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Old Friday, May 04, 2012
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Originally Posted by imran2q View Post
salam alikum dear redmax.. you mentioned earlier "some online resources" would you please mention name of those online resources for islamiat??? and i need help regarding morality of Islam and morality of west or morality of different religions
when it is asked to compare western morality with islam... is it to compare Christin morality or with some non religion morality or ethics theories??? please help is needed in this regard
AOA,
hope these articles will help you.

The comparison of Islam and other religions with respect to the spiritual education of humanity


Almost all moral or religious revival movements prior to Islam emerged or developed as reactions against existing circumstances. This explains why they lacked some principles and did not deal with every aspect of life and humanity. For example, Taoism taught a corrupt and vice-ridden China to neglect material pleasure. Confucianism was opposed to these principles and called upon those who had retreated to monasteries to seek spiritual purification and individual piety to establish a virtuous state and live a fully social life among the people. India’s vast fertile country was invaded several times, which caused its religions to become very mystical. In addition, asceticism grew as a reaction against the previously prevalent luxury and debauchery.

Christianity, particularly in the beginning, developed too much as an otherworldly religion. One reason was its emergence in an atmosphere dominated by worldliness. Another reason was because, as Jesus admitted, it was a revelation for a particular nation at a particular time and in particular circumstances, and so was not the final and complete Divine message:

I have much more to tell you, but now it would be too much for you to bear. However, when the Spirit of truth comes, who reveals the truth about God, he will lead you into all the truth. He will not speak on his own authority, but will speak of what he hears and tell you of things to come. (John 16:12-13)

Five centuries later, the entire truth was revealed to humanity via the Spirit of truth, known to history as Prophet Muhammad. God revealed that the message he brought was universal (34:28), that he spoke only what was revealed to him, and that he did not speak on his own authority. Such facts were foretold by Jesus (John 16:12-13) and mentioned in the Qur’an (53:3-4).

Only Muhammad has emerged as a Prophet after Jesus, and only he has been used by God to reveal His truth. Before this, polytheism and other denials of monotheism were prevalent: Most of humanity does not believe in Him, but associate other gods with Him (12:106). As people measured not God with His true measure (6:91), some believed that He had a son while others considered the angels to be His daughters.

The Prophet revealed the truth about God and emphasized His Unity. With him, God perfected religion and declared that the true religion with Him is Islam (3:19) and: therefore, whoso desires another religion than Islam, it shall not be accepted of him; in the next world he shall be among the losers (3:85). Jesus stated: He [the Spirit of truth] shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine and show it to you (John 16:14), and the Prophet acknowledged Jesus’ true glory by revealing the true importance of his life and teachings. Finally, he brought Islam, the last and complete message, because he is the Seal of Prophets.

Given all of this, Islam is a religion that contains a complete guidance for all aspects of life regardless of time and place; a faith-based system of life that combines action, intention, and faith and considers the totality of human life. Although it concentrates on our spiritual aspect, it does not neglect life’s socioeconomic and administrative aspects. In fact, the Qur’an mentions the qualifications of the people chosen by God Almighty to guide and educate humanity and describes the foundations of a perfect community as follows: Thus We appointed for you a Messenger from among you so that he will recite to you Our signs, purify you, and teach you the Book, wisdom, and what you do not know (2:151).

As Islam is the way of love, knowledge, and action, humanity needs signs to implement it. Thus every event in the universe and human life is no more than a sign upon which we are to contemplate and through which we can find ways to the Sublime Creator. By contemplating these signs in the light of the Qur’an’s guidance, we acquire knowledge of God and faith and lead a virtuous life based upon Islam, which purifies our soul from evil and sin. Such contemplation enables us to “discover” modern science, all of which originates in the signs (commonly known as the Divine laws of nature).

However, we should note that only purified souls can use science and technology to benefit humanity. If this fact is ignored, such knowledge can lead to millions of deaths, widows and orphans, and homeless people, as we saw throughout the twentieth century. Only purified souls familiar with science and knowing how to use it can lead humanity toward true happiness and salvation.

Obviously, such purified individuals endowed with scientific knowledge and ability must live among the people. Thus the Messenger was sent with the Qur’an, which contains the Divine principles of social life, and the Balance so that we could follow absolute justice.14 Any religion or system that lacks the principles of spiritual purity or the conditions of a virtuous social life cannot provide true happiness. As will be explained, and as witnessed by history, Islam provides a complete guidance for our lives here and in the next world. Prophet Muhammad was sent as the blessing for all the worlds, and so there is no need to renew the Divine message through another Prophet—we already have the eternal and uncorrupted Qur’an.

Islam will never be outdated

Some people argue that Islam, now 1,400 years old, is obsolete and unsuitable, that new guidance is required. Such an assertion is totally unfounded, for Islam was revealed by God and thus is eternal, as He is. Our knowledge is limited, whereas God’s Knowledge is all-inclusive. God is also omniscient, for He is not limited by time and space as we are.

Moreover, Islam is based on essential human nature, which does not change over time or according to location. It is a modern illusion that everything is subject to change. Human life and nature show a beautiful balance between elements of permanence and change: Outward forms change, while fundamental principles, basic values, and essential human nature and needs do not.

The Qur’an and Sunna propound Islam’s eternal principles, while deductive reasoning based upon them (ijtihad) meets the needs of every age. Ijtihad is neither independent reasoning (Joseph Schacht) nor free thinking (Hamilton Gibb), but a technical legal term and principle defined by Muslim scholars as “the competency or legal ability to deduce rules of law through juristic speculation from original sources where definite authentic decisive texts are not specific.” For example, Islam does not object to modern traffic laws, but considers murder a capital sin and a grave crime worthy of severe punishment even if committed by someone driving a car.

Someone once said to a famous Muslim jurist: “You argue that the Qur’an contains every principle related to modern needs. If so, does it say how many loaves of bread can be made from a kilo of flour?” The jurist’s answer is very significant to understanding the matter’s essence: “Yes, the Qur’an gives that information in 16:43, which tells us that if we don’t know something we must ask the experts. So ask a baker about it.”

Islam is the only religion that embraces all dimensions of life and possesses an established method that allows for the perennial evolution of human society in accordance with life’s fundamental principles and permanent values.
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Morality and Religion

Morality can be based only on religion, but morality and religion are not one. Morality as a principle does not exists without religion even thought morality as a practice, as a particular case of behavior, is not dependant directly on religiousness. A common argument that connects them both is the other, superior world. Because it is the other world, it is a religious world; because it is a superior world, it is a moral world. This shows both the interdependence of religion and morality as well as their independence of each other. There is a certain inner consistency that is not automatic, mathematical, or logical but rather practical; divergencies are possible but sooner or later the dependence is reestablished. Atheism, after all, ends up as a negation of morality, and every true moral transformation starts with a religious renewal. Morality is a religion transformed into rules of behavior - that is, into man's attitude toward other man in accordance with the fact of God's existence. To have to fulfill our duties regardless of the difficulties and risks we face (this being moral behavior as distinguished from behavior motivated by interest), such a demand can be justified only if this world and this life are not the only world and the only life. This is the common starting point of morality and religion.

Morality was born by prohibition and has remained a prohibition until today. A prohibition is religious by nature and by origin. Out of the Ten Commandments, eight of them are prohibitions. Morality is always a restrictive or prohibitive principle which opposes the animal instincts in human nature. The Christian ethic can serve here as an example - not as the only but as the most famous and the most evident.

The history of religion is full of seemingly meaningless prohibitions. However, from the point of view of ethics, there are no meaningless prohibitions. Of course, a prohibition can have a rational meaning too, but utility is never its primary aim.

Morality is not " life in harmony with nature" as the Stoics defined it. It is rather life against nature, provided that the word "nature" is understood in its true sense. Like man, morality is also irrational, non-natural, supernatural. Natural man and natural morality do not exist. Man within the limits of nature is not man; he is, at best, an animal endowed with reason. Morality within the limits of nature is not morality but rather a form of selfishness, a form of wise and enlightened selfishness.

In the Darwinian "struggle for survival," the best (in the moral sense) do not win; only the strongest and the best adjusted do. Biological progress also does not lead to human dignity being one of the sources of morality. A Darwinian man may reach the highest degree of biological perfection, a "superman," but he will remain without human quality and, therefore, without human dignity as well. The latter could have been given to him only by God.

Social progress as a prolongation of the biological progress has the same effects on morality. The English moralist Mandeville asks: "What is the significance of morality for the progress of society and the development of civilization?" and answers very simply: "None. It may even be harmful." According to him, the means that are usually blamed as sinful have the most stimulating effect on a society's progress since " what increases man's needs promotes his development the most." To be more definite: "The so-called moral and physical evils of this world are the main driving forces that make us social beings."

If all progress, biological as well as technical, is to be found in Darwin's theory of natural selection where the stronger suppresses and even destroys the weaker, morality must be in opposition to this essential point of progress. Morality has always demanded protection, compassion, and regard for the weaker and less capable. Thus, morality and nature have been in opposition with each other from the very beginning. "Get rid of the conscience, compassion, forgiveness - those inner human tyrants. Oppress the weak, climb over their corpses..." The parting with morality is very evident. Destroy the weak versus protect the weak - those are the two opposite demands that separate the biological from the spiritual, the zoological from the human, nature from culture, and science from religion. Only Nietzsche consistently applied biological laws and their consequences to human society. The result was the rejection of love and forgiveness and the justification of violence and hatred. For Nietzsche, Christianity, especially Christian ethics, was "the most poisoned poison that had ever been instilled into the vigorous body of the ardent mankind."

In Phaedo, Plato expounded a genuine ethic: ordinary courage is only a kind of cowardice, and ordinary moderation is only a hidden lust for pleasure. That kind of virtue is only a commercial business, a shadow of virtue, a virtue of slaves. A true moral man has only one desire: to be away from the physical and closer to the spiritual. The body is the grave of the soul. In its earthly existence, the soul never reaches its aim, and true knowledge comes only after death. That is why an ethical man is not afraid of death. To truly think and live means constant preparation to die. Evil is the force that rules the world, and morality is neither a natural possibility of man, nor can it be based on reason.

Established ethics have never been rationally proved and, of course, they cannot be proven by this method. Plato referred to metaphysical proofs instead of anthropological ones, which made him the forerunner of theologically based ethics. This development was lawful. It is well known that Plato proponed a teaching about preexistence which stated that every item of knowledge is only a remembrance. An integral part and necessary presumption of such a teaching is the idea of immorality.

Plato's meditations on ethics led him directly to the religious position. Two other ancient thinkers, Epictetus and Seneca, were led to a specific religion (Christianity) through similar meditations. There are very certain indications that Epictetus was a clandestine Christian, and that Seneca corresponded with Paul. In his De viris illustribus, Jerome includes Seneca in the list of church writers.

Christianity is a striking example of a perfect harmony, a strong mutual affinity, and almost a unity of a great religion and great ethics. The art of the Renaissance, completely inspired by biblical themes, proves that great art joins them.

From a historical point of view, moral thought is one of the oldest human thoughts. It is preceded only by the idea of the divine which itself is as old as man. These two thoughts have been closely connected throughout history. In the history of ethics, there is practically no serious thinker who has not decided about religion, either by borrowing the necessity of religion for moral principles or by proving the opposite. The whole history of ethics is a continuing story of the reciprocal permeance of religious and ethical thought. Statistics cannot be proof in this matter, but it can be pointed out that religious moralists prevail, while atheists almost never do.

The so-called laic (secular) ethical movements which stressed the independence of ethics from religion showed that every moralistic thought or activity naturally tends to approach or even to identify with religion. Notwithstanding the contradictory course of these ideas and their oscillation between religion and science, their development is of great importance. Schoolbooks in French state schools, where moral instruction replaced religious instruction, followed the catechism format of teaching religious doctrines in Christian churches. This trend had a permanent tendency to maintain an independent position against religion which all the while continued to approach it unconsciously.

Therefore, it is possible to imagine a truly religious but immoral man and vice versa. Religion is one kind of knowledge, and morality is a life lived in accordance with that knowledge. There remains, however, a certain discrepancy between knowledge and practice. Religion is the answer to the question of how to think and believe, while morals are the answer to the question of how to desire and aim or how to live and behave. The tidings of the other world also imply a demand to live in accordance with this wide and infinite vision, although the demand itself is not identical with the vision. Jesus' sublime ethics were a direct consequence of an equally strong and clear religious consciousness. However, the inquisitors' devotions were also sincere, even though this assertion sounds paradoxical. "Believe and do good deeds" - this sentence, which us repeated in the Qur'an more than fifty times, points out the necessity of uniting something that people tend to separate. It expresses the difference between religion ("believe") and morality ("do good") as well as the imperative that they should go together. The Qur'an uncovers a reverse relation and shows how religion can find a strong incentive in morality: "You will not believe until you give amply of what is dear to your heart." It is not: "Believe and you will be a good man," but the reverse: "Be a good man and you will believe." To the question of how one can strengthen his faith, the answer is: "Do good and by so doing you will find God."
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thankyou so much angelstar.. these are quite helpful .. did you take from any newspaper or any other source??
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today i bought book islam and its meaning and message by Khurshid ahmed..... is it good enough for CSS or should i replace it with other books like that of mentioned introduction to islamic ideology by Anwer Hashmi or some one have suggested me o level book by farkhanda i think.......seniors plz guide me .... i also have Islamic Studies by Imtiaz Shahid .... along with Imtiaz shahid book which other book i should follow...plz tell me..
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Default study plan for 2012

sir kindly tell me study plan for 2012
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sir kindly tell me study plan for 2012
The same study plan can be followed for 2013.
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Is Anwar hashme's book sufficient for islamiyat?
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Quote:
Originally Posted by redmax View Post
Hello aspirants,

This has been my strategy to prepare a study plan before studying any subject. I have uploaded study plans of my optional subjects and two compulsory subjects in their relevant threads. Let me briefly tell you what this plan contains and what is its basis.

Study Plan is actually an in-depth analysis of Past papers of the subject. Based on these, the subject has been divided into areas which are recurring and most important from the examination point of view. Thus, if you keep this Study Plan before you, it may obviate the need for referring to subjective part of the past papers as it contains all questions from 2000 onwards. However, for objective part (MCQs), you will have to refer to past papers for solving them.

I reiterate here that its my own analysis and it has so far proved very helpful in my preparation. The only purpose behind sharing it is helping out other aspirants in whatever capacity I can.



Disclaimer: This is neither a guess paper nor does it guarantee any crown. However, it is of tremendous help in identifying the areas from where the paper is usually set.
Salam Redmax!
Thnxxx alottt for your help and guidance,May GOD Bless you and also help u the way u helped us,
Actually I have opted Islamiat in Urdu language,then i want to ask, is your Study Plan(which is written in English) also applies for URDU slang as well??? and
Kindly tell me the Books for Islamiat(in urdu), u have mentioned one book Islami nazarya e hayat by Khursheeed Ahmed, in addition to this book, which other books should i use for Prep.of Islamiat in urdu language.
There comes many books in market,dnt know which to choose or not, will you plz tell me the QUALITY STANDARD BOOKS for Islamiat(in urdu).
Regards!!!
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books for islamiyat in urdu.....
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Miss Ayaz View Post
books for islamiyat in urdu.....
Islami Nazriya-e-Hayat by Khurshid Ahmed is the best and recommended book by FPSC. After reading this book, you will realize that 90% questions in past are asked from this book only.
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