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  #151  
Old Wednesday, October 01, 2014
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Default Are these notes really correct ??

Hello there, are these notes really correct? Please check two examples:
1. Concave and Convex Lens (Page#4, Post#31)
2. Fission and Fusion (Page#4, Post#33)
2. RAM and RAM (Page#4, Post#34)

If my doubt is false please someone do correct me, but if I am right what about the credibility of other information?
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  #152  
Old Saturday, January 10, 2015
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u have set it to private ,,, its not accessable kindly check it
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  #153  
Old Tuesday, January 24, 2017
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani View Post
Branches Of Biology:


i) Zoology: Zoology is that branch of biology which deals with the study of animals.

ii) Botany: Botany is that branch of biology which deals with the study of plants.

iii) Microbiology: It is the branch of biology which deals with the study of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria etc.

iv) Morphology: It deals with the shape and structure of living organisms.

v) Histology: It is the microscopic study of tissues of plants and animals.

vi) Cytology: It deals with the structure of cell and organelles present inside the cell.

vii) Physiology: It deals with the study of functions of different parts of plants and animals.

viii) Ecology: It is the science of ecosystem and explains the relationship between organisms and their environment.

ix) Taxonomy: It deals with the naming and classification of organisms.

x) Genetics: It deals with the study of heredity and variations.

xi) Biotechnology: It deals with the application of biological processes.

xii) Haematology: Study of blood and its constituent cells.

xiii) Geology: Study of features and properties of earth and its constituents rocks.
Correction!
Geology has nothing to do with Biology (Only in Paleontology and Medical Geology, we use concepts of Biology) . It is totally a different subject...Geology is not a branch of Biology..
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  #154  
Old Monday, October 09, 2017
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thank you
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  #155  
Old Thursday, October 10, 2019
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  #156  
Old Monday, February 17, 2020
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Default Adequacy of these notes

Dear all seniors! The effort put in making and posting these notes is laudable. However, an important question is: Are these notes sufficient? Does this material incorporates every aspect of the syllabus? Moreover, Does it provide enough explanation to each topic covered here? I'll be more than grateful for your expert opinions and recommendations. Thanks
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  #157  
Old Monday, February 17, 2020
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Tufta View Post
Dear all seniors! The effort put in making and posting these notes is laudable. However, an important question is: Are these notes sufficient? Does this material incorporates every aspect of the syllabus? Moreover, Does it provide enough explanation to each topic covered here? I'll be more than grateful for your expert opinions and recommendations. Thanks
Speaking as someone who has given these exams twice, here's what I think:
1. This thread started in 2011 and notes may not be updated according to 2016 syllabus, and are missing major topics.
2. It also looks like a 'dead' thread since it seemed more active up till 2014
3. ALWAYS MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES
4. CONSULT RECOMMENDED BOOKS FROM FPSC syllabus in addition to ONLINE SOURCES AND NEWSPAPERS
5. Give General Ability as much importance as Science portion.
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  #158  
Old Saturday, April 04, 2020
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MuneezaRafiq View Post
Speaking as someone who has given these exams twice, here's what I think:
1. This thread started in 2011 and notes may not be updated according to 2016 syllabus, and are missing major topics.
2. It also looks like a 'dead' thread since it seemed more active up till 2014
3. ALWAYS MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES
4. CONSULT RECOMMENDED BOOKS FROM FPSC syllabus in addition to ONLINE SOURCES AND NEWSPAPERS
5. Give General Ability as much importance as Science portion.
Does the past papers from 2000 to 2015 even matter now?
And especially what about the topics related to Muslim Scientists?
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  #159  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani View Post
Abbreviations:
From Past Papers


1. LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas

2. TNT: Tri Nitro Toluene

3. RNA: Ribonucleic Acid

4. CNG: Compressed Natural Gas

5. ATP: Adenosine Tri Phosphate

6. RBC: Red Blood Cells/Corpuscles

7. ECG: Electro Cardio Gram

8. PVC: Poly vinyl Chloride

9. RAM: Random Access Memory

10. CFC: Chloro Fluoro Carbon

11. LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated emission of Radiation

12. RADAR: Radio Detection And Ranging

13. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

14. ROM: Read Only Memory

15. LAN: Local Area Network

16. WWW: World Wide Web

17. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid

18. SONAR: Sound Navigation And Ranging

19. SARS: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

20. NTP: Network Time Protocol/ Normal Temperature and Pressure

21. RQ: Respiratory Quotient

22. NPN: Negative Positive Negative/

23. PNP: Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

24. WAN: Wide Area Network

25. CPU: Central Processing Unit

26. BCG: Bacillus Calmette Guerin

27. STP: Standard Temperature And Pressure/Shielded Twisted Pair/Sodium Tripolyphosphate/Spanning Tree Protocol

28. ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate

29. KWh: Kilo Watt Hour

30. BTU: British thermal Unit

31. LDL: Low Density Lipoprotein

32. MAF: Million Acre Feet

33. HDL: Hardware Description Language

34. MCV: Mean Corpuscular Volume

35. UHF: Ultra High Frequency

36. LED: Light emitting Diode

37. LCD: Liquid Crystal Display

38. BASIC: Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

39. MASER: Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

40. ETT: Educational Telecommunications and Technology/ European Transaction on Telecommunication

41. HST: High Speed Technology/ High Speed Train (in UK)/Hubble Space Telescope

42. DBS: Data Base Server/ Direct Broadcast Satellite

43. CRO: Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

44. BOT: Build, Operate and Transfer/Botulinum Toxin

45. AMU: Atomic Mass Unit

46. EMF: Electro Motive force

47. ADH: Anti-diuretic Hormone

48. GeV: Giga Electro Volt

49. CRT: Cathode Ray Tube

50. CNS: Central Nervous System

51. PTFE: Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene

52. GUT: Grand Unified Theory

53. LONAR: Long Range Navigation

54. MeV: Mega Electron Volt/ Million Electron Volt/ Multi-experiment Viewer

55. AWACS: Airborne Warning and Control System

56. CCTV: Closed-Circuit Television
Thanks
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  #160  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani View Post
Hormones:


Hormones are the chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands. They carry electro-chemical messages to different parts of the body. Hormones are circulated in the body through blood. The function of endocrine system depends upon these hormones. These hormones work in the similar way as the nervous system works in the body. Insulin, glucagon, thyroxin and testosterone are few kinds of hormones. Hormones play an important role in a living organism. A small amount of hormones in the blood produces specific effects in the body. Several dozen hormones travel through the blood stream and influence different kinds of target cells, modifying their activity in a variety of ways.


Antibody:


Antibody is a protein produced by white blood cells that help to destroy bacteria.
Antibodies react with the antigens and inactivate or destroy them.
A large number of antibodies are produced in blood which are targeted against various types of antigens.
Antigens are foreign molecules, cells, bacteria, viruses or fungi which enter the body usually a disease causing microorganisms.
Antibodies are the integral part of the defence mechanism of human body.
They are also involved in immunity against disease.


Haemophilia:

It is a disease in which the person has prolonged blood clotting time resulting in excessive bleeding from injury.
It is due to the deficiency of vitamin K.
It is a semi lethal disease controlled by recessive gene.
It is less common in women than in men.
Very well explained, Masha Allah
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