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  #21  
Old Saturday, July 23, 2011
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Originally Posted by SYEDA SABAHAT View Post
salam to all. roshan calm down dear sorry for late reply bcoz i had my admission tests so i was very busy.

now come to the main point, roshan your notes are good but not very good, bcoz there is something missing in every note like you have explained the effect of TAUHEED under few heading, you have to explain its effect on INDIVIUAL AND ON SOCIETY seperatly.

one thing more when you write importance on any topic try to write its importance from diffierent perspectives like " importance of zakat"

its impotance from
1:islamic point of view
2:social point of view
3:-economic point of view.



i will inshallah now read the rest of your topics and will point out mistakes later.

keep your spirits high and keep posting one topic a day,i will try my best to help you.
and my geography partner mr.aariz is also guiding you well.

regards sabahat
Walekum Salam Dear Syeda

Nice to see ur reply and comments after sum time..o i see u were busy in admission test....how went the test dear? may God give u success

ya dear being a non-muslim (hindu) iam totally aware that my notes lack that touch and need great help in islamiat, i have tried my best to make my notes effective, and in order to make them more effective i have started placing them here on this forum so as i cud get critical views of u all senior and experienced members, and every time wait for reply....

i'll surely add the more points in the topics mentioned by u...ya dear from now i'll post a topic per day so as kind members lyk u and arriz cud check my notes thoroughly and guide me..

Thnkng u for ur cooperation and guidance....waiting for ur suggestions.....Regards
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@roshan. There are other sources of sharia too. Ijtihad is missing. Have a look thoroughly on the sources.
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Old Sunday, July 24, 2011
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Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani View Post
Walekum Salam Dear Syeda

Nice to see ur reply and comments after sum time..o i see u were busy in admission test....how went the test dear? may God give u success

ya dear being a non-muslim (hindu) iam totally aware that my notes lack that touch and need great help in islamiat, i have tried my best to make my notes effective, and in order to make them more effective i have started placing them here on this forum so as i cud get critical views of u all senior and experienced members, and every time wait for reply....

i'll surely add the more points in the topics mentioned by u...ya dear from now i'll post a topic per day so as kind members lyk u and arriz cud check my notes thoroughly and guide me..

Thnkng u for ur cooperation and guidance....waiting for ur suggestions.....Regards


thanks roshan the test gone well and now hope for the best.

ohh i didn`t know that you are non muslim, but dont worry we will help you,infact we are helping you,and i am sure with your high speed catching power you will be able to make islamiat notes as good as you make other subject notes.


now come to notes. good but add few more points. like

expalin some distinguished characteristics of QURAN.
1:-it was send in arabic language and still present in the same language without any alteration.
2:-its a complete and comprehensive book,which have solution of all human problems
3:-its truly divine.
and many more.

beside that also expalin the quranic rules like
1:- adam-e-haraj :- means islam does not use force on anyone ( deen ma tum per koi tangi nhi rakhi)
2:- qilat-e takleef :- it means the quran is in simple language not in a difficult one so as to make comfort for its believers to understand it easily. ( pas siwaye iska nhi k ay NABI(PBUH) hum na is kitab ko apki zaban ma sahal bana diya ha takay ye log nasihat hasil karen)
3:- tadreej:- it mean slower process of retification. like ( ay logo! jo imaan laye ho jab nashay ki halat ma ho to namaz ke qareeb na jao)

the bracketed words are ayas of quran.



second comes IJMAH


you have expalined its definition from quran and hadith.

now add incident of MAAZ BIN JABAL when HOLY PROPHET( PBUH) made him governer of yamen and asked about affairs and he replied he will decide the matter after ijmah.

then add incident from hazrat abu bakar(r.a) rule,he did ijmah on compilation of quran after jang-E- yamamah

also add types of ijmah.



then comes Qiyas

expalined qiyas but add the comments of its critics. then add coments of those who favours it.


aariz you are right there are other sources of shariah but they are mostly of conventional use and not asked in exams.but every one should knoe their definitions.ijtihad is importantas well.


reply bohat lamba ho gaya ha aisa lag raha ha ma lecture de rahe hun. baki ab dosare members apko batatin ga k kya add kerna ha.

regards sabahat
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Old Sunday, July 24, 2011
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani View Post
I hav prepared these notes referring 3 or 4 books

the main book that i consulted was anwer hashmi's, then there were two others from faridi and dogar's publication.....wat abt urs dear?
I have got Islamic Ideology by S.M.Shahid, advanced concepts in Islamic Studies by M.Imtiaz Shahid & towards islamiat of dogar publishers
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Old Monday, July 25, 2011
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Originally Posted by SYEDA SABAHAT View Post
thanks roshan the test gone well and now hope for the best.

ohh i didn`t know that you are non muslim, but dont worry we will help you,infact we are helping you,and i am sure with your high speed catching power you will be able to make islamiat notes as good as you make other subject notes.


now come to notes. good but add few more points. like

expalin some distinguished characteristics of QURAN.
1:-it was send in arabic language and still present in the same language without any alteration.
2:-its a complete and comprehensive book,which have solution of all human problems
3:-its truly divine.
and many more.

beside that also expalin the quranic rules like
1:- adam-e-haraj :- means islam does not use force on anyone ( deen ma tum per koi tangi nhi rakhi)
2:- qilat-e takleef :- it means the quran is in simple language not in a difficult one so as to make comfort for its believers to understand it easily. ( pas siwaye iska nhi k ay NABI(PBUH) hum na is kitab ko apki zaban ma sahal bana diya ha takay ye log nasihat hasil karen)
3:- tadreej:- it mean slower process of retification. like ( ay logo! jo imaan laye ho jab nashay ki halat ma ho to namaz ke qareeb na jao)

the bracketed words are ayas of quran.



second comes IJMAH


you have expalined its definition from quran and hadith.

now add incident of MAAZ BIN JABAL when HOLY PROPHET( PBUH) made him governer of yamen and asked about affairs and he replied he will decide the matter after ijmah.

then add incident from hazrat abu bakar(r.a) rule,he did ijmah on compilation of quran after jang-E- yamamah

also add types of ijmah.



then comes Qiyas

expalined qiyas but add the comments of its critics. then add coments of those who favours it.


aariz you are right there are other sources of shariah but they are mostly of conventional use and not asked in exams.but every one should knoe their definitions.ijtihad is importantas well.


reply bohat lamba ho gaya ha aisa lag raha ha ma lecture de rahe hun. baki ab dosare members apko batatin ga k kya add kerna ha.

regards sabahat
AOA Syeda!

First Of all wishing u good luck for ur result

Secondly bundle of thnx Syeda for pointing out deficiencies of notes and thorough explanation to adorn them..

I'll surely add all these points to enrich notes further...Keep giving me ur blessed piece of advice....Regards
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Old Monday, July 25, 2011
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Ijtihad (Interpretation)


Outline:

Introduction
• Definition Of Ijtihad
• Use Of Ijtihad
• Conditions Possible For Ijtihad
• Specialists Of Ijtihad
• Steps To Develop A fresh approach To Ijtihad
• Necessity Of Ijtihad In Life


Introduction:

The true origins of Sharia are in fact Quran and Sunnah. But the position of Ijtihad (Interpretation) is implicit in the origins of Sharia which guides us within limits set by the Quran and the Sunnah.

Definition Of Ijtihad:

The root meaning of Ijtihad (Derived from jahada) is to strive, to make an effort. Ijtihad means to strive intellectually to comprehend problems facing the Islamic world and to find out their solution in keeping with basic principles and values of Quran. Ijtihad has been called by many scholars, including Allama Iqbal as “the dynamic spirit of Islam.”

Use Of Ijtihad:

All great Imams and founders of different schools of Islamic law practised Ijtihad in finding out the solutions of various problems they tackled with in their own times.

Technically, Ijtihad was first used by Muaz bin Jabal, when he was appointed as a governor of Yemen by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) of Islam. When asked how he would govern when he did not find clear ruling in the Quran or the Sunnah, he said “Ana ajtahidu” i.e. “I’ll strive” (to understand the problem myself and find a way out). The holy Prophet approved his reasoning.

Ijtihad was a very much a living process in early Islam; its gates re shut, many scholars maintain, around the times at the sack of Baghdad in 1258 by Mongol hordes. Ironically, it was a half century after that when Ibn Taymiyyah, defining his own Hanbali school of Islamic law, issued a fatwa on Jihad. Thus, the gates of Ijtihad were closed and that of aggressive jihad flung open.

Conditions Possible For Ijtihad:

This is very difficult job to cope with and at the same time this is also of very important nature. A suitable knowledge and common sense for drawing conclusion is necessary for Ijtihad. So generally great emphasis is laid upon being a man of letters and sublime aesthetic sense. It I a wrong impression that every man can interpret Sharia in its true sense because a man should feel its full responsibility for all the time. Because the man who gives a decision of some daily life problem not only affects the life of others but also peoples life after death.

Specialists Of Ijtihad:

There are three specialists of Ijtihad.

i) Only that man is capable of Ijtihad who has complete hold on Quran and Sunnah.

ii) He should be able to apprehend the pith and marrow of the issue and also to reach the deepest core of the problem.

iii) He must be of very good character and conduct and in whom people can repose their confidence easily.

Steps To Develop A fresh approach To Ijtihad:

Here are few basic steps in developing a fresh approach and throwing open gates to Ijtihad.

i) Firstly, at least a few Ulema and Muslims intellectuals (and there are many who have been trained in the traditional Islamic literature of Tafseer, Hadith and jurisprudence and who feel need for change) must show courage and come forward to develop a fresh approach, defying powerful vested interests manning religious establishment as it were.

ii) Secondly, we must transcend all existing schools of Islamic Law and develop a unified Law applicable to all the Muslims. This will also give greater meaning to the otherwise hollow slogans of Islamic unity. It does not mean that we reject all provisions of schools of law but that we select from all those that which is best in them and keeping in view with the Quranic principles and values.

iii) Thirdly, a new Ijma (consensus) must be developed on issues that are peculiar to our age and time. If the Ulema could do in the first three centuries of Islam, why not us today? The past Ulemas’ Ijma was limited to their own schools; today is a globalised world so a much wider consensus across all the schools of thought will have to be developed. Modern means of information and communication technology have made it much easier.

Necessity Of Ijtihad In Life:

Ijtihad basically is inevitable for human being till they are not involved in life routine. And a man is involved in life routine he faces many times many problems in performing his duties and tries to get some problem solving method and in a Muslim society a Muslim is always prone to have some sort of better solutions of problems of life routine and he obviously falls with Ijtihad. And it is impossible to live without Ijtihad in modern world of miseries.
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excellent effort.... really helpful...: Roshan,may i request you please to post something about "Rights of Minorities in Islam". Or any other member who may help out.

anticipatory thanks.
May Allah bless you.
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@ Roshan. That is really a nice and hard work. I really appricaite your attempt.
One thing i want to make you notice that in "ZAKAT" try to explain the condition of Zakat like who will pay zakat? when? how much? on which assets? etc.. and also on what types of assets we can pay Zakat? Amount of Zakat? Benificires of zakat means to whom we can give zakat and to whom we cannot?
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Originally Posted by Neeni View Post
excellent effort.... really helpful...: Roshan,may i request you please to post something about "Rights of Minorities in Islam". Or any other member who may help out.
Introduction

Under the Islamic law, non-Muslim minorities received rights and privileges that other minorities did not have under any other law in any other country. The relationship between the Muslim community and the non-Muslim minority is based on Allah's rule that says: {Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just.}[Al-Mumtahanah: 9].

This verse has identified the ethical and legal basis, with which Muslims must treat non-Muslims, namely kindness and justice with all those who do not have enmity against them. The humanity did not know these rules before Islam. It lived for centuries after Islam, but suffered the horrors of lacking them. It still looks forward to the day when it can apply these rules in modern societies but to no avail due to passion, fanaticism and racism.

Minorities' right to freedom of belief

The Islamic law has ensured several rights and privileges for non-Muslim minorities. Perhaps the most important of which is the freedom of belief, which is stated in Allah's saying: {There is no coercion in religion}[Al-Baqarah: 256]. This was also reflected in the Prophet's (peace be upon him) letter to the People of the Scripture in Yemen where he invited them to Islam. He (peace be upon him) said: "…and a Jew or a Christian who embraces Islam becomes one of the believers, having their rights and duties; and the one who remains Jewish or Christian should not be forced to disband his religion.."

As the Islamic law allowed non-Muslims to enjoy the freedom of belief, it enacted rules to preserve their lives, on the ground that they are human beings who have the right to life and existence. In this regard, the Prophet (peace be upon him) says: "whoever kills a contracting man(a non-Muslim protected by the state or an agreement) he will not smell the Paradise".

Warning against doing non-Muslims injustice

The Prophet (peace be upon him) warned against commitment of injustice against non-Muslims and diminishment of their rights. He vowed to be the opponent of their aggressors. He said: "Beware, if anyone wrongs a contracting man, or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall plead for him on the Day of Judgment."

One of the good stances of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in this regard is what happened with Al-Ansar in Khaybar, as Abdullah ibn Sahl Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) was killed in the lands of the Jews. It was mostly expected that one of the Jews killed him. However, there was no evidence. Therefore, the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not punish the Jews, but he asked them to take an oath. Sahl ibn Abu Hathma (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that a number of people from his tribe went to Khaybar and dispersed, and then they found one of them murdered. They said to the people with whom the corpse had been found, "You have killed our companion!" Those people said, "Neither have we killed him, nor do we know his killer." The bereaved group went to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Messenger! We went to Khaybar and found one of us murdered." The Prophet said, "Let the older among you come forward and speak."Then the Prophet said, to them, "Bring your proof against the killer."They said "We have no proof." The Prophet said, "Then they(the defendants) will take an oath."They said, "We do not accept the oaths of the Jews." Allah's Messenger did not like that the blood-money of the killed one be lost without compensation, so he paid one-hundred camels out of the camels of Zakat (to the relatives of the deceased) as Diya (blood-money).

Here, the Prophet (peace be upon him) did what no one even imagined, as he himself paid the blood-money from the funds of Muslims in order to calm down the anxiety of Al-Ansar without committing an injustice against the Jews. So, the Islamic state assumed the burden so that a suspicious rule would not be applied to a Jew!

Protection of non-Muslims' funds

The Islamic law has guaranteed the right to protect the funds of non-Muslims. It prohibited taking or seizing these funds unjustly through theft, usurpation, damage or any form of injustice. This was practically applied the Prophet's (peace be upon him) promise to the people of Najran, as he said: "The people of Najran and their surrounding areas would be under the protection of Allah and His Prophet Muhammad; their funds, religion, trade and everything small or big would be also safe…"

Moreover, a non-Muslim minority has the right to be guaranteed by the Islamic state from the state treasury – Bayt Al-Mal (House of funding) – in case of inability, old age or poverty, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) says: "Everyone of you is a guardian and is responsible for his charge"[6], on the consideration that they are citizens just like Muslims, and the state is responsible for all of them before Allah (be He Exalted).

In this regard, Abu Ubayd[7]narrated in his book Al-Amwal (funds) on the authority of Sa'id ibn Al-Musayib[8]that he said: "The Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) gave alms to a Jewish family, so alms could be given to them."

What expresses the greatness of Islam and the humanity of the Islamic civilization in this regard is the story mentioned in the Sunnah (Prophet's traditions) books. The story says a funeral procession passed in front of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and he stood up. When he was told that it was a funeral of a Jew, he said, "Is it not a living being (soul)?"

These were the rights of non-Muslim minorities in Islam and the Islamic civilization. The rule is to respect every human being as long as he/she does not commit injustice or enmity.
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Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani View Post
Ijtihad (Interpretation)


Outline:

Introduction
• Definition Of Ijtihad
• Use Of Ijtihad
• Conditions Possible For Ijtihad
• Specialists Of Ijtihad
• Steps To Develop A fresh approach To Ijtihad
• Necessity Of Ijtihad In Life


Introduction:

The true origins of Sharia are in fact Quran and Sunnah. But the position of Ijtihad (Interpretation) is implicit in the origins of Sharia which guides us within limits set by the Quran and the Sunnah.

Definition Of Ijtihad:

The root meaning of Ijtihad (Derived from jahada) is to strive, to make an effort. Ijtihad means to strive intellectually to comprehend problems facing the Islamic world and to find out their solution in keeping with basic principles and values of Quran. Ijtihad has been called by many scholars, including Allama Iqbal as “the dynamic spirit of Islam.”

Use Of Ijtihad:

All great Imams and founders of different schools of Islamic law practised Ijtihad in finding out the solutions of various problems they tackled with in their own times.

Technically, Ijtihad was first used by Muaz bin Jabal, when he was appointed as a governor of Yemen by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) of Islam. When asked how he would govern when he did not find clear ruling in the Quran or the Sunnah, he said “Ana ajtahidu” i.e. “I’ll strive” (to understand the problem myself and find a way out). The holy Prophet approved his reasoning.

Ijtihad was a very much a living process in early Islam; its gates re shut, many scholars maintain, around the times at the sack of Baghdad in 1258 by Mongol hordes. Ironically, it was a half century after that when Ibn Taymiyyah, defining his own Hanbali school of Islamic law, issued a fatwa on Jihad. Thus, the gates of Ijtihad were closed and that of aggressive jihad flung open.

Conditions Possible For Ijtihad:

This is very difficult job to cope with and at the same time this is also of very important nature. A suitable knowledge and common sense for drawing conclusion is necessary for Ijtihad. So generally great emphasis is laid upon being a man of letters and sublime aesthetic sense. It I a wrong impression that every man can interpret Sharia in its true sense because a man should feel its full responsibility for all the time. Because the man who gives a decision of some daily life problem not only affects the life of others but also peoples life after death.

Specialists Of Ijtihad:

There are three specialists of Ijtihad.

i) Only that man is capable of Ijtihad who has complete hold on Quran and Sunnah.

ii) He should be able to apprehend the pith and marrow of the issue and also to reach the deepest core of the problem.

iii) He must be of very good character and conduct and in whom people can repose their confidence easily.

Steps To Develop A fresh approach To Ijtihad:

Here are few basic steps in developing a fresh approach and throwing open gates to Ijtihad.

i) Firstly, at least a few Ulema and Muslims intellectuals (and there are many who have been trained in the traditional Islamic literature of Tafseer, Hadith and jurisprudence and who feel need for change) must show courage and come forward to develop a fresh approach, defying powerful vested interests manning religious establishment as it were.

ii) Secondly, we must transcend all existing schools of Islamic Law and develop a unified Law applicable to all the Muslims. This will also give greater meaning to the otherwise hollow slogans of Islamic unity. It does not mean that we reject all provisions of schools of law but that we select from all those that which is best in them and keeping in view with the Quranic principles and values.

iii) Thirdly, a new Ijma (consensus) must be developed on issues that are peculiar to our age and time. If the Ulema could do in the first three centuries of Islam, why not us today? The past Ulemas’ Ijma was limited to their own schools; today is a globalised world so a much wider consensus across all the schools of thought will have to be developed. Modern means of information and communication technology have made it much easier.

Necessity Of Ijtihad In Life:

Ijtihad basically is inevitable for human being till they are not involved in life routine. And a man is involved in life routine he faces many times many problems in performing his duties and tries to get some problem solving method and in a Muslim society a Muslim is always prone to have some sort of better solutions of problems of life routine and he obviously falls with Ijtihad. And it is impossible to live without Ijtihad in modern world of miseries.


roshan good effort now do one thing more, first last two heading are important from paper point of view, 2nd a question was three time repeated in previous exams was

(in the present period the muslim ummah is facing different problems and the solution of these problems "ijtihad" is necessary,so point out such an institution that can offer solution to the new problems with the help of ijtihad?

now try to prepare this topic in this context.

regards sabahat
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GEO to aise k sab tumhara ha,MARO to aisa jaise tmhara kuch bhi nhi.

Maza deti han zindagi ki thokerin unko,jinhen NAAM-E-KHUDA le kar sanbhal janey ki adat ho.
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The Following User Says Thank You to SYEDA SABAHAT For This Useful Post:
Roshan wadhwani (Tuesday, July 26, 2011)
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