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Old Friday, February 24, 2006
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Default Animal Kingdom

Introduction:


All told, around 800,000 species have been identified in the Animal Kingdom -- most of them in the Arthropod phylum.
In fact, some scientists believe that if we were to identify all species in the tropical rain forests the ranks of Arthropoda would swell to over 10 million species! Most people do not normally think of a clam, a jellyfish, or an earthworm as an animal. Yet all of them belong to the kingdom of Animals. The science of classifying organisms is called taxonomy.
In order to study living things, scientists classify each organism.

7 Levels of Taxonomic Classification:


___*Kingdom
_________ *Phylum
_________________*Class
_______________________*Order
_____________________________*Family
___________________________________* Genus
_________________________________________*Species

Usually, a species is called by its genus name (capitalized) followed by its species name (lower case),
so a human being is called Homo sapiens. In Latin that means "wise man."

Now lets define each term:

*Kingdom:

To date there are Five (5) Kingdoms:

Animalia which is made up of animals;
Plantae, which is made up of plants;
Protista,which is made up of protists (single-celled creatures invisible to the human eye);
Fungi, which is made up of mushrooms, mold, yeast, lichen, etc; and
Monera,which is made up of the three types of bacteria.

*Phylum:

The next category is the Phylum. There are several phyla within each kingdom. The phyla start to break the animals (or plants, fungi, etc) into smaller and more recognizable groups. The best known phylum is Chordata, which contains all animals with backbones (fish, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians).
There is also Arthropoda (insects, spiders, crustaceans);
Mollusca (snails, squid, clam);
Annelida (segmented worms);
Echinodermata (starfish, sea urchins) and many, many more.

*Class:
The next category that makes up the phyla is the Class. The class breaks up animals into even more familiar groups.
For example, the phylum Chordata is broken down into several classes, including Aves (birds), Reptilia (reptiles), Amphibia (amphibians), Mammalia (mammals) and several others.

*Order:
The next category is the Order. Each class is made up of one or more orders. “Mammalia” can be broken down into Rodentia (mice, rats), Primates (Old- and New-World monkeys), Chiroptera (bats), Insectivora (shrews, moles), Carnivora (dogs, cats, weasels), Perissodactyla (horses, zebras), Artiodactyla (cows), Proboscidea (elephants) and many more.

*Families:
Orders can then be broken down into Families. Like The order “Carnivora” can be broken down into Canidae (dogs), Felidae (cats), Ursidae (bears), Hyaenidae (hyaenas, aardwolves), Mustelidae (weasels, wolverines), and many more.

*Genus:
The next category is the Genus. The family Felidae, for example, can be broken down into Acinonyx (cheetah), Panthera (lion, tiger), Neofelis (clouded leopard) and Felis (domestic cats).

*Species:
Finally, the genus is broken down into the Species. The genus Panthera can be broken down to include Panthera leo (lion) and Panthera tigris (tiger). Note that the genus is placed in front of the species.

here is the fig. a good illustration of 7 Levels of Phylum Chordata ONLY where man Belongs too:



Main group of Invertebrates(Animals with No Spinal Cord) are :
The largest and most commonly studied phyla of animals are:
1. Porifera (sponges)
2. Cnidaria (jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, Portuguese man-of-wars, and corals)
3. Platyhelminthes (flatworms, including planaria, flukes, and tapeworms)
4. Nematoda (roundworms, including rotifers and nematodes)
5. Mollusca (mollusks, including bivalves, snails and slugs, and octopuses and squids)
6. Annelida (segmented worms, including earthworms, leeches, and marine worms)
7. Echinodermata (including sea stars, sea cucumbers, sand dollars, and sea urchins)
8. Arthropods (including arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes, and insects)
9. Chordata (animals with nerve chords - this group includes the vertebrates)
(Will be repeated later on in detail again)


KINGDOM NR.OF SPECIES

Bacteria.......................................... .... 4,000
Protoctists (algae, protozoa, etc)......... 80,000
Animals, vertebrates........................... 52,000
Animals, invertebrates.................... 1,272,000
Fungi............................................. .... 72,000
Plants............................................ .. 270,000

Total number of described species... 1,750,000
Possible nr. with unknown species: 14,000,000

Now here we move on to the actual Point somehow “The Detailed study of Animal’s Kingdom”..
The divisions and sub divisions of animal kingdom are as follows:
Animal Kingdom

Is divided into two Categories:

A) Invertebrates
Animals
without a Backbone
or Spinal Column:

B) Vertebrates
Animals with a Backbone
or Spinal Column:
(All these arnimals are in the phyla Chordata
and the subphyla Vertebrata.)


(A)Invertebrates


Protozoa
(phyla: protozoa)
Protozoa are simple, single-celled animals. Most protozoa are microscopic in size.
There are several types of protozoa. The amoebas are clear, shapeless cells. Flagellates have a body shape looking like a hair.

Echinoderms:(Spiny-skinned such as starfish)
(phyla: Echinodermata)
These animals are radially symmetrical -- they have no distinct front and back, only a top and a bottom
Echinoderms are marine animals that live in the ocean. They have arms or spines that radiate from the center of their body. The central body contains their organs, and their mouth for feeding.
Sea stars, commonly known as the starfish, have 5 or more arms attached to their body.
Sea urchins have many spines connected to their body. These spines help to protect them from predators


Annelids:
such as earthworms
(phyla: Annelida)
Annelids have bodies that are divided into segments. Annelids have very well-developed internal organs.
Some may have long bristles. Others have shorter bristles and seem smooth, like the earthworm shown here.
There are about 9,000 species of Annelids known today, including worms and leeches.


Mollusks:
(Soft Bodies)
such as octopus
(phyla: Mollusca)
Mollusks are so named because of their soft bodies (Greek: mollis = soft).
Mollusks were among the first inhabitants of the Earth. Fossils of mollusks have been found in rocks and date back over 500 million years. Mollusk fossils are usually well preserved because of their hard shell.
So Most mollusks have a soft, skin-like organ covered with a hard outside shell. Some mollusks live on land, such as the snail and slug. Other mollusks live in water, such as the oyster, mussel, clam, squid and octopus.
Land living mollusks, like the snail, move slowly on a flat sole called a foot.
Ocean living mollusks move or swim by jet propulsion. They propel themselves by ejecting water from their body. For example, the squid ejects water from a cavity within its body, and the scallop ejects water to move by clamping its shell closed.
Other ocean living mollusks, like the oyster, attach themselves to rocks or other surfaces, and can't move. They feed by filtering small food particles from water that flows through them.

Arthropods:
(Joint-Legs)
such as crabs, spiders and insects
(phyla: Arthropoda)
This includes most, if not all, of the animals we commonly call "bugs" as well as the crustaceans. Arthropods make up over 75% of the world's animal species. Arthropods include animals such as insects, crustaceans and arachnids. The largest group of Arthropods are the insects. The next largest group are the crustaceans, including lobsters and crabs. The arachnids include spiders and ticks. Other Arthropods include centipedes and millipedes.
Arthropods have limbs with joints that allow them to move. They also have an exoskeleton, which is a hard, external skeleton. Their body cavity contains the nervous system, circulatory system, reproductive system and d the six-legged Insects (Insecta); the eight-legged Arachnids (Arachnida) including spiders , scorpions, and ticks; the hard-bodied Crustaceans (Crustacea) including crabs , shrimp, and barnacles; and Malacostraca, which includes the sowbug or pillbug.
igestive system.

They are subdivided into 3 sub-phyla
1) Crustaceans
2) Arachnids
3) Insects


Crustaceans: (such as crabs)
(subphyla: Crustacea)
Crustaceans
Crustaceans are a type of Arthropod. The name may not sound familiar, but you probably know them. You may even have eaten one.
Crustaceans live mostly in the ocean or other waters. Most commonly known crustaceans are the crab Crustaceans have a hard, external shell which protects their body. Crustaceans have a head and abdomen. The head has antennae which are part of their sensory system. The abdomen includes the heart, digestive system and reproductive system.
The abdomen also has appendages, such as legs, for crawling and swimming. Many crustaceans also have claws that help with crawling and eating.
, lobster and barnacle.

Arachnids:
such as spiders
(subphyla: Chelicerata
class: Arachnida)
Arachnids are a type of arthropod. You know many of them as spiders.
Like other arthropods, the arachnids have a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages for walking. Unlike other arthropods, arachnids do not have antennae.
Common arachnids are the spider, scorpions, ticks and mites.
Spiders have 8 appendages. The first pair are used for holding the prey and feeding. The second pair may also be used for holding and killing their prey. The others are used as legs for walking. Most spiders also have 8 eyes. Spiders have fangs that are used to inject poison to paralyze or kill their prey. Many spiders can produce silk threads to spin webs for catching prey, and for building cocoons for their eggs.
Scorpions are the largest arachnids, some reaching over 8 inches in length. They have 6 to 12 appendages. They also have a sharp stinger at the end of their tail which is used to paralyze or kill insects and small animals.
Mites and ticks are small arachnids that are parasites living on the blood and tissue fluid of other animals. They can occasionally transmit disease.

Insects:
(subphyla: Uniramia
class: Insecta)
Insects are the largest group of arthropods. There are over 800,000 different types of insects. Insects are very adaptable, living almost everywhere in the world. Insects have an exoskeleton that covers their entire body. An insect's body consists of the head, thorax and abdomen.
The insect's head has a pair of antennae, and a pair of compound eyes. Compound eyes are different from human eyes which have a single lens for each eye. Compound eyes have many lenses for each eye. For example, the fly has about 4,000 lenses in a single eye. This provides them with very good eyesight
The thorax contains the legs for walking, swimming, jumping or digging. The thorax may also have wings for flying. The abdomen contains many body organs, such as the heart, respiratory system, digestive system and reproductive system.
The insect's hard, exoskeleton makes it difficult for the insect to grow and get larger. This is because the exoskeleton can't grow and get larger. Many insects must molt in order to grow. Molting is the process where an insect sheds it outer skeleton. It wriggles out of this old skin, and a new, larger exoskeleton develops



(B)Vertebrates



Fish
(group: Pisces)
Phyla:Chordata
Subphyla:Vertebrata.
Almost three-forths of the world's surface is covered in water. This water is home to over 20,000 different species of fish. The earliest fossils of fish date back over 400 million years.
There are a wide variety of fish — from the goby which is less than one half an inch long, to the whale shark which can be over 60 feet long.
Most fish breathe through gills. Gills perform the gas exchange between the water and the fish's blood. They allow the fish to breathe oxygen in the water.
Fishes are vertebrates that have a skeleton made of either bone or cartilage. About 95% of fishes have skeletons made of bone. These bony fishes have a swim bladder, a gas-filled sac, that they can inflate or deflate allowing them to float in the water even when not swimming. Fishes with a cartilage skeleton tend to be heavier than water and sink. They must swim to keep afloat. Cartilaginous (cartilage) fish include the ray and the shark.
Most fish swim using a tail fin. Muscles in the tail fin move it from side to side, forcing water backward, and propeling the fish forward. Other fins help the fish change direction and stop. Pectoral fins on their side help them swim up and down. Dorsal and anal fins on the top and bottom keep the fish upright. Pelvic fins on the underside help steer left and right.
Many fish eat plants, while others such as the shark, eat other fish.


Amphibians:
(such as frogs)
(class: Amphibia)
Phyla:Chordata
Subphyla:Vertebrata.

Amphibians lay their eggs in water, and young amphibians tend to resemble small fish.
The tadpole, or newborn frog, is born and lives in water. It has a tail that allows it to swim like a fish. It also has gills so that it can breathe under water. As the tadpole grow into a frog, it loses its gills and tail, and develops legs for moving on land. Most amphibians can both walk and swim in water
Depending on the species of amphibian, breathing can take place in gills, lungs, the lining of the mouth, the skin, or some combination of these.
Amphibians body temperature changes with its environment. In cold climates, amphibians hibernate during the winter.


Reptiles:
(such as crocodiles)
(class: Reptilia)
Phyla:Chordata
Subphyla:Vertebrata.

The most noticeable feature of reptiles are the scales that cover their body.
Although reptiles breathe through lungs, some reptiles can also absorb oxygen in water through membranes in their mouth.
Reptiles are often called cold-blooded because they can't regulate their own body temperature. Their body temperature depends on the external temperature. Crocodiles and alligators are large amphibious reptiles. They can walk on land using their webbed feet. They can also use their long tail to swim in water. Crocodiles feed on large animals they catch on land or in water. They have powerful jaws and teeth to tear apart their prey. Lizards and snakes are the largest group of reptiles. Lizards are four legged animals with a long tail. Many lizards can shed their tail to escape from predators. They can then grow a new tail Some lizards, such as the chameleon, can change colors to blend into their environment. This camouflage helps to protect them from predators.
Snakes don't have limbs. They move by slithering along the ground.
Some snakes are poisonous, or venomous, such as the rattle snake, cobra, and eastern green mamba. They have fangs which bite into their prey and inject poison into the victim.
Other snakes, such as the boa constrictor and the python kill their prey by crushing it.
Most snakes can dislocate their jaw, allowing them to swallow prey much larger than themselves.


Birds
(class: Aves)
Phyla:Chordata
Subphyla:Vertebrata.
Birds first appeared about 150 million years ago. Birds now live almost everywhere on Earth.
There are over 8,000 species of birds. Birds have 3 major differentiating characteristics: wings for flight, feathers, and a beak rather than teeth. (offcourse u must be knowing)
Birds have adapted their vertebrate skeleton for flight. Their bones and skull are very thin, making their bodies extremely light.
To support flight also required other changes to their skeleton. Obvious changes are the addition of wings.
Other changes are less obvious. The claws and muscles of a bird's foot are designed to lock and hold onto a perch even while the bird is sleeping.
A bird's respiratory system is also adapted to make it easier to breathe at high elevations, where air is thinner.


Mammals:
(class: Mammalia)
Phyla:Chordata
Subphyla:Vertebrata.

Mammals have several unique characteristics that differentiate them from other animals. Most mammals have hair, or fur, covering their body. They are also capable of regulating their body temperature. The mammals metabolism controls heat production, and the sweat glands help cool the body. These allow the mammal to maintain a constant body temperature, regardless of the environmental temperature. One other difference is that mammals give birth to fully formed babies, and the female mammals produce milk to feed their young.
Most mammals walk on 4 legs, with only the humans walking upright on 2 legs. Aquatic mammals have flippers, or fins, for swimming rather than legs. Common mammals include:

1) primates, such humans and monkeys;
2)marsupials; rodents; whales; dolphins; and, seals.


Marsupials

such as kangaroos
(order: Marsupialia)
Marsupials are best known for the Australian members of the family, the kangaroo and the koala.
Marsupials are members of the mammal family. However, they are different from other mammals because they have an abdominal pouch to carry their young.
At birth, marsupial babies are not fully developed. The baby's hind legs are just nubs. The baby lives and continues to develop in the mother's pouch. The pouch, or marsupium, also has the mother's mammary glands for feeding the baby. A baby kangaroo may live in its mother's pouch for 6 months.
Koalas and wombats are a little different from Kangaroos. The kangaroo's pouch is on the front, while the koala and wombat pouches are on the back


Primates
such as gorillas and chimpanzees
(order: Primates)
Humans are part of the primate family. Other common primates include the monkey, baboon, orangutan, chimpanzee and gorilla.
Primates have several distinctive features that separate them from other mammals.
Primates have well developed hands and feet, with fingers and toes.
Their opposable thumb makes it easy for them to grab things.
Primate eyes are forward in the head giving them stereoscopic vision. This allows them to judge distance.
Primates also have large, highly developed brains. Their intelligence allows them to control and manipulate their environment.
The highly developed visual center of the brain helps primates distinguish colors.
Their large brain also allows them to develop complex language and communication skills.
Monkeys and apes walk on all four limbs, but they may run upright using only their hind legs.
Although primates are born fully formed, they tend to have a long gestation period in their mother's womb.
Parents also care for and educate their young much longer than other animals. This results in a strong bond between a baby and the mother.
Primates are very social animals, and tend to form strong bonds with family and friends.
While humans are similar to monkeys in many ways, there are also several significant differences.
The human brain is more than twice the size of other primates.
This makes humans the most intelligent primate, with the most developed communication, language and reasoning skills.
Humans are able to make and use complex tools to help control their environment.
Humans also walk upright on two legs.


Rodents:
(such as mice)
(order: Rodentia)
The largest family of mammals are the rodents. These mammals are named rodent, which means "gnawing animal," because of their large incisor teeth and the way they eat. The two long pairs of incisors are used like chisels to gnaw on hard foods like nuts and wood. These incisors must grow continuously since they are worn down by gnawing
There are 3 major types of rodents, represented by
squirrels,
mice and
porcupines.

Squirrel-like rodents such as the squirrel and gopher, have bushy long tails and large eyes. They can live in trees or underground in tunnels. They may hibernate during the winter.
Mouse-like rodents include the mouse, rat and hamster. Some have a long, thin tail with short legs. Others have a short tail. They mostly live above ground, although some burrow under ground. They may also hibernate during the winter. Rats and mice often live near humans, sometimes in their buildings, so they can live off human food and garbage.
Porcupines- differ from other mammals because they have long, sharp quills on their backs for protection.



Cetaceans:
such as whales and dolphins
( order: Cetacea)
Although they live in the water -- whales, dolphins and porpoises are mammals.
Since whales and dolphins are mammals, they cannot breathe under water. They must come to the surface to breathe air. They breathe through a blowhole, or nostrils, on the top of their head. Babies are born under water and must be pushed to the surface, by the mother, so that they can take a breath.
Whales and dolphins also look different from many other mammals because they don't have fur. Although, they do have a sparse covering of hair.
The circulatory and respiratory systems have adapted to living in water. Whales and dolphins can dive deep in the water on a single breath.
Whales and dolphins also have a highly developed brain. They are consider to be very intelligent.
Dolphins, and some whales, can use echolocation to find food and identify objects around them. They make loud clicking and squeaking sounds that bounce off objects and echo back to the dolphin. This echo tells the dolphin about the nearby object.


Animals such as seals:
(order: Carnivora
family: Phocidae)
The seals are marine mammals. The seal family includes the seal, sea lion and the walrus.
A seal's respiratory system is adapted for water. A seal can go for 40 minutes without a breath. This allows them to dive to a depth of over 2,000 feet.
Seals are well designed to swim in water. Their bodies are very streamlined and their flippers propel them quickly through the water
Seals also spend considerable time lying around on rocky islands and beaches. But they are clumsy and move slowly on land using their flippers.
Baby seals are born on land after a long, 12 month gestation period. The pups develop rapidly, with some able to swim within a few hours of birth.
Walruses differ from seals in that they are larger and have large tusks. They can be over 10 feet long and over 3,000 pounds.
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Last edited by Eram Khan; Sunday, February 26, 2006 at 07:33 AM.
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