist form.


Symptoms

Runny nose, bronchial secretions, tightness in the chest, dimming of vision, drooling, excessive perspiration, nausea, muscle tremors, coma, death.


Treatment

Wash exposed areas with soap and water and get an immediate antidote at a hospital.


Vaccine

Vaccines do not apply to chemicals.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Can be manufactured with fairly simple chemical techniques. The raw materials are inexpensive and generally available.





Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
CHEMICAL AGENTS MABAS DIVISION XX
VX DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1007-11



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a chemical attack involving VX.


VX

Looks like motor oil and is 100 times more lethal than SARIN when it enters through skin.


Symptoms

Runny nose, bronchial secretions, tightness in the chest, dimming of vision, drooling, excessive perspiration, nausea, muscle tremors, coma, death.


Treatment

Wash exposed areas with soap and water and get immediate antidote at a hospital.


Vaccine

No. Vaccines do not apply to chemicals.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Can be made with fairly simple chemical techniques. The raw materials are inexpensive and generally available.




Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
CHEMICAL AGENTS MABAS DIVISION XX
MUSTARD GAS DIRECTIVE

Pg. 1 of 1 21-1012-12



Purpose

Experts have identified dozens of biological diseases and chemical agents that could be used as weapons. The risk of such an attack remains very low. However, the following directive is meant to educate the fire fighter about the dangers of a chemical attack involving MUSTARD GAS.


Mustard Gas

Can be yellow to dark brown and can smell like burning garlic.


Symptoms

Sneezing, coughing, loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever, apathy, blistering.


Treatment

Wash exposed areas with soap and water and get antidote at a hospital.


Vaccine

No. Vaccines do not apply to chemicals.


Possibilities as a Weapon

Has been used frequently as a weapon in past wars.







Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Civilian Biofense Studies, Journal of American Medical Association, Johns Hopkins University
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Old Thursday, March 01, 2007
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Default infectious disease

INFECTIOUS DISESSASE (Defination):
Any disease caused by invasion by a pathogen which subsequently grows and multiplies in the body.
a disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact

Concept:
The history of the human species, it has been said, is the history of infectious disease. Over the centuries, humans have been exposed to a vast amount and array of contagious conditions, including the Black Death and other forms of plague, typhoid fever, cholera, malaria, influenza, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Only in the past few hundred years have scientists begun to have any sort of accurate idea concerning the origin of such diseases, through the action of microorganisms and other parasites. Such understanding has led to the development of vaccines and methods of inoculation, yet even before they made these great strides in medicine, humans had an unseen protector: their own immune systems.

Infection and Humanity:There are two basic types of disease: ones that are infectious, or extrinsic, meaning that they are contagious or communicable and can be spread by contact between people, and ones that are intrinsic, or not infectious.a person can get an infection, such as tetanus or salmonella, without necessarily having a disease that can be passed on through contact with others in the same way that colds, malaria, or syphilis is spread.

Immune Machanism:
The human body has numerous mechanisms for protecting itself from infectious disease, the first line of defense being the skin. Skin shields us all the time from unseen attackers and generally is able to prevent pathogens from entering the body; however, any break in the skin, such as a cut or scrape, provides an opening for microorganisms to invade the body. Germs that normally would be prevented from entering the body are able to invade the bloodstream through such openings. This is why it is so very important, in any situation involving potential contact with infection, to protect the skin.

Transmission of Disease:
Infectious diseases are transmitted easily from one person to another.Pathogens can be spread by many methods other than direct contact, including through water, food, air, and bodily fluids—blood, semen, saliva, and so on. For instance, any time a person with an infection coughs or sneezes, they may be transmitting illness. This is how diseases such as measles and tuberculosis are passed from person to person. AIDS and various STDs, as well as many other conditions, such as hepatitis, are transferred when one person comes into contact with the bodily fluids of another. This is the case not only with sexual intercourse but also with blood transfusions and any number of other interactions, including possibly drinking after someone.Additionally, diseases may be transferred by vectors—animals (usually insects) that carry microorganisms from one person to another.

Diagnosis and Therapy:
Diagnosis is initially by medical history and physical examination, and imaging (such as X-rays), but the principal tool in infectious disease is the microbiological culture. In a culture, a growth medium is provided for a particular agent. After inoculation of a specimen of diseased fluid or tissue onto the medium, it is determined whether bacterial growth occurs.
When a culture has proven to be positive, the sensitivity (or, conversely, the antibiotic resistance) of an agent can be determined by exposing it to test doses of antibiotic. This way, the microbiologist determines how sensitive the target bacterium is to a certain antibiotic.

The work of an Infectiologist:
Doctors who specialise in the medical treatment of infectious disease are called infectiologists or infectious disease specialists. Generally, infections are initially diagnosed by primary care physicians or internal medicine specialists. For example, an "uncomplicated" pneumonia will generally be treated by the internist or the pulmonologist (lung physician).
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Default Childhood Leukaemia

Childhood Leukaemia


Leukaemia, accounts for about 25 percent of all childhood cancers and affects about 2,200 young people each year. Luckily, the chances for a cure have increased with latest treatments without any fears of remission.

Cancers of the white blood cells also referred to as 'leukocytes or WBCs' starts with chromosomal changes in cells. It alters the way cells work and grow. When a child has leukaemia, large numbers of abnormal white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. These abnormal white cells crowd the bone marrow and flood the bloodstream, but they cannot perform their proper role of protecting the body against disease because they are defective.

As leukemia progresses, the cancer interferes with the body's production of other types of blood cells, including red blood cells and platelets. This results in Anemia (low numbers of red cells) and bleeding problems, in addition to the increased risk of infection caused by white cell abnormalities.

These cells keep growing when they are supposed to stop. They also grow faster than other cells. Over time, these abnormal cells crowd out the normal white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), and platelets.

As a group, leukaemia's account for about 25 percent of all childhood cancers and affect about 2,200 young people each year. Luckily, the chances for a cure are very good with leukaemia. With treatment, most children with leukaemia are free of the disease without it coming back.

In general, leukaemias are classified into 'acute' (rapidly developing) and 'chronic' (slowly developing) forms. About 98% of leukaemias are acute in children. Childhood leukaemia's are also divided into Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL) and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), depending on whether specific WBC's, which are linked to immune defences, are involved.

Approximately 60% of children with leukemia have ALL, and about 38% have AML. Although slow-growing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) may also be seen in children, it is very rare, accounting for fewer than 50 cases of childhood leukemia each year.

The ALL form of the disease most commonly occurs in younger children ages two to eight years, with a peak incidence at age four, but it can affect all age groups.

Children who have received prior radiation or chemotherapy for other types of cancer also have a higher risk for leukemia, usually within the first 8 years after treatment.

To limit the risk of prenatal radiation exposure as a trigger for leukemia (especially ALL), women who are pregnant or who suspect that they might be pregnant should always inform their doctors before undergoing tests or medical procedures that involve radiation (such as X-rays).

Regular checkups can spot early symptoms of leukemia in the relatively rare cases where this cancer is linked to an inherited genetic problem, to prior cancer treatment, or to use of immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplants.

Because infection-fighting white blood cells are defective in children with leukemia, these children may experience increased episodes of fevers and infections.

They may also become anaemic because leukaemia affects the bone marrow's production of oxygen-carrying red blood cells. This makes them appear pale, and they may become abnormally tired and short of breath while playing.

Children with leukemia may also bruise and bleed very easily, experience frequent nosebleeds, or bleed for an unusually long time after even a minor cut because leukemia destroys the bone marrow's ability to produce clot-forming platelets.

Other symptoms of leukemia may include:

* Pain in the bones or joints, sometimes causing a limp

* Swollen lymph nodes (sometimes called swollen glands) in the neck, groin, or elsewhere

* An abnormally tired feeling

* Poor appetite

To diagnose leukaemia bone marrow or lymph node samples are examined, Cell evaluations are also under taken including genetic studies to distinguish between specific types as well as certain features of the leukaemia cells. Children will receive anaesthesia or sedative medications for any painful procedures.

Sometimes a bone marrow transplant may be necessary in addition to - or instead of - chemotherapy, depending on the type of leukaemia a child has. During a bone marrow transplant, healthy bone marrow is introduced into a child's body.

Chemotherapy has certain side effects, including hair loss, nausea and vomiting in the short term, and potential health problems down the line. Some forms of childhood leukaemia have a remission rate of up to 90%; all children then require regular maintenance chemotherapy and other treatment to continue to be cancer-free. Overall cure rates differ depending on the specific features of a child's disease. And the majority of children can be cured –meaning that they are in permanent remission – of the disease.
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Question Natural Remedies for Diabetes !!!!!!!

What is Diabetes?
Diabetes deals with the body’s response to blood glucose levels in regards to the production or utilization of insulin. The two main types of diabetes you or someone in your family may come in contact with, includes:
Type 1 Diabetes: Through the millions of diabetic patients in the United States, there is an estimated 5-10% that suffer from this form of the disease. While Type 1 can affect people of all ages, mostly children, adolescents and young adults develop this kind of diabetes. It is said that about one in every 500 children and adolescents in the United States already has or will have Type 1 diabetes in the future [1].
Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes is chronic and hinders the way that the body metabolizes glucose (sugar). Through Type 2 diabetes, the body starts to reject the effects of insulin, which is a hormone needed for the regulation of sugar cell absorption. Some Type 2 diabetics might produce some insulin, but not enough to create a normal level of glucose [2]. When this condition is left untreated, life-threatening results may occur.

Symptoms
There are many symptoms associated with diabetes, and depending on the type you suffer from, you may experience one or more of the following:
a) Excessive Thirst and Increased Urination: One of the most telling signs of diabetes is an urgency to keep drinking fluids. As your kidneys work overtime to filter and absorb the amount of sugar that builds up in the body, increased urination occurs. Through all of this, dehydration sets in, leading you into a vicious cycle of quenching your thirst, and the need to release yourself in the process.
b) Flu-Like Symptoms: The fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite associated with the flu may also present itself with diabetes because your body is unable to utilize sugar in order to gain energy.
c) Weight Loss or Gain: Changes in weight often occur through the presence of diabetes. Weight loss occurs because as you lose sugar through frequent urination, you will also lose calories. The other side of the weight issue is gaining extra pounds because cells become deprived of nutrients, leading to a feeling of constant hunger. As you eat more to compensate, an increase of fatty tissue develops [3].
d) Blurred Vision: The eyes show signs of diabetes as high levels of blood sugar rob eye lenses of much-needed fluid. When ignored, blood vessels become damaged and can lead to dark spots, flashing lights or rings. Serious cases may also lead to blindness.
e) Slow-Healing: High levels of blood sugar can affect the natural healing process and the body’s defense against infections. Diabetes may also cause bladder or vaginal infections in women.
f) Tingling Hands and Feet: Nerve damage may develop as a result of diabetes, which leads to a tingling or loss of sensation in the hands or feet. Sometimes, a burning pain may attack the hands, arms, legs, and feet.
g) Gum Problems: Diabetes may cause gums to become red, swollen, and tender.

Causes of Diabetes
The causes of this condition depend on what type of diabetes you are suffering from. With Type 1 diabetes, the body has little to no insulin because the immune system attacks the cells responsible for producing the hormone. It is believed that heredity; diet and nutrition all contribute to the development of Type 1. With Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes some insulin, but either one or two issues arise: the muscles and body tissue may resist the presence of insulin or the pancreas simply doesn’t make enough. Researchers are unaware what makes the cells resistant to insulin, but weight, laziness, and fatty tissues contribute.

Diagnosis
A random blood sugar test and a fasting blood glucose test both determine whether or not a person has Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Blood is drawn from the arm to test your glucose levels at any given time (random) or after an overnight fast. In addition to the two blood tests, Type 2 diabetes is also made known through a glucose challenge test (often used for pregnant women) or a glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.

Risk Factors
While the definite cause regarding Type 1 diabetes is not known, there are some details that increase the risk of developing the disease. This includes having a family member, such as a diabetic parent or sibling. People who are overweight, inactive, or depressed are more likely to suffer from Type 2 diabetes. Individuals over the age of 45 are also likely to develop the disease, but throughout the years, a higher number of children, adolescents and younger adults have been seen. Race also affects your chances of suffering from diabetes, where some ethnic groups are more prone to certain types than others.

Natural Remedies for Diabetes
Natural remedies allow individuals to find gentler, safer, and sometimes more effective treatment options for their condition. Below are a few natural approaches towards treating diabetes:
a) Fenugreek: This herb has been known to cut down sugar levels in urine by half. Making a decoction or taking 1 gram of powdered herb after meals treats mental confusion, weight loss, and excessive thirst.
b) Bilberry: The leaves of this herb are thought to increase the production of insulin when drinking an infusion before meals.
c) Goat’s Rue: The aerial parts of this herb react with the pancreas to encourage production of insulin. Preparing an infusion or tincture before meals can treat the symptoms of diabetes.
d) Mango: Boiling 15 fresh mango leaves in one glass of water will create a natural treatment for diabetes. After mixing the ingredients, leave the combination overnight. At the start of a new day, filter the water and drink first thing in the morning.

Diabetes Prevention
For many, diabetes is highly preventable. It really comes down to incorporating healthy habits and lifestyle changes to avoid the onset of this manageable, yet frustrating disease. Below you will find a few preventive measures to consider:
a) Lose Extra Pounds: Sometimes diabetes prevention is just as easy as keeping your weight to a healthy number. With every pound you lose, your health improves. Try making it a habit to eat better and exercise on a regular basis. When it comes to losing weight, avoiding fad diets is the healthiest approach towards preventing diabetes. Cooking foods with less fat, oil, and butter also help shed extra weight.
b) Fiber: Many reduce their risk of diabetes when they eat fiber-filled foods, which also decrease the chances of developing heart disease. Some of the foods to consider adding to your diet include vegetables, fruits, and other lean food items.
c) Whole Grains: When eating grains, it is the whole variety that contributes to the decrease in developing diabetes. A few eating habits to change include trading white bread for wheat, or consuming whole-grain pastas and cereals.
d) Increase Exercise: When you get the body moving around, not only is weight lost, but also the overall your overall health improves. Physical activity contributes to the lowering of blood sugar levels. Riding a bike, swimming laps, or walking for 30 minutes per day will increase your levels of exercise.
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