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Old Thursday, May 05, 2011
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Default Brief History Of Hazrat Ali

Name: Ali
Title: al-Murtada
Agnomen: Abu ' l-Hasan
Father's name: Abu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib
Mother's name: Fatimah bint Asad
Birth: In the Holy Ka'bah in Mecca on Friday, 13th Rajab 23 BH
Death: Died at the age of 63, in Kufah (Iraq) on Monday, 21st Ramadan 40 AH; murdered by an assassin who mortally wounded him with a poisoned sword in the mosque of Kufah during the morning prayer on 19th Ramadan; buried in an-Najaf al-Ashraf (Iraq)
Imam Ali was the cousin of our Holy Prophet. He was born in the Sacred House (Ka'bah). Providence alone had a hand in bringing his mother towards the Ka'bah. When his mother came to Ka'bah, she felt weighed down by intense pain of pregnancy. She knelt down before the Holy Structure and prayed humbly to God. 'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, saw 'Ali's mother praying to God. No sooner had she raised her head from supplication, then the wall of the Sacred House split by a solemn miracle. Fatimah entered the Ka'bah and that portion returned to its normal position. 'Abbas and his companions flocked at the gate of the Sacred House which was locked, and tried to open it, but in vain. They then decided to give it up, considering the miraculous nature of the event and the Divine Will in action.
The news of this miraculous incident soon spread like wild fire in Mecca. 'Ali was born within the Ka'bah with his eyes closed and his body in humble prostration before the Almighty. Fatimah stayed in the Ka'bah for three days and as the fourth day approached she stepped out, carrying her gem in her arms. To her great surprise, she found the Holy Prophet awaiting to receive the newly-born child in his anxious arms. Imamate feeling the subtle touch of prophethood, 'Ali opened his eyes and saluted the Divine Prophet: "as-Salamu 'alayka ya Rasula'lldh" (Peace be on you, O Messenger of Allah). 'Ali's birth in the Ka'bah is unique in the history of the world. Neither a prophet nor a Divine saint was ever blessed with such an honour. He was brought up under the care and affection of the Holy Prophet. As 'Ali says: "The Holy Prophet brought me up in his own arms and fed me with his own morsel. I followed him wherever he went like a baby-camel following its mother. Each day a new aspect of his character would beam out of his noble person and I would accept it and follow it as a command. " (Nahju 'I-balaghah). Ten years in the company of the Holy Prophet had kept him so close and inseparable, that he was one with him in character, knowledge, self-sacrifice, forbearance, bravery, kindness, generosity, oratory and eloquence.
From his very infancy, he prostrated before God along with the Holy Prophet. As he himself said: "I was the first to pray to God along with the Holy Prophet." " 'Ali presented in the footsteps of the Holy Prophet," says al-Mas'udi, "all along his childhood." Allah created him pure and holy and kept him steadfast on the right path. Though 'Ali is undisputably the first to embrace Islam when the Holy Prophet called upon his listeners to do so, yet by the very fact that since his infancy he was brought up by the Holy Prophet and followed him in every action and deed including prostration before Allah, he can be said to be born a Muslim, just like the Holy Prophet himself. 'Ali, at all times, accompanied the Holy Prophet to help and protect him from his enemies. He used to write down the verses of the Holy Qur'an and discuss them with the Prophet as soon as they were revealed by the Holy Messenger, the Gabriel.
He was so closely associated with the Holy Prophet that as soon as a verse was revealed to him during the day or night, 'Ali was the first to hear it. The Holy Prophet has said of 'Ali: O 'Ali, you are my brother in this world as well as in the Hereafter. I am the city of knowledge and 'Ali is the gate. Nobody knows 'Ali except Allah and I. Nobody know me except Allah and 'Ali. If you want to see the knowledge of Adam, the piety of Noah, the devotion of Abraham, the awe of Moses, and the service and abstinence of Christ, look at the bright face of Ali. When the Holy Prophet reached Yathrib (Medina) and met his followers who had come from Mecca at his call, he immediately appointed for each such followers a person from the people of Yathrib known as Ansar (Helpers), who had accepted his prophethood, to be a brother to him. His appointment of brothers was a great act of help for the refugees known as Muhajirun (Emigrants), who left their home and come to Yathrib. He made brothers of people who followed the same trade so that the Muhajirun could be usefully employed immediately.
While the Prophet was appointing an Ansar a brother to a Muhajirun 'Ali who was present there, was not appointed as a brother to any Ansar. On being questioned as to why he had not appointed a brother for 'All, the Prophet said: "He shall be a brother to me." The character and calibre of 'Al; as judged by al- Mas'udi is, "If the glorious name of being the first Muslim, a comrade of the Prophet in exile, his faithful companion in the struggle for faith, his intimate associate in life, and his kinsman; if a true knowledge of the spirit of his teachings and of the Book; if self-abnegation and practice of justice; if honesty, purity, and love of truth; if a knowledge of law and science, constitute a claim to pre-eminence, then all must regard 'Al'i as the foremost Muslim.
We shall search in vain to find, either among his predecessors (save one) or among his successors, those attributes. " Gibbon says: "The birth, the alliance, the character of 'Ali which exalted him above the rest of his country- men, might justify his claim to the vacant throne of Arabia. The son of Abu Talib was in his own right the chief of Banu Hashim and the hereditary prince or guardian of the city and the Ka'bah." " 'AIi had the qualifications of a poet, a soldier, and a saint; his wisdom still breathes in a collection of moral and religious sayings; and every antagonist, in the combats of the tongue or of the sword, was subdued by his eloquence and valour. From the first hour of his mission to the last rites of his funeral, the Apostle was never forsaken by a generous friend, whom he delighted to name his brother, his vicegerent, and the faithful Aaron of a second Moses."
* * *
Under Divine instruction, the Apostle of Allah married his beloved daughter Fatimah to 'Al;, though others vainly tried for her hand. Among their children, Imam Hasan, Imam Husayn, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum have left their marks on the history of the world. After the death of Hadrat Fatimah, 'Ali married Ummu 'I-Banin. 'Abbas was born out of this wedlock and was so handsome that he was fondly called Qamar Banu Hashim. He personified loyalty and bravery and proved it in the battlefield at Karbala'.
* * *
In the 40th year of Hijrah, in the small hours of the morning of 19th Ramadan, 'Ali was struck with a poisoned sword by a Kharijite while offering his prayers in the mosque of Kufah. (See photo on p. 56) The Lion of God, the most brave-hearted and fentle Muslim that ever lived began his glorious life with devotion to Allah and His Apostle and ended it in the service of Islam.
"And do not speak of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead; nay they are alive but you do not perceive. (Qur'an, 2:154)
* * *
THE IMAMS AND LEADERS OF ISLAM (Byal-`Allamahat-Tabatabai)
The previous discussions lead us to the conclusion that in Islam, after the death of the Holy Prophet, there has continuously existed and will continue to exist with- in the Islamic community (ummah), an Imam (a leader chosen by God). Numerous prophetic hadlths have been transmitted in Sh;'ism concerning the description of the Imams, their number, the fact that they are all of the Quraysh and of the Household of the Prophet, and the fact that the promised Mahdi; is among them and the last of them. Also, there are definitive words of the Prophet concerning the Imamate of 'Al; and his being the first Imam and also definitive utterances of the Prophet and 'Al; concerning the Imamate of the Second Imam. In the same way the Imams before have left definitive statements concerning the Imamate of those who were to come after them. According to these utterances contained in Twelve- lmam Shi'ite sources the Imams are twelve in number and their holy names are as follows: ( I ) 'Ali ibn Ab; Talib; (2) al-Hasan ibn 'Ali; (3) al-Husayn ibn 'Ali; (4) 'Ali ibn al-Husayn; (5) Muhammad ibn 'Ali;(6) Ja'far ibn Muhammad; (7) Musa ibn Ja'far; (8) 'Ali ibn Musa; (9) Muhammad ibn 'Ali; (10) 'Ali ibn Muhammad; (11) al-Hasan ibn 'Ali; and (12) the Mahdi.
* * *
The First Imam:
Amir al-Mu'minin, 'Ali (upon whom be peace) was the son of Abu Talib, the Shaykh of the Banu Hashim. Abu Talib was the uncle and guardian of the Holy Prophet and the person who had brought the Prophet to his house and raised him like his own son. After the Prophet was chosen for his prophetic mission. Abu Talib continued to support him and repelled from him the evil that came from the infidels among the Arabs and especially the Quraysh. According to well-known traditional accounts 'Ali was born ten years before the commencement of the prophetic mission of the Prophet. When six years old, as a result of femine in and around Mecca, he was requested by the Prophet to leave his father's house and come to the house of his cousin, the Prophet.
There he was placed directly under the guardianship and custody of the Holy Prophet. A few years later, when the Prophet was endowed with the Divine Gift of prophecy and for the first time received the Divine Revelation in the cave of Hira', as he left the cave to return to town and his own house he met 'Ali on the way. He told him what had happened and 'Ali accepted the new faith. Again in a gathering when the Holy Prophet had brought his relatives together and invited them to accept his religion, he said the first person to accept his call would be his vicegerent and inheritor and deputy. The only person to rise from his place and accept the faith was 'Ali and the Prophet accepted his declaration of faith. Therefore, 'Ali was the first man in Islam to accept the faith and is the first among the followers of the Prophet to have never worshipped other than the One God. 'Ali was always in the company of the Prophet until the Prophet emigrated from Mecca to Medina.
On the night of the emigration to Medina (Hijrah) when the infidels had surrounded the house of the Prophet and were determined to invade the house at the end of the night and cut him to pieces while he was in bed. 'Ali slept in place of the Prophet while the Prophet left the house and set out for Medina. After the departure of the Prophet, according to his wish 'Ali gave back to the people the trusts and charges that they had left with the Prophet. Then he went to Medina with }:is mother, the daughter of the Prophet, and two other women. In Medina also 'Ali was constantly in the company of the Prophet in private and in public. The Prophet gave Fatimah, his sole, beloved daughter from Khadijah, to 'Ali as his wife and when the Prophet was creating bonds of brotherhood among his companions, he selected 'Ali as his brother. 'Ali was present in all the wars in which the Prophet participated, except the battle of Tabuk when he was ordered to stay in Medina in place of the Prophet. He did not retreat in any battle nor did he turn his face away from any enemy.
He never disobeyed the Prophet, so that the Prophet said: " 'Ali is never separated from the Truth nor the Truth from 'Ali." On the day of the death of the Prophet, 'Ali was thirty- three years old. Although he was foremost in religious virtues and the most outstanding among the companions of the Prophet, he was pushed aside from the caliphate on the claim that he was too young and that he had many enemies among the people because of the blood of the polytheists he had spilled in the wars fought alongside the Prophet. Therefore, 'Ali was almost completely cut off from public affairs. He retreated to his house where he began to train competent individuals in the Divine sciences and in this way he passed the twenty-five years of the caliphate of the first three caliphs who (came to power after the Prophet; the first by election of few Muslims; the second appointed by the first; and the third, chosen out of six unequal candidates nominated by the second caliph. . .?!).
When the third caliph was killed, people gave their allegiance to him and he was chosen as Caliph. During his caliphate of nearly four years and nine months, 'Ali followed, exactly, the way of the Prophet and gave his caliphate the form of a spiritual movement and renewal and began many different types of reforms. Naturally, these reforms were against the interests of certain parties that sought their own benefit. As a result, a group of the companions (foremost among whom were Talhah and Zubayr, who also gained the support of 'A'ishah, and especially Mu'awiyah) made a pretext of the death of the third caliph to raise their heads in opposition and began to revolt and rebel against 'Ali. In order to quell the civil strife and sedition, 'Ali fought successfully aware near Basrah known as the "Battle of the Camel," against Talhah and az-Zubayr in which 'A'ishah, "the Mother of the Faithful," was also involved.
He fought another war against Mu'awiyah on the border of Iraq and Syria which lasted for a year and a half and is famous as the "Battle of Siffin". He also fought the Khawarij at Nahrawan, in a battle known as the "Battle of Nahrawan". Therefore, most of the days of 'Ali's caliphate were spent in overcoming internal opposition. Finally, in the morning of the l9th Ramadan in the year 40 AH, while praying in the mosque of Kufah, he was wounded by one of the Khawarij and died as a martyr during the night of the 21st. According to the testimony of friend and foe alike, 'Ali had no shortcomings from the point of view of human perfection. And in the Islamic virtues he was a perfect example of the upbringing and training given by the Holy Prophet. The discussions that have taken place concerning his personality and the books written on this subject by Shi`tes, Sunnis and members of other religions, as well as the simply curious outside any distinct religious bodies, are hardly equaled in the case of any other personality in history.
In science and knowledge 'Ali was the most learned of the companions of the Prophet, and of Muslims in general. In his learned discourses he was the first in Islam to open the door for logical demonstration and proof and to discuss the "divine science" or metaphysics (ma'arif-e Ilahiyyah). He spoke concerning the esoteric aspect of the Qur'an and devised Arabic grammar in order to preserve the Qur'an form of expression. He was the most eloquent Arab in speech (as has been mentioned in the first part of this book). The courage of 'Ah was proverbial. In all the wars in which he participated during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, and also afterward, he never displayed fear or anxiety. Although in many battles such as those of Uhud, Hunayn, Khaybar and Khandaq, the aides to the Prophet and the Muslim army trembled in fear or dispersed and fled, he never turned back to the enemy. Never did a warrior or soldier engage 'Ali in battle and come out of it alive.
Yet, with full chivalry he would never slay a weak enemy nor pursue those who fled. He would not engage in surprise attacks or in turning streams of water upon the enemy. It has been definitely established historically that in the Battle of Khaybar in the attack against the fort he reached the ring of the door and with sudden motion tore off the door and cast it away. Also, on the day when Mecca was conquered the Prophet ordered the idols to be broken. The idol "Hubal" was the largest idol in Mecca, a giant stone statue placed on the top of the Ka'bah. Following the command of the Holy Prophet, 'Ali placed his feet on the Prophet's shoulders, climbed to the top of the Ka'bah, pulled "Hubal" from its place and cast it down.
'Ali was also without equal in religious asceticism and the worship of God. In answer to some who had complained of 'Ali's anger toward them, the Holy Prophet said: "Do not reproach 'Ali for he is in a state of Divine ecstasy and bewilderment." Abu'd-Darda', one of the companions, one day saw the body of 'Ali in one of the palm plantations of Medina lying on the ground as stiff as wood. He went to 'Ali's house to inform his noble wife, the daughter of the Prophet, and to express his condolences. The daughter of the Prophet said: " My cousin ('Ali) has not died. Rather, in fear of God he has fainted. This condition overcomes him often."
There are many stories told of 'Ali's kindness to the lowly, compassion for the needy and the poor, and generosity and munificence toward those in misery and poverty. 'Ali spent all that he earned to help the poor and the needy, and himself lived in the strictest and simplest manner. 'Ali loved agriculture and spent much of his time digging wells, planting trees and cultivating fields. But all the fields that he cultivated or wells that he built he gave in endowment (waqf) to the poor. His endowments, known as the "alms of 'Ali," had the noteworthy income of twenty-four thousand gold dinars towards the end of his life. (shi`ite Islam)
* * *
All that I am, or hope to be, I owe to my angel mother.
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The problem of the conflict between the world and the Hereafter and the contradiction between them as two opposite poles, such as the north and the south, which are such that proximity to the one means remoteness from the other, is related to the world of human heart, conscience, human attachment, love and worship. Allah (SWT) has not given two hearts to man:

Allah (SWT) has not assigned to any man two hearts within his breast. (Noble Qur'an, 33:4)

With one heart one cannot choose two beloveds.

Hazrat Ali (as) would always spend time with his children. Once he was sitting in his house with his two young children, Hazrat Abbas, his son, and Bibi Zainab, his daughter.

Hazrat Ali (as) said to Hazrat Abbas, "Say Wahid (one)". Hazrat Ali (as) then asked him to "say Isnain (Two)". Hazrat Abbas replied, "I feel ashamed to utter 'two' from the same tongue which just said 'one'".

Hazrat Ali (as) hugged his son, pleased at such a charming expression. The reply from Hazrat Abbas indicated how deeply devoted he was in his belief in Tawheed, that is, Oneness of Allah (SWT). A true believer never likes to even imagine any association with Allah (SWT).

Bibi Zainab then asked, "Dear, father, do you love me?" Hazrat Ali (as) said, "Yes, of course, my children are like a part of my heart". On hearing this, she said, "You also love Allah (SWT). How can two loves be in one heart of a true believer, the love of Allah (SWT) and that of children?

Hazrat Ali (as) smiled and replied, "Love Allah (SWT) and for the sake of His love, you love His creatures; children and fellow beings too. I love you for the sake of Allah (SWT)."

Hazrat Ali (as) and Anger Management: Everything is only for the sake of Allah (SWT)

In the battle of Khandaq, the Muslims dug a ditch around themselves for their defense, so that the enemy could not get across.

A man from the enemy side called Amr bin Abdawud who was known for his strength, courage and art of fighting managed to get across the ditch.

All the Muslims were terrified to fight him and only Hazrat Ali (as) came forward to fight this man.

There was a fierce fight until at last Hazrat Ali (as) threw Amr bin Abdawud down onto the ground and mounted his chest ready to kill him.

Just as Hazrat Ali (as) was about to kill this enemy of Islam, he spit on the face of Hazrat Ali (as).

Everybody was certain that because of this insult, Amr bin Abdawud would meet his death even faster still, but to their amazement, Hazrat Ali (as) moved from Amr bin Abdawud's chest and walked away.

Amr bin Abdawud attacked Hazrat Ali (as) again and after a short while, Hazrat Ali (as) again overpowered Amr bin Abdawud and killed him.

After the battle of Khandaq was over people asked Hazrat Ali (as) the reason why he had spared Amr bin Abdawud's life when he had first overpowered him.

To which Hazrat Ali (as) replied that if he had killed him then it would have not been only for the sake of Allah (SWT) but also for the satisfaction of his anger and so he let him free.

Then Hazrat Ali (as) controlled his anger and killed Amr bin Abdawud purely for the sake of Allah (SWT).

Moral of the Story: Although your intention may be pure to begin with it can very easily change so always make sure you do things for the sake of Allah (SWT) only.

Survival of Religion Lies in Patience (Sabr)

One day Prophet Muhammad (saw), accompanied by the Commander of the Faithful, Hazrat Ali (as), had been heading towards the mosque of Quba when they happened to come across a lush green garden. Witnessing it Hazrat Ali (as) commented: "O Prophet of Allah! It is a nice garden."

Prophet Muhammad (saw) responded: "Your garden in Paradise is nicer!"

They passed by the garden and continued on their way; in the course of their walk they passed by seven gardens and on each occasion the same conversation ensued between the two. Then, Prophet Muhammad (saw) took Hazrat Ali (as) into his arms and began weeping intensely, causing Hazrat Ali (as) to weep too. When Hazrat Ali (as) sought to know the reason for Prophet Muhammad's (saw) weeping, he (saw) said: "I suddenly recollected the malice that has taken root in the breasts of the people towards you and which they shall make manifest after my death."

Hazrat Ali (as) inquired: "O Prophet of Allah! What should I do?" He (saw) advised: "Patience and fortitude. If you fail to exhibit patience you shall fall into far greater difficulties."

Hazrat Ali (as) said: "Do you fear the destruction of my faith and religion?"

Prophet Muhammad (saw) replied: "Your (faith and religion's) existence lies in patience."

Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) and fear of Allah (SWT)

Habbah Arni and Nawf Bakali were lying in the courtyard of Government House (Dar al-Imarah) of Kufa. After the midnight, they saw that Amir al-Muminin (as), was coming from the fort towards the courtyard. But his condition was bad; he was having extraordinary fear and was unable to keep the equilibrium of his body. Keeping his hands on the wall and having his body in bent position, he was walking slowly with the support of the wall. And he was reciting the last verses (Ayat) of Sura Al-e-Imran from Noble Qur'an as follows:

Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand. Those who remember Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: Our Lord! Thou hast not created this in vain! Glory be to Thee; save us then from the chastisement of the fire: Our Lord! Surely whomsoever Thou makest enter the fire, him Thou hast indeed brought to disgrace, and there shall be no helpers for the unjust: Our Lord! Surely we have heard a preacher calling to the faith, saying: Believe in your Lord, so we did believe; Our Lord! Forgive us therefore our faults, and cover our evil deeds and make us die with the righteous. Our Lord! Grant us what You have promised us through Your messengers and do not disgrace us on the Resurrection Day; surely You do not break the promise. (3:190-194)

As soon as he finished these verses, his condition became bad; he then repeated these verses again and again and his condition became bad to worse and he became almost unconscious.

Both Habbah Arni and Nawf Bakali were witnessing this amazing scene, while lying on their beds. Habbah Arni, while quite startled, was looking at this astonishing scene.

But Nawf Bakali was unable to control his tears and he was continuously weeping. By this time, Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) reached the bed of Habbah Arni and said: "Are you awake or asleep?"

Habbah Arni replied: "I am awake, O Commander of the faithful! If a person like you has such a condition of awe and fear of Allah (SWT), then what would happen to poor people like us?"

Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) looked down and wept. He (as) then said: "O Habbah! All of us will be presented before Allah (SWT) one day. And no deed of ours is hidden from Him. He is very near to you and to me. Nothing can act as an obstruction between us and Allah (SWT)."

Then he said to Nawf: "Are you asleep?" (Nawf Bakali replied "No, Commander of the faithful! I am awake. It is for some time that I am shedding tears."

Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) said: "O Nawf! If today you shed tears in fear of Allah (SWT), tomorrow your eyes will glitter.

"O Nawf! No one has more respect than that person who cries in the fear of Allah (SWT) and that he likes to do it only for His sake."

"O Nawf! The one who loves Allah (SWT) and that whatever he loves, he does it just for the sake of Allah, does not prefer anything over love of Allah. And the one who dislikes anything, and does it for the sake of Allah, he would receive nothing except virtue for his disliking. Whenever you reach such a stage, you have attained the truths of faith to their perfection."

After saying this, Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) preached and gave a piece of advice to Habbah Arni and Nawf Bakali. His last sentence was: "I have told you that you should fear from Allah (SWT)." Then he passed by both of them and got busy with his own work. He started his prayers and while doing so, he said: "O Allah! I wish I knew that when I am neglectful towards You, do You ignore me or do You still care for me? I wish I knew that in these long neglectful dreams of mine and in my shortcomings in thanking you, what is my position before You?"

Habbah Arni and Nawf Bakali, said: "By Allah! Amir al-Muminin (as) kept on walking and he had the same condition continuously till dawn."

Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) said: "To judge your own souls before the time of judging of your action arrives. Make an assessment of yourself before you are called upon to account for your conduct in this existence."

Noble Qur'an says: (To) those whose hearts tremble when Allah is mentioned... (22:35)

Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) said: "Fear none but your own sin."
All that I am, or hope to be, I owe to my angel mother.
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Then Hazrat Ali (as) controlled his anger and killed Amr bin Abdawud purely for the sake of Allah (SWT).
I have read in many books and other articles that Hazrat Ali (RA) let him free and after Hazrat Ali (RA) explained that why he do so that person turned into Islam not killed by Hazrat Ali (RA)????
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Default The Life of The Commander of the Faithful

The Life of the Commander of the Faithful
Ali b. Abu Talib
(This part gives) an account of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, the first of the Imams of the belicvers, of the rulers (wulat) of the Muslims and of God's (appointed) successors in religion after the Apostle of God, the truthful one and the trusted one, Muhammad b. Abd Allah, the seal of the Prophets, blessings on him and his pure family. (He was) the brother of the Apostle of God and his paternal cousin, and his helper (wazir) in his affair, his son-in- law (being married) to his daughter, Fatima the chaste, mistress of the women of the universe. (The full name of) the Commander of the faithful is Ali b. Abi Talib b. Abd al Muttalib b. Hashim b. Abd Manaf. (He was) the Lord of the testamentary trustees of authority (wasiyyin), the best of blessing and peace be on him. His kunya was Abu al-Hasan.

He was born in the Sacred House (i.e. the Kaba) in Mecca on Friday, the thirteenth day of the month of Rajab, thirty years after the Year of the Elephant (c.570). Nobody before or after him has ever been born in the House of God, the Most High. (It was a mark) of him being honoured by God, the Most High, may His name be exalted, and of his position being dignified in its greatness.

His mother was Fatima, daughter of Asad b. Hashim b. Abd Manaf, may God be pleased with her. She was like a mother to the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, and he (the Apostle) was brought up under her care.

He was grateful for her kindness and she was among the first to believe in him and she emigrated with him in the group of the emigrants. When she died, the Prophet shrouded her with his own shirt in order to protect her from the insects of the earth, and he laid her to rest in her grave in order that, through that, she might be protected from (the crushing pressure of) the narrow space within the grave. He dictated to her her last words (which were) the statement of the authority (wilaya) of her son, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, so that at the examination after burial, she would be able to reply with those words. He singled her out with this great favour because of her position with God, may He be magnified and exalted, and with him, peace be on hinn. The report of that is well known.

The Commander of the faithful, Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be on him, and his brothers were among the leading members of the second generation of descendants of Hashim. In this way he gained two marks of nobility, through his growing up under the care and education of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. He was the first of the family of the House and of the Companions to believe in God and His Apostle. He was the first male whom the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, summoned to Islam and who answered. He never ceased to support the religion and to strive against the polytheists. He constantly defended the faith and fought against those who supported deviation (from the truth) and despotism. He spread the teachings of the sunna (the practice of thc Prophet) and the Qur'an, judged with justice and enjoined (people) to do good.

He was with the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, twenty-three years after the (coming) of the (prophetic) mission. Of these, thirteen years were in Mecca before thc migration when he shared with him all the persecutions and bore most of his hardships. Then there were ten years in Medina after thc emigration when he defended him against the polytheists and strove with him against the unbelievers. He protected him with his own life from the enemies of religion until the time God, the Exalted, took (the Prophet) to His heaven, raised him to the highest place in heaven and bestowed His blessings and peace on him and his family. On that day the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was thirty-three years of age.

On the day of the death of the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, the community differed over his Imamate. His Shia who were all the Banu Hashim, Salman, Ammar, Abu Dharr, al-Miqdad, Khuzayma b. Thabit - the man who is known as the possessor of two testimonies - Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, Jabir b. Abd Allah al-Ansari Abu Said al-Khudri and people like them among the important emigrants and Ansar, (all these) maintained that he was the successor (khalifa) after the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, and the Imam. (They did this) because of his outstanding merit (fadl) above all mankind, through the fact that there were gathered in him the qualities of outstanding merit, judgement and perfection, such as him being the first of the community to enter the faith, his superiority over them in knowledge of the laws, his precedence over them in fighting (jihad) and the distinction which set him apart from them in the extent of his piety, asceticism and righteousness.

Furthermore he had been specially singled out by the Prophet from among (all) his relations because of (the qualities) which no other relation, apart from him, shared with the Prophet and because of the nomination (nass) of his authority (wilaya) by God, may God be magnified and exalted, in the Qur'an where He, may His name be exalted, says:

Your authority (wali) is God and His Apostle and those believers who perfrom the prayer and pay alms (zakat) while they are bowing (in prayer). [ V 55 ]
It is known that no one except him paid alms while bowing (in prayer).
It has been established in language that wali means "the most appropriate for authority" (awla), without there being any opposition (to this definition). If the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was, by the stipulation of the Qur'an, more appropriate for authority among the people than themselves because of his being their wali according to the textual nomination (nass) in the Clear Explanation (i.e. the Qur'an, tibyan), it was obviously necessary for all of them to obey him, just as obedience to God, the Most High, and obedience to His Apostle, peace be on him and his family, was required because of the information about their authority (wilaya) over creatures which is given in this verse with clear proof.

(Another reason for their support for the Commander of the faithful was) because of what the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, said on the day (of the assembly) at his house. He had especially gathered the Banu Abd al-Muttalib there in order to make the (following) solemn pledge:

Whoever helps me in this matter will be my brother, my testamentary trustee (wasi) my helper (wazir), my heir and my successor after me.
Then the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, stood up before him among all the gathering of them, and on that day he was the youngest of them, and he said:
O Apostle of God, I will help you.
Then the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, said:
Sit down, you are my brother, my trustee, my helper, my inheritor and successor after me.
This is a clear statement about the succession (after the Prophet).
In addition, there is also what (the Prophet), peace be on him and his family, said on the day of Ghadir Khumm. The community had gathered to listen to the sermon (in which he asked):

Am I not more appropriate for authority (awla) over you than yourselves?
Yes, they answered.
Then he spoke to them in an ordered manner without any interruption in his speech:

Whomsoever I am the authority over (mawla), Ali is also the authority over.
Thus he (the Prophet) required for him (Ali), through laying down obedience to him and his authority (over them), the same authority as he had over them, and which he made them acknowledge and which they did not deny. This is clear (evidence) of the nomination (nass) of him for the Imamate and for succession to his position.
Furthermore there is (the Prophet's), peace be on him and his family, statement to him at the time of setting out to Tabuk:

You are in the same position with respect to me as Aaron (Harun) was to Moses (Musa) except that there is no prophet after me.
Thus he required him (to have) the office of helping (i.e. administering) and to be characterised by love and outstanding merit over everyone. (He also required) his deputising for him both during his life and after his death. The Qur'an gives evidence for all that coming to Aaron (Harun) from Moses, peace be on them, when God, may He be magnified and exalted, said in giving a report of what Moses, peace be on him, said:
Make Aaron, my brotherly a helper for me from my family. Give me support through him and make him participate in my affair so that we may glorify You much and we may remember You frequently in that You have been a watcher over us. [ XX 29-35]
God, the Most Exalted said:
Your request is granted Moses. [ XX 36 ]
This (verse) confirmed that Aaron had a share with Moses in prophecy, and in helping in delivering the message and his support was strengthened through him by his aid. (Moses) also told him of deputising for him (when he said):
Deputise for me among my people. Act for (their) benefit and do not follow the path of the corrupters. [ VII 142 ]
This confirms his succession by the precise statement of revelation. Therefore when the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, gave all the ranks which Aaron had from Moscs to the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, in the same extent, except for prophecy, (all such things) were required of him as helping the Apostle, giving him support, outstanding merit and love, because these qualities were definitely required by that. Then by the clear statement there is his deputising for him during his life and "after the prophethood" which (gives evidence of his succession) by specification of the exception, (of Prophethood) when he excludes him from it by mentioning "after".
The Imamate of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was for thirty years after the Prophet, may God bless him and his family. For twenty-four years and six months of these he was prevented from administering the laws (of the office) (and had to) exercise precautionary dissimulation (taqiyya) and withdrawal. For five years and six months of these, he was troubled by wars against the hypocrites, those who broke their pledges, the unjust and those who deviated (from the religion) and he was plagued by the seditions of those who had gone astray. In the same way the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, had been prevented from (administering) the laws (of his office) through fear and through being spied upon, and through being a fugitive and through being exiled, so that he had no power to fight the unbelievers and no means of defending the believers. Then he emigrated and for ten years after the emigration he remained making war on the unbelievers and being troubled by the hypocrites until the time that God, may His name be exalted, took him unto Himself and made him dwell in the gardens of Paradise.

The death of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him occurred before dawn of Friday, the twenty-first of the month of Ramadan, in the year 40 A.H. He was a victim of the sword. Ibn Muljam al-Muradi, may God curse him, killed him at the mosque of Kufa, which he had come out to in order to wake the people for the dawn prayer on the night of the nineteenth of the month of Ramadan. He had been lying in wait for him from the beginning of the night. When he (the Commander of the faithful) passed by him while the latter was hiding his design by feigning sleep amid a group of people who were asleep, he (Ibn Muljam) sprang out and struck him on the top of his head with his sword which was poisoned. He lingered through the day of the nineteenth and the night and day of the twentieth and the first third of the night of the twenty-first. Then he, peace be on him, died a martyr and met his Lord, Most High, as one who has been wronged. He, peace be on him, knew of that before its time and he told the people of it before its time. His two sons, al- Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, performed (the tasks) of washing him and shrouding him according to his bequest. Then they carried him to al-Ghari at Najaf in Kufa and they buried him there. They removed the traces of the place of his burial according to his bequest which was made about that to hath of them by him, because of what he, peace be on him, knew about the regime of the Umayyads (which would come) after him, and their hostile attitude towards him. (For he knew) the evil action and abuse to which they would be led by their wicked intentions if they had been able to know that (place). His grave, peace be on him, remained hidden until al-Sadiq Jafar b. Muhammad, peace be on them, pointed it out during the Abbasid regime. For he visited it when he came to visit Abu Ja'far (al-Mansur) while the latter was in al-Hira. Then the Shi'a knew of it and they began from that time to make visitation to his (grave), peace be on him and on his pure offspring.

On the day of his death he was 63 years of age.


Kitab al Irshad - Pages 1 - 6
The Book Of Guidance
By Shaykh al Mufid
Translated by I.K.A Howard

Imam Ali (as) First in many Fields
He was the only man to be born in the Kabah (The house of God)
He was the first to offer homage to the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF)
He was the first to offer prayers after the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF)
He was the first to offer his services for Jihad.
He was the first to receive religious instructions from the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF)
He was the first to compile and codify the Quran
He was the first to be styled as "brother" by the Prophet (PBUH&HF) and on every occasion
He was the first to give burial to the Prophet (PBUH&HF)
He was the first to offer to sleep in the Prophet's (PBUH&HF) bed on the night of his emigration to Medina
He was the first to be appointed commander in all those battles in which the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) didnot participate personally
The honor of the propagation of the Quranic Sura, "al Bara'at" fell to Imam Ali's (as) lot
He was the only man to be titled as the "Second Aaron" by the Prophet (PBUH&HF)
The honor of owning a house which opened into the courtyard of the Prophet's (PBUH&HF) mosque was reserved for Imam Ali (as) alone
He was the first to have the honor of being nominated by the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) as his succesor, testator and vice regent.
... and many many more
Imam Ali and the Ancient Prophets
God gave Adam the knowledge of His names, while Ali held the entire knowledge of the Book of Allah.
Adam was married with Eve in the Garden of Paradise, while God married Imam Ali (as) with Fatima (as) in heaven
God styled Noah as a "Grateful Creature" and he was called the Second Adam, while Imam Ali (as) was styled as "Abu'l Ummah"
God made Abraham the "Imam" or the "Leaders of men", while Imam Ali (as) was the Imam of all creation, men and Jinnis
Moses was brought up in the house of Pharoah, while Imam Ali (as) was brought up in the house of the Prophet (PBUH&HF)
Moses threw his rod which became a serpent, whereas Imam Ali (as), while still in the cradle, cleaved the snake into two
Moses name has been mentioned 230 times in the Quran, while Imam Ali's (as) has been referred to in 300 places in the Quran
All that I am, or hope to be, I owe to my angel mother.
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Default Imam Ali & the Caliphate

Imam Ali (A.S.) and the Caliphate

The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) passed away with his head on the lap of Imam Ali (A.S.). He departed to his Lord, the Most High, while still worried about the future of the Mission and nation In the last hour of his life he asked for an inkpot and a sheet of paper to write on to the nation about that which would protect them from going astray after him. He continuously used to stress the necessity of adherence to his holy family No sooner had the soul of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) separated from his pure body, and had Imam Ali (A.S.) and the house folk of the Messenger started for the funeral, then the Helpers (Ansars) held a meting in "Saqifa Bani Sa'idah" to appoint a successor to lead the Muslims after the Prophet (S.A.W.).

Some of the Immigrants (Muhajirin) hurried to attend the meeting, and after sharp and long arguments, under a climate of tension, anxiety, violence and dispute, Umar bin Khattab hastened to give pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr as the caliph after the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.). He (Umar) demanded from those present to do as he did. Therefore, some of them gave pledge of allegiance, while others refused to do so.

Imam Ali (A.S.) and the Prophet's household were still busy in funeral arrangements for the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), whose pure body remained three days, so that the Muslims could pay their last respects to him before his burial.

As Imam Ali (A.S.) was not convinced by what had happened, and was firmly believing in his own right to the caliphate, he withdrew from the society and kept away from the people and their affairs for six months, during which time his voice could not be heard in the so-called "Apostasy Wars" nor elsewhere.

Then certain grave incidents happened endangering Islam and threatening its very existence, such as the appearance of fake prophets after the passing away of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) and their danger became severe in the Arabian Peninsula. Their appearance was a real threat to the Islamic state.

At the same time, the hypocrites became stronger and their power grew in Madinah. The Romans and the Persians were also laying ambush for the Muslims. Furthermore, diverse political groups began to appear in the Islamic society as a result of the Saqifa allegiance.

Imam Ali (A.S.), in dealing with the caliphate, was in accordance with the interests of Islam, to protect it and its unity against being torn to pieces and lost, and to realize the high Islamic objectives for which he had fought.

In a letter, Imam Ali (A.S.) recalls these times in this respect: "...I therefore withheld my hand till I saw many people were reverting from Islam and trying to destroy the religion of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his descendants). I then feared that if I did not protect Islam and its people and there occurred in it a breach or destruction, it would mean a greater blow to me than the loss of power over you which was, in any case, to last for a few days of which everything would pass away as the mirage passes away, or as the cloud dispersed. Therefore, in these happenings I rose till wrong was destroyed and disappeared, and religion attained peace and safety".

But Imam Ali's (A.S.) voice was heard when he was consulted and his opinion was sought. He tried, in this respect, to direct Islamic life in accordance with the teachings of the Message of Allah, the Most High, in the fields of legislation, execution and judiciary.

Through this period of the departure of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) till his succession of the caliphate, Imam Ali (A.S.) undertook great responsibilities during the caliph's periods. He was ready to do this because of his loyalty to the Prophet's mission, to keep Islamic unity and to protect the advancement of Islam against deviation.

Therefore, an historical researcher of that period would find that there were so many situations, events and issues which could find no one other than Imam Ali (A.S.) who acted as a saviour, a curer or a judge regarding the order of legislations, explaining Allah's laws and safeguarding the Prophet's tradition.

The Imam and the Caliphate: After the death of Uthman bin Affan, the nation unanimously turned to Imam Ali (A.S.) and gave him the pledge of allegiance as caliph. They were overwhelmed with a wave of affection towards him. However, Imam Ali (A.S.) rejected them saying: "Let me alone, and go in search of someone else."

Furthermore, Imam Ali (A.S.) was not of those who could be induced by post and position and thus, be responsive to the people as soon as they rushed to him. The whole caliphate did not have the worth of the wing a mosquito to him.

Actually the entire earthly world, in his sight, equaled not more than "a goat's sneeze", as he put it. Leadership is worthless if it does enable one to establish right and abolish wrong.

At last, finding the people still persisting in pledging their allegiance to him, he accepted the caliphate on certain conditions, which had to be wholeheartedly agreed to. Verily, he (A.S.) announced his declaration which contains his conditions: "You should know that if I respond to you I would lead you as I know and would not care about whatever one may say or abuse."

Indeed Imam Ali (A.S.) means, in the above mentioned saying that he would lead them according to what he understood of Islam, not according to others' low desires and interests. In this respect, he (A.S.) said: "...When the caliphate came to me, I kept the Book of Allah in my view and all that Allah had put therein of us, and all that according to which He has commanded us to take decisions; and I followed it, and also acted on whatever the Prophet - may Allah bless him and his descendants - had laid down as his sunna..."

The whole nation responded by hurrying to announce their submission to his conditions, extending their hands, and pledging their allegiance and obedience to him. So, the Imam (A.S.) agreed to face, fully, his responsibilities of leading the Islamic nation, thought, and practice.

Indeed, the Imam (A.S.) clarified the reasons of his acceptance for people, saying : "...O my Allah! You know what we did was not seek power nor to acquire anything from the vanities of the world. We, rather, wanted to restore signs of Your religion and to usher prosperity into Your cities so that the oppressed among Your creatures might be safe and Your forsaken commands might be reestablished..."

The first task was to remove all forms of deviation which had grown into Islamic life, and to bring the nation back to the original Divine course. To attain this he had to act according to a strict and comprehensive program, and to have others act correctly when implementing it. It was a task where his government had many problems to confront, especially in the following fields:

1. Political Field: Imam Ali (A.S.) defined the attributes of governors and government officials whom Islam recommends to manage the affairs of the Islamic nation. These definitions were clearly set out in his communiqué which he issued: "...You certainly know that he who is in charge of honour, life, booty, (enforcement of) legal commandments and the leadership of the Muslims should not be a miser as his greed would aim at their wealth, nor be ignorant as he would then mislead them with his ignorance, nor be of rude behaviour which would estrange them with his rudeness, nor should he deal unjustly with wealth thus preferring one group over another, nor should he accept a bribe while taking decisions, as he would forfeit (others) rights and hold them up without finality, nor should he ignore sunna as he would ruin the people."

2. Economic Field: Imam Ali (A.S.) cancelled all forms of discrimination in dividing the money among the people and stressed that fearing Allah, fighting for the sake of Islam, or companionship with the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), were not matters which gave their owners any sort of distinction in this world. Reward from Allah will be theirs in the Hereafter. Whoever had priority in these matters, would receive his reward from Allah.

But, here in this world, all people are equal in their financial rights in respect to the Islamic law and in their duties.

Policy of Reaction: Imam Ali (A.S.) knew that the Islamic justice whom he wished to apply in his government would be difficult and heavy to the beneficiaries, self-seekers and opportunists who exploited cir*stances prevalent during the time of the caliph, Uthman. Therefore, they spoiled wealth and properties, enjoyed some distinctions, ac*ulated gold and silver, either because of their relationship and kinsfolk or being considered as supporters of this group or of that.

It was true what he (A.S.) expected that the implementation of Islamic justice would stimulate the feelings of the Quraish men who used to live in luxury or what they stole from the mouths of the hungry and the oppressed.

Owing to the distinguished men of the Quraish being used to enjoying a whole array of privileges and advantages, it was hard for them to accept Imam Ali's (A.S.) policy of equality of rights as Allah enjoined.

Zubair and Talha disapproved of this policy of Imam Ali (A.S.), as it deviated from what so far had been customary.

Imam Ali (A.S.) asked them: "What is it that you so disapprove of in me that you seek other than mea"

They said: "You made our share of allowance the same as the others; you made us equal to those who are not like us."

The Imam (A.S.) replied to them: "As to what you say about equal distribution of wealth, I should say it is not my opinion which I follow, nor is it a desire of mine to control. It is what I and you found the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) doing. There, too, I needed no help from you, since Allah had already ordained its dividends. Therefore, neither you nor anyone else is justified in blaming me for this. May Allah guide our hearts and yours to the truth and grant us patience. May Allah have mercy upon him who, when he sees the truth, helps it to spread, who, when he sees inequity, rejects it, and who rightly backs his companions."

Thus, concepts and starting points differ. Imam Ali (A.S.) started from what Allah, the Exalted, and His Messenger (S.A.W.) enjoined, whereas his opponents started from what their own interests said to them.

The Battle of Basra: It was natural that Talha and Zubair were unhappy with the reformative movement led by Imam Ali (A.S.) in Islamic life. They started preparations for rebellion against the Imam (A.S.) and stirred the Muslims against him. The result was a calamity that caused the nation grave losses. They (Talha and Zubair) persuaded A'isha, the daughter of Abu Bakr - the Prophet's wife - to go out with them to Basra to lead the opposition front against Imam Ali (A.S.).

Imam Ali (A.S.) exerted great efforts to avoid the conflict.

In Basra, Imam Ali (A.S.) continued to give his advice to prevent bloodshed. He even sent envoys to the Nakithun (those who broke their allegiance) inviting them to peace and reconciliation.

He (A.S.) met Zubair and reminded him of certain incidents which happened to them during the life of the Prophet (S.A.W.). Among them, the Prophet's speech to Zubair: "Verily, you will one day unfairly rise against him (i.e. Imam Ali)."

"O! Yes," replied Zubair, "but I forgot it. Now that you have reminded me, I would give it up."

Consequently, Zubair decided to retire from public life. But his son, Abdullah, accused him of cowardice for doing so.

Thus, the situation exploded and war was waged between the two camps.

The fight ended with a crushing victory achieved by the Imam's army. Imam Ali (A.S.) proclaimed a general amnesty to all those who fought against him. He (A.S.) even returned A'isha to Madinah.

Because A'isha went to Basra riding on a camel, this war was called the War of the Camel (Jamal).

The Battle of Siffin: The most difficult problem faced by Imam Ali (A.S.) during his caliphate was the problem of the rulers who were appointed before and were ruling the Muslims lands.

Such rulers were not on a high level of piety, asceticism and loyalty in order to be as models and Imams (leaders) for people whom they lead toward guidance and reform, while most of the rulers were appointed before and who lacked such qualifications and even worse than that. Most of them were characterized by corruption, oppression and transgressing against the wealth of people and themselves.

Some rulers and commanders were among those who were severely in enmity and annoyance to the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.). Among them were: * Hakam bin Aas who was the most severe enemy to the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) to the extent that he (S.A.W.) expelled him and his son from Madinah.

* Walid bin Aqaba bin Abi Mo'it, the ruler of Kufa during the reign of Uthman. This man (Walid) was a drunkard and had a Christian drinking companion. Once, this man offered four Rak'a (units of prayer) instead of two when he led people at dawn prayer because he was drunk.

* Abdulla bin Sa'id bin Aadi was the Prophet Muhammad's clerk and betrayed the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) in his writings and therefore, he (S.A.W.) dismissed him, therefore, he turned away from Islam, but later one of the caliph, Uthman, appointed him as a ruler for Eygpt.

Mu'awiya bin Abi Sufyan, the ruler of Sham (Syria). He used to govern the whole land of Sham and was appointed as a ruler before and led a luxurious life which was not limited by Islamic law nor controlled by a religion. Ahmad bin Hanbal, in his authentic book, on the authority of Abdullah bin Boraida, said: I and my father visited Mu'awiya. He made us sit and then brought food for us. After having finished eating, they brought a drink (wine); first Mu'awiya began to drink, then he passed it to my father and then he (Abu Boraida) said: I did not drink it since the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) forbade it.

It seems that Mu'awiya was never embarrassed about drinking alcoholic beverages. It was brought to him on camels after passing through roads and markets. It happened that a group of camels, carrying, bottles of alcoholic beverages to Mu'awiya passed near Abada bin Samit, a companion who was in Sham at that time. He asked them: "What are thesea Are they oila"

They said: "No, it is a wine which should be sold to Mu'awiya." This man took a plowshare from a market and with which he tore the bottles.

Mu'awiya had a severe hartred for Imam Ali (A.S.) because he (A.S.) killed his (Mu'awiya) brother Handhala who was a polytheist in the battle of Badr. He (A.S.) also killed his (maternal) uncle, Walid bin Utbah and a group of his (Mu'awiya) relatives who were fighting in the army of the unbelievers of the Quraish. This was one of the essential elements behind Mu'awiya's enmity towards Imam Ali (A.S.). He (Mu'awiya) even ordered to curse the Imam (A.S.) on the pulpits of the Mosques at every Friday Sermon.

Therefore, Imam Ali (A.S.), being the bearer of the standard of Islam, had no way other than changing such rulers and the like and replacing them with the righteous faithful from the companions of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) and the formers in faith. This movement motivated such damaged people who found no shelter other than Mu'awiya who, in turn, gathered them under his flag. Mu'awiya declared his revolt against the Imam's decision for deposing him and refused obeying the true Caliph, thus, began to prepare himself to confront the Imam (leader) of his time.

After victory in the battle of Basra, the Imam (A.S.) returned with his army to Kufa to reinforce his troops, and then to go on to Sham to liquidate the opposition, led by Mu'awiya bin Abi Sufyan.

Therefore, Imam Ali (A.S.) started his march with his army heading for Sham. But the enemy received news about his move, and decided to meet the Islamic advance on the way. The two armies confronted one another near the Euphrates River. Imam Ali (A.S.) resumed his efforts to set things right through peaceful ways and preserve the unity of the Muslims ranks and join the unanimity of the nation. But Mu'awiya's insisting on fighting caused more than ten thousand victims and because of complicated cir*stances, the battle which lasted two weeks ended without any victory for both sides.

Developments of Judgement: The confusion and disorder caused in the ranks of Imam Ali's (A.S.) army as a result of the raising the copies of the Holy Qur'an by the Ummayyad soldiers had an effective impact on his camp, and the appearance of the forces hidden under righteousness in his army and their pressure to impose the acceptance of the accomplished fact. Consequently, the Imam (A.S.) was forced to respond to the order of judgement between the two sides. Thus, the people of Syria (Sham) chose Amru bin Aas who was famous for his cunning, tricks, and love of the present world, while the other side chose Abu Musa Ash'ari to represent the camp of the Imam (A.S.), under the influence of the stupid ones and the owners of interests who existed inside the army of Imam Ali (A.S.). This man (Abu Musa Ash'ari) was weak minded, in addition to his being among those who isolated himself from the Imam (A.S.) in his war against his enemies.

Some narrations refer that laceration caused in Imam Ali's (A.S.) troops reached its climax that even some chiefs of his soldiers threatened the Imam (A.S.) to act with him like they acted with Uthman or deliver him to Mu'awiya.

When the two arbitrators met each other, Amru bin Aas took advantage of Abu Musa Ash'ari when the latter presented him the idea of deposing both Imam Ali (A.S.) and Mu'awiya. When Abu Musa was pleased with that idea, Amru bin Aas began deposing his companion, whereas he himself did not recommend to precede the Messenger of Allah's (S.A.W.) companion in that.

Therefore, Abu Musa advanced and deposed Imam Ali (A.S.) from the leadership of Muslim affairs and deposed Mu'awiya too, whereas Amru bin Aas announced his consent of deposing Imam Ali (A.S.) and appointing his own companion, Mu'awiya.

Thus, Amru bin Aas betrayed Abu Musa Ash'ari and took advantage of his weaknesses inspite of Abdulla bin Abbas's warnings against Amru's betrayal.

After the two delegations returned, Amru bin Aas submitted the caliphate to Mu'awiya in 37 A.H. and never submitted him the like before.

But, the Commander of Faithul (A.S.) considered that the betrayal of Amru bin Aas and the negligence of Abu Musa Ash'ari, caused the arbitration to end through incorrect and unsafe ways. This betrayal and unseriousness were clearly seen in Amru's speeches and behavior. Therefore, Imam Ali (A.S.) called to resume war and declared his statement to the umma, which says: "O people, I had given you my orders about this arbitration, but you rejected it (my orders) and disobeyed me. By my life, disobedience brings about regret. Consequently, mine and your positions became as the poet of Hawazin says: 'I gave you my orders at Mun'arijil-lliwa but you did not see the good of my counsel till the noon of the next day (when it was too late).' But these two arbitrators neglected the Book of Allah, they caused the death of what the Qur'an revived and revived what caused death. Each of them followed their own low desires without Allah's guidance. They judged without any proof nor with any previous tradition, and bout of them were not guided...therefore, get ready for jihad, prepare (yourselves) for the (right) path and be awakened in your positions."

Mu'awiya's Plans: After the battle of Siffin and the order of judgement, Mu'awiya began to behave as if he was the absolute ruler. He began to collect the properties gained by poor-rates (zakat) and taxes and sent armies to different regions in order to terrify people and dominate these areas.

Therefore, he chose some criminals as leaders of his armies. These people had no previous convictions to Islam, but, were among those who bore hatred and enmity for Islam. He provided them with some terrorist instructions which were completely opposite to what the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) used to recommend to his army.

In the year 40 A.H., Mu'awiya sent an army, led by Bosr bin Abi Arta'a, which consisted of three thousand fighters, and ordered him to take the route of Hijjaz, Madinah and Makkah until he reached Yemen. He (Mu'awiya) told him the following: "Do not camp at an area where the people are obeying Ali, but that you control them with your tongues by threats, until they see that they have no rescue and you are surrounding them. Then, have full control over them, and call them to give their pledge of allegiance. Whoever refuses, then, kill him and kill the followers of Ali where they are."

Consequently, Bosr carried out the orders of his master, Mu'awiya. He began to pursue the close companions of Ali and whoever delayed giving the pledge of allegiance (to Mu'awiya), he burnt their houses, destroyed them and robbed them of their properties.

He killed about thirty thousand on his way going and coming back and burnt a community to such an extent that a poet, regarding him, said: "Wherever Bosir goes with his army, he kills whatever he can and burns it".

When he (Bosir) moved to the city of Hadhramaut, he said: "I want to kill one fourth of Hadhramaut."

Mu'awiya ordered Sufyan bin Awf Ghamidi to enter Iraq and advised him to attack, rob, burn, and kill, saying: "Destroy whatever you pass of villages, kill whoever you meet who does not agree with your opinion, and take the properties because they are similar to killing and it is the most painful one for the hearts."

Sufyan not only executed Mu'awiya's orders, but, also, did more. He attacked free non-Muslims enjoying Muslims' protection (the people of the Book), killing and robbing them. These are the people in regard to whom the Prophet, Muhammad (S.A.W.) advised concerning them and said that he is an enemy of those who harm them.

These are some examples regarding Mu'awiya and his followers. Mu'awiya underlined his aims and the goals of his battles, in his address to the people of Kufa, after the peace-treaty with Imam Hasan (A.S.). He said: "By Allah, I did not fight you in order to make you pray, nor to fast, nor to make pilgrimage, nor to pay poor-rates (zakat). Indeed, you do that (already). I fought you in order to dominate you."

This was the way of Mu'awiya, and which, Imam Ali (A.S.) in contrast was advising his commanders whom he (A.S.) sent to prevent the attacks of Mu'awiya, saying: "Fear Allah towards Whom you will return. Do not despise a Muslim, nor a covenanter. Do not seize unlawfully, wealth, nor children nor offspring. Even if you are barefooted and dismounted, keep up your prayers at their due times."

Thus, he recommends for the sanctity of people; whether Muslims or non-Muslims.

Therefore, the conflict of Imam Ali (A.S.) with Mu'awiya represented the conflict between two opposite ways: The way of truth, principles, values and character and, on the other side, the way of falsehood, misguidance, oppression and betrayal. These two ways never meet each other.

In the Kingdom of Allah: Imam Ali (A.S.) turned to resuming the fight against the Qaisitin in Sham - Mu'awiya and his followers-once again.

He (A.S.) proclaimed mobilization for his army, and declared war against the opposition led by Mu'awiya. Then, he (A.S.) started distributing banners to his leaders, Husain, Abu Ayyub Ansari and Qais bin sa'id.

Yet, as he was engaged in mobilizing his forces in order to put an end to the opposition movement led by Mu'awiya, there was another mean conspiracy being covertly planned, this time to assassinate him. A group of his enemies held a meeting in Makkah to deliberate evil intentions, which were to end with the most horrific consequences. The gravest decision was to murder the commander of the faithful (Amir Mu'minin), and the task was assigned to the willful criminal Abdul-Rahman bin Muljam Muradi. It was a most critical period in the history of Islam and the Muslims.

While the nation was looking forward to a decisive victory over the destructive elements of disunity led by Mu'awiya bin Abi Sufyan, the sinful hand of Muradi was extended to Ali bin Abi-Talib (A.S.). He swept down with a sword on his head while the Imam was prostrating dawn prayers at the honourable Mosque of Kufa on the 19th of the month of Ramadan in the year 40 A.H.

They assassinated Imam Ali (A.S.) at his finest time -the hour of standing before Allah, the Exalted, during the prayer of submission, while fasting during the month of Ramadan; during the most glorious Islamic duties, while preparing to wage holy striving (Jihad), and in the highest and most pure divine places, the Mosque of Kufa.

The crime of assassinating Imam Ali (A.S.) remains one of the most cruel, brutal and hideous, because it was not committed against one man, but against the whole rational Islamic leadership. By assassinating Imam Ali (A.S.), they actually aimed at assassinating the message, the history, the culture and the nation of Muslims embodied in the person of Imam Ali bin Abi-Talib (A.S.), the successor of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), the bearer of his banner and the follower of his path and deed.

Thus, the Islamic nation lost its guide of progress, and at the most wondrous opportunity in its life after the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.).

Imam Ali (A.S.) suffered from his wound for three days, during which he entrusted his son, Imam Hasan (A.S.) with the Imamate of guiding the nation ideologically and socially.

During those three days, as during all his life, he never ceased remembering Allah, praising Him, and accepting Him and His ordinance.

Likewise, he continued giving pieces of advice and directions leading to good, pointing to the right, defining the way to guidance, explaining the course for deliverance, calling for the observance of Allah's ordinances, and warning against following one's ill desires and set-backs from not carrying out the divine message.

The following is one piece of advice offered to his sons, Imams Hasan and Hussein (A.S.), as well as to his people, the nation and coming generation: "I advise you (both) to fear Allah and that you should not hanker after the (pleasure of this) world even though it may run after you. Do not be sorry for anything of this world that you have been denied. Speak the truth and act (in expectation) for (Allah's) reward. Be an enemy of the oppressor and a helper of the oppressed."

"I advise you (both) and all my children and members of my family and everyone whom my writing reaches, to fear Allah, to keep your affairs in order, and to maintain good relations among yourselves for I have heard your grandfather (the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)) saying: 'Improvement of mutual differences is better than general prayers and fasting.'"

"(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of orphans. So do not allow them to starve, nor allow them to be lost in your presence."

"(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of your neighbours, because they were the subject of the Prophet's advice. He went on advising in their favour till we thought he would allow them a share in inheritance."

"(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of the Qur'an. No one should excel you in acting upon it."

"(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of prayer, because it is the pillar of your religion."

"(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of your Lord's House (the Ka'aba). Do not forsake it so long as you live, because if it is abandoned you will not be spared."

"(Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in view in the matter of Jihad with the help of your property, lives and tongues in the way of Allah."

"You should keep to a respect for kinship and spending for others. Avoid turning away from one another and severing mutual relations. Do not give up bidding for good and forbidding from evil least the mischievous gain positions over you, and then in such a case, your invocations will not be responded to (by Allah)."

Such was the heroic end of this great man! His loss was the gravest one to the Mission and the nation after the loss of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.).

By the martyrdom of Imam Ali (A.S.), the nation lost: A heroism that had become the song of the time; A courageous history that has never dreamt of its like; Wisdom no one can fathom, save Allah; A purity, the like of which was only in the prophets.

An abstinence from the pleasures of life that could be attained only by the nearest to Allah; An eloquence such as to be the echo of the Book; And a jurisprudence, and a thorough knowledge of the laws of religion.

It is he about whom the Messenger of Allah said: "Ali is with the truth and the truth is with Ali" and "I am the city of knowledge, and Ali is its gateway, so whoever wants to enter the city, let him enter it through its gateway."

Peace be upon him the day he was born, the day he was martyred on his alter, and the day he shall be raised alive.
All that I am, or hope to be, I owe to my angel mother.
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Default The Last Will Of Hazrat Ali

The Last Will of Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS)

Imam Ali's (AS) last will to his sons Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Hussain (AS) after the attempt on his life by a stab from Ibn Muljam:

My advice to you is to be conscious of Allah and steadfast in your religion. Do not yearn for the world, and do not be seduced by it. Do not resent anything you have missed in it. Proclaim the truth; work for the next world. Oppose the oppressor and support the oppressed.

I advise you, and all my children, my relatives, and whosoever receives this message, to be conscious of Allah, to remove your differences, and to strengthen your ties. I heard your grandfather, peace be upon him, say: "Reconciliation of your differences is more worthy than all prayers and all fasting."

Fear Allah in matters concerning orphans. Attend to their nutrition and do not forget their interests in the middle of yours.

Fear Allah in your relations with your neighbors. Your Prophet often recommended them to you, so much so that we thought he would give them a share in inheritance.

Remain attached to the Quran. Nobody should surpass you in being intent on it, or more sincere in implementing it.

Fear Allah in relation to your prayers. It is the pillar of your religion.

Fear Allah in relation to His House; do not abandon it as long as you live. It you should do that you would abandon your dignity.

Persist in jihad in the cause of Allah, with your money, your souls, and your tongue.

Maintain communication and exchange of opinion among yourselves. Beware of disunity and enmity. Do not desist from promoting good deeds and cautioning against bad ones. Should you do that,the worst among you would be your leaders, and you will call upon Allah without response.

O Children of Abdul Mattaleb! Do not shed the blood of Muslims under the banner: The Imam has been assassinated! Only the assassin should be condemned to death.

If I die of this stab of his, kill him with one similar stroke. Do not mutilate him! I have heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, say: "Mutilate not even a rabid dog."

Source: Najul Balagha

In the 40th year of Hijri, in the small hours of the morning of 19th Ramadan, Imam Ali (AS) was struck with a poisoned sword by the Kharijite Ibn Maljam while offering his prayers in the Masjid of Kufa. He died on the 21st day of Ramadan 40 A.H. and buried in Najaf-ul-Ashraf. He was born in the House of Allah, the Kaaba, and martryed in the House of Allah, Masjid-e-Kufa. The Lion of Allah, the most brave and gentle Muslim after the Prophet (PBUH&HF) himself, began his glorious life with devotion to Allah and His Messenger, and ended it in the service of Islam.

"And do not speak of those who are slain in the the Way of Allah as dead; nay, they are alive, but you perceive not." Quran 2:154
All that I am, or hope to be, I owe to my angel mother.
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