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blossom Friday, July 22, 2011 02:17 AM

@Roshan:
Can u please mention the source of these notes?

& yes,u hv done a wonderful work..keep it up!

aariz Friday, July 22, 2011 04:16 AM

COmments on the Day of the judgement.

Good work on this topic.
Can u solve this? How the day of the judgement in Islam is a concept of accountability and justice?

Waiting Roshan :P test hai :P

@Roshan. Post a topic a day. Seniors dont spend all the time on forum. Ur work is appreciable.

@Roshan. Risalat is also a part of EMAAN E MUFASIL.

Roshan wadhwani Friday, July 22, 2011 06:40 PM

[QUOTE=aariz;332508]COmments on the Day of the judgement.

Good work on this topic.
Can u solve this? How the day of the judgement in Islam is a concept of accountability and justice?

Waiting Roshan :P test hai :P[/QUOTE]

As justice is the main concern of Islam it is necessary that people should get justice in this world and the world hereafter. It sounds natural and logical that everyone should reap what he has sown. One should receive the fruit of his deeds. If one has sown flowers he should pluck flowers. If one has sown thorns he should pick thorns. Virtues breed virtues and vices breed vices.

Roshan wadhwani Friday, July 22, 2011 06:49 PM

[B][U][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"][CENTER]Tauheed[/CENTER][/SIZE][/FONT][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Definition
• Significance Of Tauheed
• Effects Of Tauheed
i) Width Of Vision
ii) Self-respect
iii) Modesty And Humbleness
iv) Virtuous And Upright
v) Satisfaction Of Heart
vi) Determination
vii) Peace And Contentment
viii) Obedience
• Conclusion[/B]

[B][U]Definition:[/U][/B]

Tauheed means belief in the unity of God. The starting point of Islam is this belief in the unity of God. Tauheed is a revolutionary concept and constitutes the essence of the teachings of Islam. It means that there is only one Supreme God of the Universe. He is Omnipresent, Omnipotent and the Sustainer of the world and mankind.

[B][U]Significance Of Tauheed:[/U][/B]

The Holy Quran has laid greatest stress on the doctrine of unity of God. The first and foremost principle of Islam is the belief in unity of Allah. Unless a man believes in unit of God, he cannot be a Muslim.

Allah said;

[CENTER][B]“O’ Mankind! Worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, so that you may ward off evil. Who has appointed the earth a resting place for you, the sky a canopy, and who causes water to pour down from the heavens, thereby producing fruits as food for you? So, do not set up rivals to Allah, when you know better.”

(Al-Baqara: 21-22)[/B][/CENTER]

There are a number of verses in the Quran which clearly explain the oneness of God. In Surah Baqara, book says;

[B][CENTER]“And your God is one; There is no other God. He is the most merciful and Benevolence.”[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER](Al-Baqara: 163)[/CENTER][/B]

This is the basic tenet to which Muhammad (PBUH) asked to adhere. The Doctrine Of divine Unity is a standing protest against polytheism, dualism, atheism and idolatry. And it generally means that Allah is one and Eternal; there is no other God but Allah who is the Supreme Being, Creator and Lord of all. He alone is to be worshiped and From Him lone help and mercy are to be sought.

The unity of Allah implies that Allah is one in His person, One in His attributes, and One in His work. His Oneness in His person means that there is neither plurality of God, nor plurality of persons in the Godhood; His Oneness in His attributes implies that no other being possess one or more Divine attributes in perfection; His Oneness in His work implies that no one can do what God has done or can do. The Doctrine of Unity of Allah has beautifully been summed in the small verse of the Holy Quran in the following manner.

[B][CENTER]‘Say thou, “He: Allah is one: Allah is He on whom all depend, He begets not nor is He begotten; and none is like Him.”
(Al-Ikhlas: 1-4)[/CENTER][/B]


[B][U]Effects Of Tauheed:[/U][/B]

[B][U]i) Width Of Vision:[/U][/B]

A believer of this Kalima (La illah ill Allah) can never be narrow-minded. He believes in Allah who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, the Master of the East and the West, the Sustainer of the entire universe. After this belief he does not regard anything in this universe as stronger to himself. He knows that everything belongs to God whom he himself belong. So, his vision is enlarged, his intellect horizon widens and, his outlook become liberal.

[B][U]ii) Self-respect:[/U][/B]

This belief produces in man the highest degree of self-respect and self-esteem. The believer knows, that Allah alone is the possessor of all power, or harm a person, or provide for his needs, or give and take away life. This belief make him indifferent to, and independent of all power other than those of Allah. He never bows his head in homage to any of Allah’s creatures nor did he stretch his hands before anyone else except Allah.

[B][U]iii) Modesty And Humbleness:[/U][/B]

Along with self-respect this belief also generates in man a sense of modesty and humbleness. It makes him uncontentious and unpretending. A believer never becomes proud, haughty or arrogant. The boisterous pride of power, wealth and worth can have no room in the heart, because he knows that whatever he possesses has been given by Allah and Allah can take away just as He can give.

[B][U]iv) Virtuous And Upright:[/U][/B]

This belief makes man virtuous and upright. He has the conviction that there is no other means of success and salvation for him except purity of soul and righteousness of behaviour. This belief creates in man the consciousness that unless he lives rightly and acts justly he cannot success.

[B][U]v) Satisfaction Of Heart:[/U][/B]

The believer does not become despondent and broken hearted under any circumstances. He has a firm faith in God who is the Master of all the treasures of the earth and the heavens, whose grace and bounty have no limit, power are infinite. This faith imparts to his heart a great consolation, fills it with satisfaction and keeps if filled with hopes.

[B][U]vi) Determination:[/U][/B]

This belief provides in man a strong degree of determination and trust in God. When he makes up his mind and devotes his resources to fulfil Divine Commands in order to secure Allah’s pleasure, he trusts that he has the support and baking of Allah. This belief makes him strong and firm like mountain and no amount of difficulties, impediments and hostile opponent can make him give up his resolution.

[B][U]vii) Peace And Contentment:[/U][/B]

This belief in this faith creates an attitude of peace and contentment, purges the mind from envy and greed, and keeps away the idea of resorting to unfair means for achieving success. The believer understands that wealth is in Allah’s hands and He gives it out more or less as He likes, that all power, reputation, authority, everything is subjected to His will, and He bestows them if He wills, and man’s duty is only to struggle and endeavour fairly. He knows that success and failure depends upon Allah’s will, if He wills to give no power in the world can prevent Him from doing so, if he does not will, no power can force Him to give.

[B][U]viii) Obedience:[/U][/B]

The most important effect in this belief is that it makes man obey and observe Allah’s Law. One who has belief in, it is sure that Allah knows everything hidden or open and is nearer to him even his own Jugular vein. If he commits a sin in a secluded corner and in the darkness of night, Allah knows it, He even knows our thoughts and intentions, bad or good we can hide from everyone but we cannot hide anything from God. We can evade everyone, but we cannot evade Allah’s grip. The firmer a man’s belief in this respect, the more observant will he be in Allah’s Commands, and will shun everything Allah has forbidden and carry out Allah’s behest in solitude and in the darkness of night, because he knows that Allah’s police never leaves him alone. It is for this reason that the first and the most important condition for being a Muslim is to have faith in La illah ill Allah.

[B][U]Conclusion:[/U][/B]

In the teachings of Mohammad (PBUH) faith in one Allah is the most important and fundamental principle. It is the bedrock of Islam and the mainspring of its power. All other beliefs, commands and laws of Islam stand firm on this very foundation. All of them receive strength from this source. Take it away and there in nothing left in Islam.

aariz Friday, July 22, 2011 07:23 PM

[QUOTE=Roshan wadhwani;332685]As justice is the main concern of Islam it is necessary that people should get justice in this world and the world hereafter. It sounds natural and logical that everyone should reap what he has sown. One should receive the fruit of his deeds. If one has sown flowers he should pluck flowers. If one has sown thorns he should pick thorns. Virtues breed virtues and vices breed vices.[/QUOTE]
The day also exhibits that there is the ONE omnipotent and no one can escape from His catch.

@Roshan. Tauheed per acha likha hai. :) I have questions related to this topic.

Roshan wadhwani Friday, July 22, 2011 09:19 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Jihad:[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Meaning Of Jihad
• Importance Of Jihad
• Kinds Of Jihad
i) Jihad With Self
ii) Jihad By Wealth
iii) Jihad By Knowledge
iv) Jihad By Sword
• Conditions For Physical Jihad
• Necessity Of Jihad
• Conclusion[/B]

[B][U]Meaning Of Jihad:[/U][/B]

The word Jihad’s literal meaning is to strive for anything good, including striving for peace and the welfare of humanity.

Jihad word is derived from [B]Juhd [/B]means to make an effort. From Islamic point of view it means efforts for establishment and expansion of Din-e-Islam. Jihad signifies a vast meaning. It means [B]“to make the utmost possible efforts for the uplift of Islam.” [/B]It comprises every kind of sacrifice including laying down of life in the cause of Allah. A Mujahid is a person who strives hard for the glory of Islam. Mujahid sacrifices his wealth, his time and even his own life in the cause of Allah.

[B][U]Importance Of Jihad:[/U][/B]

Jihad is obligatory on every Muslim of the world. Both the Quran and the Hadith stress its importance. Owing to its importance a space has been allotted to it along with “Five pillars of Islam.”

[B][CENTER]“And do not say to those who have laid their lives in the cause of Allah that they are dead, but in fact, they are living, although you do not understand.”
(Al-Baqara: 154)[/CENTER][/B]

The great sacrifice in the cause of Allah is made in Jihad, because a loss of few lives, some thousands, some lacs, or even more does not count anything as compared with the dreadful calamity that may befall mankind as a result of the victory of evil over good, and of aggressive atheism over the religion of Allah i.e. Islam for, as a result of it, it is not only the religion of Islam that will suffer but the whole world would become the abode of evil, immoralities and perversion and sin. In order to escape this greater calamity Allah has, therefore, commanded the Muslims of the world to sacrifice their lives and properties for His cause.

[B][U]Kinds Of Jihad:[/U][/B]

Following means and ways come under the heading of Jihad.

i) Jihad With Self
ii) Jihad By Wealth
iii) Jihad By Knowledge
iv) Jihad By Sword

[B][U]Jihad With Self:[/U][/B]

The Quran has explained that a man has to make efforts to control on his self-desires. It is also one of the types of Jihad. [B]The Quran says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Whoever makes efforts, and surely he makes efforts for his self.”[/CENTER][/B]

The Prophet of Islam once said that to control on one’s own desires is great Jihad than to wage war against the enemies of Islam. Once the Prophet said to a man who returned from Jihad but now you have joined [B]“Jihad-e-Akbar”[/B]. It means he has to keep himself away from evils and self-desires. One has to sacrifice ones comforts and luxurious life. To pray or the fast in summer or winter or at the sleeping time is also Jihad with oneself.

[B][U]Jihad By Wealth:[/U][/B]

The people who possess property is bestowed by Allah, therefore one must spend in the way of Allah. The movement for the promotion and propagation of Islam requires financial aid. For this collective cause, it is Jihad, for those who spend their wealth in the name of Allah. In the earlier days of Islam, there are a number of examples, in which people gave their property for the cause of Islam. [B]The Quran says;[/B]

[B][CENTER]“And those believe and migrate and make effort with their property and self in the way of Allah have great reward with Allah. Such persons are successful.”[/CENTER][/B]

At other place, the Quran defines that Jihad is better for piousness, therefore to achieve that highest virtue; one may sacrifice one’s wealth and self.

[B]The Book says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“And make efforts in the way of Allah with your wealth and life that is better for you, that you may become pious.”[/CENTER][/B]


[U][B]Jihad By Knowledge[/B][/U]

Ignorance is the cause of all evils. Knowledge is the light, which shows the right path. So through learning and seeking knowledge, one comes to know the purpose of life. The Quran is the basic source of knowledge which shows the true perspective of life. This is the guide Book for the whole humanity. Through learning Al-Quran, one comes to know the right path.

It is compulsory for every Muslim to learn and to teach Quran to others. On the basis of the Quranic knowledge, one must make efforts to convince the infidels with argument and discussion. It is also Jihad. [B]The Book says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“And do not obey the infidels and make efforts with it (Quran) to them for great Jihad.”[/CENTER][/B]

It is a great Jihad to convert non-Muslim to Muslim through teachings of Al-Quran.

[B][U]Jihad By Sword:[/U][/B]

There are two words used in the Holy Quran. One is Jihad and the other is Qital. It has been already explained that Jihad means to make an effort in the way of Allah, and Qital means to fight with the enemies of Allah. Therefore Jihad in terms of fighting is one of the types of Jihad.

Armed Jihad is most loved by god because in it a Muslim is prepared to sacrifice his property, his time, his energies and even his life i.e. everything.

[B]The Quran says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Then let those fight in Allah’s way who sell this world’s
Life for the Future;
And as to him who fights in Allah’s way.
Then should he be killed.
Or should he conquer,
We shall, then, give him a great reward.
And why should you not fight in Allah’s way?
(An-Nisa: 74-75)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Those who believe, fight in Allah’s way.”
(An-Nisa: 76)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Fight thou then in Allah’s way.”
(An-Nisa: 84)[/CENTER][/B]


A Muslim who sacrifices his life in the war (Jihad) is called Shaheed. He is not dead but alive. The Quran is testimony of it:

[B][CENTER]“And do not say of those who have laid down their lives in the cause of Allah that they are dead, but in fact they are living, although you do not know.”
(Al-Baqara: 154)[/CENTER][/B]

Armed Jihad is the most difficult kind of Jihad, and is only possible where there is an Islamic-state in existence. For the defence of an Islamic-State such Jihad is necessary. If fight is not waged to check trouble (Fitna) against religion. Din cannot be protected and trouble mongers would full this whole earth with Fitna and Fasad and it would be difficult to take the name of Allah. Therefore, for the protection and longevity of the faith, armed Jihad is necessary.

[B][U]Conditions For Physical Jihad:[/U][/B]

A war waged regardless of the prescribed pre-conditions will have no value. It will not be Jihad at all. Nor it would be entitled to any reward. It will be instead a cause for displeasure of Allah.

The pre-conditions for physical Jihad are as follows:

i) Those who go for Jihad must be free and independent Muslims and must have a collective system of their own and must led by a Caliph or Amir (Chief). In the absence of such a system, any act of war (Jihad) is forbidden. An act of war, even of a defensive nature can only be taken in a free atmosphere under the leadership of an authorized leader.

ii) Sufficient force to combat with the enemy is necessary because the Divine Injunction repeatedly emphasizes:

[B][CENTER]“No one should be charged beyond his capacity.”[/CENTER][/B]

On the basis of this principle, it has been ordained in the Quran:

[B][CENTER]“So keep your duty to Allah as best as you can.”[/CENTER][/B]

iii) Jihad should be exclusively for the sake of Allah and the sole aim of those engaged in Jihad should be no other than the service of the religion and the glorification of Allah. The single aim of those who participate in Jihad should be only the eradication of evil and the promotion of goodness and justice. This entire struggle should be done with one and the only objective of winning the pleasure of Allah.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was asked [B]“O! Messenger of Allah: if a man wished to fight for Allah but at the same time has also some worldly gain in view, how will he be viewed by you?”[/B]

[B]The Holy Prophet replied:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“He will not get any reward.”[/CENTER][/B]

Similarly, Holy Prophet also declared the principles:

[B][CENTER]“He is not one of us who fight under some prejudice and he is not one of us who dies for some prejudice.”
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]Necessity Of Jihad:[/U][/B]

Islam is not a religion of mere dogmas and ceremonies. It has come to perfect the whole life of humanity. The religion Islam has been introduced to eliminate cruelties and lawlessness from the world. There are always some anti-social elements. Therefore, Jihad is necessary to give lessons to such persons.

Jihad is necessary for every Muslim because their mission is to spread Islam throughout the world. To make efforts for pleasing Allah is the purpose of Allah. Jihad is the basic source for achieving that purpose.


[B][U]Conclusion:[/U][/B]

It is now made clear that a true believer (Mumin) is identified by his efforts to obliterate the false Din and establish a true Din in its place. If he strives in this direction and exerts his full strength in this endeavour and even stakes his life and suffers all sorts of loses, then he is true Muslims irrespective of success or failure in his efforts.

fromQAU Friday, July 22, 2011 09:35 PM

dun worry roshan, u r going really well.
i hv also been following ur posts.
Aariz has been a good guide 4 u. :)
keep it up :)

Roshan wadhwani Saturday, July 23, 2011 11:19 AM

[QUOTE=blossom;332482]@Roshan:
Can u please mention the source of these notes?

& yes,u hv done a wonderful work..keep it up![/QUOTE]

I hav prepared these notes referring 3 or 4 books

the main book that i consulted was anwer hashmi's, then there were two others from faridi and dogar's publication.....wat abt urs dear?

SYEDA SABAHAT Saturday, July 23, 2011 12:04 PM

salam to all. roshan calm down dear :D sorry for late reply bcoz i had my admission tests so i was very busy.

now come to the main point, roshan your notes are good but not very good, bcoz there is something missing in every note like you have explained the effect of TAUHEED under few heading, you have to explain its effect on INDIVIUAL AND ON SOCIETY seperatly.

one thing more when you write importance on any topic try to write its importance from diffierent perspectives like[B] " importance of zakat"[/B]

[B]its impotance from
1:islamic point of view
2:social point of view
3:-economic point of view.[/B]


i will inshallah now read the rest of your topics and will point out mistakes later.

keep your spirits high and keep posting one topic a day,i will try my best to help you.
and my geography partner mr.aariz is also guiding you well.

regards sabahat :king

Roshan wadhwani Saturday, July 23, 2011 09:45 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Sharia[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Definition Of Sharia
• Purpose Of Sharia
• Sources Of Sharia
i) The Holy Quran
ii) The Sunnah
iii) The Ijma
iv) The Qiyas
• Conclusion
[/B]

[B][U]Definition Of Sharia:[/U][/B]

The word Sharia literally means [B]“open bright, straight and clean path.” [/B]But in religious sense it is meant for those laws and orders which present code for obedience to one God, one prophet.

Shariah is the Divine Law which was pronounced through the Holy Prophet to mankind. The technical definition of “Sharia” is[B] “That Divine Law which establishes common beliefs, corrects line of actions, teaches good character, brings welfare to family life and strengthens state affairs and finally is approved by a prophet.”[/B]

[B][U]Purpose Of Sharia:[/U][/B]

The purpose of Sharia is to see that [B]“the great workshop of Allah should go on functioning regularly and gloriously and that the man should make full use of all his powers, make everything in this world serve him, make full use of all the means provided for him in the earth and in the Heavens, but should not use intentionally or in ignorance to harm himself or to harm others.”[/B]

Its objective is to show the best way to man. The violation of it amounts to sin. Sharia deals with all aspects of life of a Muslim both religious and secular. The religious and secular rights and duties have been divided under four heads:

[B]i) The rights of God
ii) The rights of man
iii) The rights of other individuals
iv) The rights of all creatures[/B]

The technical term of Sharia is referred to in the Holy Quran, thus:

[B][CENTER]“We gave thee a Sharia in religion; follow in and do not follow those who do not know.”
(Al-Jathiya: 18)[/CENTER][/B]
And again:

[B][CENTER]“To everyone (people) of you, We have given a Shra; and minhadj (a clear path).”[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]Sources Of Sharia:[/U][/B]

There are four sources of Sharia:

[B]i) The Holy Quran
ii) The Sunnah or practices of the Holy Prophet (Hadith)
iii) The Ijma
iv) The Qiyas
[/B]

These four sources also constitute Islamic jurisprudence or Fiqah. Sharia is the Law of Allah.It is binding upon Muslims and man has to accept it without question.

[B][U]The Holy Quran:[/U][/B]

The first authentic origin of Islamic Law is the Holy Quran which is voice of God.

[B][CENTER]“This is a scripture that We have revealed unto thee, full of blessing that they may ponder its revelation, and that men of understanding may reflect.”
(Sad: 29)[/CENTER][/B]

In fact, the Quran is the real fount of Islamic Law. All the basic Islamic Laws ‘Sharia’ is given in it. The detail about worshipping and human rights is described in it. In Islamic law Quran enjoys the same status as the constitution may have in state laws.

In the Quran it is said for mankind: [B]Say; I follow only that is inspired in me from my Lord. This (Quran) is insight for your Lord, and guidance, and a mercy for people who believe.[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Lo! We revealed thee the scripture with the truth, Allah thou mayst judge, between mankind by that which Allah showeth thee.”[/CENTER][/B]

That’s why Quran is considered the main source of Sharia. At another place in Quran it is said:

[B][CENTER]“Lo! This Quran gives the guidance of that way which is straightest.”
(Al-Isra: 9)[/CENTER][/B]

The value of Quran among human life affairs is like an order. It means a Muslim is that man whose all affairs are dealt under the light of Quran. It said:

[B][CENTER]“Who so judgeth not by that which Allah, has revealed such are disbelievers.”
(Al-Ma’ida)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]Hadith Or Sunnah:[/U][/B]

The Hadith or Sunnah is the secondary source of Muslim Law. The [B]Hadith literally means ‘saying’ and Sunnah means “a way or rule or manner of acting or mode of life.” [/B]Sunnah, we mean [B]“actions of the Holy Prophet and Hadith is the record of Sunnah.[/B] Sunnah of the Holy Prophet comprises [B]“his deeds, utterance and unspoken approval.”[/B]

We know that the Quran deals with the broad principals and instructions of religion going in details in a very rare case. [B]“The details were generally supplied by the Holy Prophet, either by showing in his practice how an injunction shall be carried out or giving an explanation in words.”[/B]

The Holy Prophet had to pass through different grades and conditions in his life with a view to furnish instructions to misguided people of the world. [B]“His trials and difficulties, struggles and battles, his happiness and enjoyments and everything which occurred during his Apostolistic career, were not but dictations from the Almighty; so that these things may be so many torch-lights for the guidance of all classes of men who were groping in utter spiritual darkness.”[/B]

[B][U]The Holy Quran says:[/U][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Certainly, you have got in the Apostle of Allah an excellent example for him, who hopes in Allah and the latter days and remembers Allah much.”[/CENTER][/B]

The chief characteristic of the Holy Prophet was that, he not only gave practical rules for guidance but also gave practical illustrations of all those rules.

All those rules are collectively called the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet recorded in the Hadith which is the secondary source of Muslim Law. It is narrated in[B] Sahih Muslim[/B] that:

[B][CENTER]“Allah is connected with the community by His Quran and Muhammad (PBUH) by his Sunnah.”[/CENTER][/B]

In [B]Sahih Bukhari[/B] it appears:

[B][CENTER]“He who is tired of my Prophet’s Sunnah, does not belong to me.”[/CENTER][/B]

Therefore every Muslim requires, in addition to the Quran, guidance of the Sunnah and Hadith in life.

[B][U]Ijma[/U][/B]

Ijma constitutes the third source of Muslim Law. It is defined as [B]“the consensus of opinion of the companions of the Holy Prophet or of the Muslim jurists on a quest of Law.”[/B]

According to some jurists Ijma is the consensus of opinion of the companion of the Holy Prophet only; while some other maintains that it is an agreement of the Muslim jurists on any matter of the faith. A third group holds that Ijma is the agreed opinion of the Muslim jurists of the First three centuries of Hijra.

Ijma literally means [B]“agreeing upon” or “uniting in opinion”[/B]. Ijma is inferred in three ways, Firstly, by Qaul or word i.e. when the Mujtahids express their opinion on the point in question; secondly, by F’al or deed i.e. when there is unanimity in practice and, thirdly, by Sukut or silence, i.e. when the Mujtahid do not agree with the opinion expressed by one or more of them.

Ijma came into existence after the death of the Holy Prophet. During his life every question whatever might have been its nature, was decided by the Holy Prophet. But after his demise and with expansion of Islam and growing interests of theological and juristic speculations; there arose complexities in various matters for which there were no clear directions or decision in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah. Therefore, there was the necessity of finding out new rules and regulations to decide those matters. To find out new rules on the basis of Quran and Hadith there were mutual consultations among the companions of the Holy Prophet.

After the death of the Holy Prophet when there was any dispute on any question for which there were no directions in the Quran the Sunnah, then the companions of the Holy Prophet or the Muslim jurists of that age exercising their individual judgment gave their decision in accordance with the Quran and Sunnah. The decision on which all the companions or Muslim jurists or majority of them agreed is called Ijma.

The authority od Ijma is bases on the verse of the Holy Quran and the traditions of the Holy Prophet.

The Holy Quran says:

[B][CENTER]“Do not like those who separated and divided after they had received the clear proofs.”[/CENTER][/B]

And again:

[B]“Obey the Prophet and those who have authority among you………….”[/B]

Hadith Sharif refers:

[B][CENTER]“It is incumbent upon you to follow the most numerous body.”[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]“Whoever separates himself from the main body will go to the Hell.”[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]“He who opposes the people’s decision will die the death of man who died in the days of ignorance…..”[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]“If anything comes to you for decision, decide according to the book of Allah, if anything come to you which is not in the Book of Allah, then look into the Sunnah of The Holy Prophet, if anything comes to you is not in the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet, then look to what the people unanimously agreed upon.”[/CENTER][/B]

Ijma is of two kinds, [B]Ijma-i-Azimah and Ijma-e-Rukhsah[/B]. When the Mujtahids give their consent on particular point is Ijma-i-Azimah. When the Mujtahids do not agree upon any point but the community as a whole accepts the decision given by some Mujtahids is called Ijma-e-Rukhsah.

[B][U]Qiyas:[/U][/B]

Qiyas is the fourth important source of Islamic Law. Qiyas literally means [B]“comparing with” or “judging by comparing with a thing.”[/B]

Qiyas is generally described as analogical deduction. It is an analogical deduction from the three sources of law, namely the Quran, the Sunnah and Ijma. Abu Hanifa, one of the four great Imams used to make profuse use of Qiyas.

Qiyas is used in those cases which are not discussed in the Quran, or the Ijma or the Sunnah. For instance, when the Holy Prophet was sending Muaz bin Jabal as a Governor, he asked him, what he should do if any new problem arose. He said that he would follow the Quran, if it is not clear in the Quran, he would follow the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet and if it failed to satisfy him, he would use his own judgement. The Holy Prophet appreciated his reply and encouragement to exercise his own judgement.

Besides the Quran and the Hadith, Ijma and Qiyas are the two important sources of Islamic law. The basis of these two sources is the Quran, the Sunnah and the individual judgement.

Important sections of Muslim Laws such as rules regarding the caliphate, administrative measures etc. are based on Ijma and Qiyas.


[B][U]Conclusion:[/U][/B]

Total and unqualified submission to the will of Allah is the fundamental tenet of Islam. Islamic law is therefore the expression of Allah’s command for Muslim society and, in application, constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief. Known as the Shari’ah (literally, the path), the law constitutes a divinely ordained path of conduct that guides the Muslim towards a practical expression of his religious conviction in this world and the goal of divine favour in the world to come.


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