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Roshan wadhwani Wednesday, July 20, 2011 10:04 PM

My Islamiat Notes (Kindly Check)
 
Asslam Alaikum Dear friends and members...after pak affairs notes, here iam placing my islamiat notes, hoping for positive response from the members, and request all the senior members and qualifiers to give a considerate look at my notes and guide me, corrections will be welcomed warmly....waiting for kind replies...Regards


[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="5"]Zakat:[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Definition Of Zakat
• Zakat In The Light Of Quran And Hadith
• Objectives Of Zakat
i) Purification Of The Soul
ii) Help Of The Poor
iii) Support Of Islam
• Importance Of Zakat
[/B]

[B][U]Definition Of Zakat:[/U][/B]

[CENTER][B]“And observe prayer, and pay the poor-rate and bow with those who bow.”
(Al-Baqara: 43)[/B][/CENTER]

The Arabic word Zakat means purity and cleanliness. The word Zakat is derived from word [B]“Tazkia”[/B]. In religious terminology, Zakat means that a Muslim who is in possession of certain amount of wealth or more, is required by his religion to spend 1/40 of it at the end of year on the poor, the needy and the wayfarer, an on such other items of charity and good doing, as are prescribed for it by God and the Prophet.

[B][U]Zakat In The Light Of Quran And Hadith:[/U][/B]

Among the fundamental tenets of Islam Zakat occupies a great importance and it is the third pillar of Islam. At several places in the Quran Zakat has been enjoined on Muslims side by side with Namaz.

[CENTER][B]“Be steadfast in prayer and practice regular charity.”[/B][/CENTER]

The Holy Quran says:

[CENTER][B]“….those who spend their wealth
By night and by day,
Secretly and openly,
Therefore for them is their reward with their Lord.
And there is no fear on them,
Nor shall they grieve.
(Al-Baqara: 274)
And Again:
“The attribute of those who spend their wealth in God’s way,
Is like the attribute of a grain,
Which grows into seven spikes,
In each spike a hundred grains;
And God multiplies it for whom He pleases;
For God is Vast, Knowing.”
(Al-Baqara: 261)[/B][/CENTER]

The Holy Quran says that those who give charity should not make show of it.

As:
[CENTER][B]“O’ ye who believe!
Render not void your charity,
By (show of) obligation and injury,
Like him who spends his wealth
For the sake of show of mankind,
And he does not believe in God ,
And the Future day,
His attribute is,
As the attribute of a smooth rock,
With some soil thereon,
Then it catches a heavy rain
Which then leaves it as bare stone;
Nothing which they earned is of any avail.”
(Al-Baqara: 264)[/B][/CENTER]

The Holy prophet said about the Zakat that:

[CENTER][B]“I have been commanded to fight against people till they testify that there is no god but Allah, and they establish prayer and pay Zakat and if they do it, then blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf and their affairs rest with Allah.” (Muslim)[/B][/CENTER]

If any Muslim refused to pay Zakat, an Islamic government was duty bound to punish him. In the times of Caliph Abu Bakr some of the tribes refused to pay the poor-due. He declared war against them:

[CENTER][B]“By Allah I would fight definitely against him who makes a distinction between the prayer and Zakat.” (Muslim).[/B]
[/CENTER]
The above mentioned quotations from the Quran and the Hadith are sufficient to signify the position of the poor-due in Islam. They make it abundantly clear that the edifice of Islam cannot be raised without full regard to the poor-due. It was actually for this, that the poor-due was included among the pillars of the Faith.

[B][U]Objectives Of Zakat:[/U][/B]

[B][U]i) Purification Of The Soul:[/U][/B]

Zakat relates to a person’s individual capacity. The alms giver cleanses his heart from greed and acquires fear of Allah. Allah has said:

[CENTER][B]“He shall be saved from Hell fire who is God fearing and who gives riches to others for the purification of the soul.”
(Al-Lail: 17-18)[/B][/CENTER]

In this verse Zakat has been described as a means of purifying the soul. Holy Prophet has proclaimed the Love of the world is the root of all the evils. Love for the world may have many aspects but in essence it is one. Emancipation of the heart from temporal love is nothing but its purification. If the poor due yields the freedom of the soul it proves that it has quality of purifying the soul. Free from the love of worldly things, one strives to seek the pleasure of God and the welfare of the After Life. He inclines more towards the pious deeds.

[B][U]ii) Help Of The Poor:[/U][/B]

The secondary objective of the poor-due is the help of the poor. it provides necessities to the poor Muslims. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:

[CENTER][B]“Verily, Allah has ordained the payment of Zakat on them (Muslim). It will be taken from the rich and returned to the poor.” (Muslim)
[/B][/CENTER]

It is true that the primary objective of the poor-due is the purification of the soul but it is equally true that unless it serves the needs of the poor, its real purpose will remain unattained. This duty can be done when the poor-due reach their hands. That is the reason why the Quran has regarded the poor-due as a right of the poor on the affluent class of the society.

[B]iii) Support Of Islam:[/B]

Muslims have been repeatedly exhorted in the Quran to this effect:

[B]“And strive with your wealth and your live in the way of Allah.”[/B]

It is admitted on all the hands that the protection and support of religion is not an ordinary matter. As such expending of personal wealth for this purpose has great importance. While enjoining Holy War the Quran says:


[CENTER][B]“Spend your wealth in the cause of Allah and be not cast by your own hands to ruin.”
[/CENTER] (Al-Baqara: 195)[/B]

It signifies that non-supply of funds for the protection and support of religion is tantamount to inviting destruction both in this world and in the Hereafter. Something that offers protection from destruction, both in this world and the After Life, can never be regarded as a matter of little importance.

[B][U]Importance Of Zakat:[/U][/B]

Zakat is the backbone of economic system of Islam. The Holy Quran speaks Charity as next too prayer in the series of worships and says that prayers without charity are useless.

[CENTER][B]“Woe to the prayer ones, who are unmindful of their prayers, who make a show of prayers and withhold the acts of Charity.”[/B][/CENTER]

Zakat helps in amelioration of condition of the poor and to put in other words more clearly Zakat gives economic security to the Muslim community and prevents the accumulation of wealth in a few hands.

It is the duty of the rich to pay Zakat and right of the poor to receive Zakat. The rich shall maintain the poor and the needy so that they may not beg, steal or sleep hungry. The institution of Zakat aims at solution of the problem of destruction of wealth.

Hazrat Umar bin Abdul Aziz used to say [B]“prayer carries up half way to God, fasting brings us to the door of His palace and alms procure us admission.”[/B] This is the importance of Zakat.

aariz Thursday, July 21, 2011 03:53 AM

A1 work Roshan. Write more about the importance of Zakat in context of elimination of poverty and unemployment .

Roshan wadhwani Thursday, July 21, 2011 12:43 PM

[CENTER][B][U][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="5"]Fasting/Saum/Roza[/SIZE][/FONT][/U][/B][/CENTER]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Definition Of Fasting
• Significance Of Fasting
• Individual Benefits
i) Spiritual Benefits
ii) Physical Benefits
iii) Moral Benefits
• Collective Benefits
i) Social Benefits
ii) Economic Benefits
• Conclusion[/B]

[B][U]Definition Of Fasting:[/U][/B]

Saum (Fasting) is the fourth pillar of Islam. The word “Saum” means “to be at rest”. It implies abstention which includes refraining from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse for a certain period of time, generally from dawn to dusk.

[B]The Holy Quran says:[/B]

[CENTER][B]“O’ ye who believe!
Fasting is prescribed for you,
As it was prescribed for those who preceded you,
That you may be reverent:
For a certain number of days.
Then for anyone of you who is sick,
Or on journey
There is then the same number of other days.
And for those who find it hard to bear,
There is redemption by feeding the poor,
……the month of Ramzan is one,
In which, was sent down the Holy Quran,
A guidance for mankind.
…..then let him amongst you,
Who is present in this month fast therein.”
(Al-Baqara: 183-185)[/B][/CENTER]

Fasting is obligatory upon every Muslim adult (baligh) who is in possession of his sense (aaqil) and who is fit physically (Qadir).

The month of Ramzan has been fixed for fasting-this month being the month of revelation of the Holy Quran. The word ‘Ramzan’ has been derived from [B]“Ramz” meaning “to burn” (to burn selfish desires). [/B]There are also many other fastings in addition to fasting during Ramzan, but the Ramzan fasting is obligatory and is of the highest importance.

[B][U]Significance Of Fasting: [/U][/B]

The significance of fasting lies in the fact that it trains the minds of men and elevates their moral aptitude. It restrains the passions but abstinence and thus the fast achieve control over his physique and mind. It (Fast) restrains man from mean and selfish desires as well as worldly thoughts.

Fasting is primarily a spiritual discipline aiming at Divine nearness. The Fasters are spiritual wayfarers.

[CENTER][B]“Whoever fasts during Ramzan having faith in Me and seeking My pleasure.”[/B][/CENTER]

[CENTER][B]“Fasting is a shield, so the faster should not indulge in foul speech and surely the breath of a fasting man is pleasanter to Allah than the odour of musk.” (Holy Prophet).[/B][/CENTER]

Finally, fasting inculcates uniformity ,in this types of institution throughout the Muslim world. The poor and the rich become same in status in the Holy month of Ramzan, at least in the matter of meal.

[B][U]Individual Benefits Of Fasting:

i) Spiritual Benefits:[/U][/B]

Fasting has immense spiritual value, for it is basically a spiritual exercise and discipline. It brings man closer to God and removes all barriers between him and his Lord.

[CENTER][B]“O’ ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you—so that you may fear Allah( and bring your taqwa).” Al-Quran.
(Al-Baqara: 183)[/B][/CENTER]

The very purpose of fasting, in this verse of Quran, is described as the attainment of taqwa. Believers are commanded to observe fasting in the month of Ramzan so that through it they may be able to attain nearness to God. A fasting is observed for God. Only He knows whether a person is fasting or not, it brings man very close to his Creator.

Fasting reminds one throughout the day that he is abstaining from food, drink and other pleasures of life in obedience to the command of God. There in none to see and check whether he is eating or drinking or enjoying other pleasures of life. He abstains from all these things with the full knowledge that God is always with him and always sees and hears him doing everything, and that nothing can be hidden from Him. Thus fasting develops a very strong sense of nearness and closeness to God and of His presence everywhere.

[B][U]ii) Physical Benefits:[/U][/B]

Fasting also has a physical usefulness. During the course of fasting one improves health. “The capacity of digestive organs improves. The better is the growth of man.” When the digestive organs get rest during fasting, their power and strength for more work increases. During fasting one bears the pangs of hunger and thirst and thus hardens life for any difficult time. The power of resistance increases and one can face hardships smilingly.

[B][U]iii) Ethical/Moral Benefits.[/U][/B]

The ethical importance of fasting lies in this fact that one refrains not only from foul actions but also from foul words. Hadith refers;

[CENTER][B]“The fasting is shield which saves from indulging in foul words and foul deeds.”[/B][/CENTER]

In the Holy month of Ramzan, the Muslims generally remain pure and try to pastime in pious actions, pious thoughts and in pious association. Hadith refers when the month of Ramzan arrives,

[CENTER][B]“The doors of Heaven are opened and the doors of Hell are closed and the devils are put into chains.”
[/B][/CENTER]

The doors of Heaven are opened for them because they rise above the physical desires and devote themselves to the service of Allah and of Humanity. The doors of Hell are closed for them because they shun all evils which may lead them to Hell. The devils are chained because they have conquered the lower passions which are an easy prey to the devils. The month of Ramadan is suited [B]“for spiritual advancement, for attaining nearness to God.”[/B]

[B][U]Collective Benefits:

I) Social Benefits:[/U][/B]

During the month of Ramadan, all Muslims rich and poor, gather in the mosques at the time of iftari and additional tarawih prayer at night. In fact, it is a time of great festivities in the mosques. They feel, experience and see brotherhood in practice in the mosques every day during this month.

Fasting has a great social impact when all Muslims, rich and poor, from every walk of life, fast together. They come together in large number for iftari and for tarawih prayers in the mosques and sit together. It helps to bring them closer to each other, thrilled and filled with sentiments of love and brotherhood.

At the end of Ramadan, there is the festival of Eid-al-Fitr, when the Muslims gather together to offer a two Rakat Eid Prayer as a token of gratitude and thanksgiving to their Lord for having successfully completed the month of fasting. Ramadan and the festival of Eid will not benefit Muslims unless they enable the poor members of the Muslims community to have enough money to celebrate the Eid. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has laid great stress on the payment of Fitrana before the celebration of Eid. He even told his followers that the non-payment of this poor-due will render their fasting null and void.

In short, the month of Ramadan brings great economic benefits for the Muslim community especially for the poor. it brings the Blessings of God in the form of wealth and food in the homes of the poor people.

[B][U]Economic Benefits:[/U][/B]

Among other benefits, fasting has enormous economic benefits for the Muslims community. During the month of Ramadan, the rich people spend very generously on the poor people to win the pleasure of God. Their generosity and charity enable the poor section of the Muslim community to receive sufficient funds during this month to meet their needs for at least a part of the year.

Then people who, owing to sickness or old age, cannot fast, are asked to feed the poor in compensation. Many rich people, who are sick or too old to fast, lavishly feed the poor people during this month.

[CENTER][B]“For those who can do it but with hardship, is a ransom, the feeding of the one that is in need; But he that will give more, of his own free will, it is better of him.”
(Al-Baqara: 184)[/B][/CENTER]


[B][U]Conclusion:[/U][/B]

The purpose of fasting is manifold. Allah mentioned in the Holy Quran, that the fasting is prescribed for the believers as it was prescribed for the people before them, so that they may acquire self-control and God-consciousness. Therefore, the purpose of the fasting is to develop God-consciousness, self-control, improvement of health by reducing or eliminating impurities from the body, and to become aware of the plight of the poor, hungry, and the sick. Ramadan is a month of spiritual consciousness and high sense of social responsibility. The fulfilment of one’s obligations during the month is rewarded by 70 times.

aariz Thursday, July 21, 2011 05:33 PM

@roshan. Discuss also about "takwa and perhaiz" concept in the topic of FASTING. Baki acha likha hai.

Roshan wadhwani Thursday, July 21, 2011 06:24 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="5"]Prayer/Salaat/Namaz[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Introduction/Philosophy Of Salaat
• Importance Of Salaat In The Light Of The Quran And Hadith
• Benefits Of Salaat
a) Individual Benefits
b) Collective Benefits
i) Social Organization And Social Discipline
ii) Mosque As Community Centre
iii) Mutual Cooperation And Help
iv) Equality And Brotherhood
v) Training In Jihad (Holy War)
vi) Respect For The Rights Of Others
vii) Tolerance
viii) Unity[/B]

[B][U]Introduction—Philosophy Of Prayer:[/U][/B]

[B][CENTER]“And keep up the prayer; it restrains from the indecency and evil.”
(Al-Ankabut: 45)[/CENTER][/B]

This word as used in the Holy Quran is formed from the word ‘Salat’ and ‘Tasliat’ and in the Arabic dictionary it means “To pray.” But in Islamic terminology it conveys the way of expressing worship by man to his real Creator and object of worship in the special manner taught by God to the people by His Apostles.

Prayer is the first and foremost duty of every Muslim and Quran Majeed repeatedly urges that every Muslim should perform this duty. Ti is obligatory for five time a day. Salat id the practical proof of our faith in Allah and Islam.

[B][U]Importance of Prayer In the Light Of Quran And Hadith.[/U][/B]

Prayer is vital in Islam. Quran has repeatedly emphasized this point.

[B][CENTER]“And keep up the prayer, give the stated alms and bow with those who bow.”
(Al-Baqara: 43)


“And keep up the prayer: It restrains from indecency and evil.”
(Al-Ankbut: 45)


“And keep up the prayer………….”
(An-Nur: 56)


“Keep up the prayer; give the stated alms: hold strongly to the cord of faith in Allah.”
(Al-Hajj: 78)


“And seek help (of God) with perseverance and prayer.”
(Al-Baqara: 45)


“O’ ye who believe! Strengthen yourselves with perseverance and prayer.”
(Al-Baqara: 153)


“He all of you attentive toward Allah (Him) and reverence Him; And keep up the prayer.”
(Ar-Rum: 31)

[/CENTER][/B]

Unless a man performs his prayer regularly, he cannot be a true Muslim. According to Dr. Hakim Islam considers prayer to be the dividing line between belief and unbelief. Islamic prayer is purified of all low and irrational elements and prescribed as a great help in building up of character by remembering God. Prayer is remembrance of God by man. It is a communion between God and man—an interaction between the Divinity within and the Divinity overhead. Prayer is a means of spiritual illumination and its aim is to know God and seek His help in man’s attempt.

[B]The Holy Prophet says[/B]:

[B][CENTER]“He whom this prayer does not save from what is obscene and evil; will recede away from God.”[/CENTER][/B]

Holy Prophet (PBUH) regarded prayer as the noblest of all devotions. It has been rightly said ‘prayer is an index to ethical culture.’ The Holy Quran says:

[B][CENTER]“Successful indeed are the believers, who are humble in their prayers.”
(Al-Mu’minum: 1-2)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]Benefits Of Salat:

Personal Benefits:[/U][/B]

i) Prayers keep this observation fresh in the minds of individuals that a man is not sovereign but sub-ordinate to the creator of the universe.
ii) Prayer develops a sense of responsibility in man.
iii) Prayers are the means of distinguishing between those who have a sense of responsibility or who have not.
iv) It creates a complete system of though by which a virtuous character is developed.
v) Prayers develop a practical sense enabling a person to take decision on a course of action with firm belief.
vi) Prayers bring a man nearer to God. There is no better means of achieving bliss about which it has been said,

[B][CENTER]“Prayers are the zenith of believers.”[/CENTER][/B]

vii) Prayers are the means of purifying heart and developing the soul.

[B][U]Mutual/Collective Benefits:
[/U][/B]

[B][U]i) Social Organization And Social Discipline:[/U][/B]

Prayers not only help in building individual character but also in establishing a community structure and spirit. Daily Prayers keep the flame of this spirit going. This is why prayer in congregation is made obligatory. The gathering of believers in mosque five time is the basis of community organization of the Millat-i-Islamia. Prayer is discipline more strict than he army but without any coercion. It is a voluntary discipline imposed to win the pleasure of God.

[B][U]ii) Mosque As Community Centre:[/U][/B]

When Muslims meet together in mosque for prayer, they feel and share one another’s’ problems and sufferings. They get the opportunity to know their brethren more closely and acquaint them of their needs and problems. This fraternity promotes sincerity, brotherhood, honesty, willingness to hep and piety amongst them.

[B][U]iii) Mutual Cooperation And Help:[/U][/B]

This regular assembly for daily prayer also provides opportunities for cooperation. People of different social and economic status meet one another in the mosque and learn eachother’s problems. In Islamic tradition, they will learn and cater for the needs of those in difficulty and suffering.

[B][U]iv) Equity And Brotherhood:[/U][/B]

Prayers in the congregation are the training in brotherhood, equality and fraternity. During prayer, all Muslims stand in prayer their God as equals. There is no distinction between the rich and the poor, the white and the black, the Arab and the non-Arab, they all stand in rows to offer their prayer to God.

[B][U]v) Training in Jihad (Holy War):[/U][/B]

There seems to be a close relationship between prayer and jihad. Any army must possess discipline to achieve any marked battle success. For without discipline the army spirit will disintegrate. Islam offers prayer as a training for discipline even in Holy War.

[B][U]vi) Respect For The Rights Of Others:[/U][/B]

Prayer also teaches respect for other people and their rights. The believers go to the mosque regularly five times daily and meet all types of people who gather there for prayers. They stand together shoulder to shoulder like a solid cemented structure and present a striking example of discipline, cohesion and affection. This develops in them love and respect for other people and their rights.

[B][U]vii) Tolerance:[/U][/B]

True believers also become tolerant through the daily routine of prayer. They have to prepare for prayer, perform ablution and then join other believers in the mosque for prayer. It needs a lot of endurance to stick to this rigorous discipline everyday all the year round. It also enables an individual to endure and tolerate the hardship and sufferings he has to undergo in his life.

[B][U]viii) Unity:[/U][/B]

Prayer is the strength behind unity. The establishment of unity is the greatest social ideal of Islam. It unites men of different languages, ethnic groups, colours, and nationalities. When they hear the call of the Muezzin, they all gather together as brothers for prayer. It is, in fact, the most vital and effective way of uniting believers into one solid block.

Roshan wadhwani Thursday, July 21, 2011 07:51 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]The Day Of Judgement[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Meaning Of The Judgement Day
• Islamic Concept Of Life Hereafter
• Signs Of The Day Of Resurrection
• Importance Of This Faith[/B]

[B][U]Meaning Of The Judgement Day:[/U][/B]

The judgement day is the appointed time, when the whole mankind and Jinn will be raised after death, and judged by Allah according to His Law, which has been contained in His Holy Books. The fortunate persons among mankind and Jinn who succeed on that Day, will enter Allah’s paradise, while the unfortunate ones will be thrown into Hell.

[B][U]The Islamic Concept Of Hereafter:[/U][/B]

Belief in life hereafter is the third basic postulate of Islam. The world according to Islam, is a place of trial and man is being judged in it. he will have to give account of all that he does herein. Life on this earth will, one day, come to an end, and after death a new world will be resurrected. It will be in this life after death that man will be rewarded or punished for his deeds and misdeeds. Those who live in the present world a life of obedience to the Lord will enjoy eternal bliss in the hereafter while those who disobey His commands will have to garner the bitter fruits of their disobedience.

[B]The Holy Quran sys:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Towards Him is the return of you all,
The promise of God is sure fact,
Surely he originates and make,
Then He causes it to return again,
In order that He may reward
Those who believe and do good with justice;
And as to those who choose disbelief,
There is for them a boiling water and a painful agony,
On account of what they disbelieved.”
(Younus: 4)[/CENTER][/B]


And again:

[B][CENTER]“And naught is the life of this world,
But a play thing and vanity,
And certainly the future home
Is better for those who practice reverence.
Do you not understand it then?”
(Al-An’am: 32)[/CENTER][/B]

The appearance of the ‘Last Day’ has been vouchsafed by God in the following verse.

[B][CENTER]“And those who are given knowledge and faith, will say, certainly tarried according to the ordinance of Allah till the Day of Judgement, so this is the day of Resurrection but you did not know.”
(Ar-Rum: 56)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]Signs OF The Day OF Judgement:[/U][/B]

The day of Judgement is known to God alone, and no one else is entitled to receive any hint about this secret. The following signs will precede the Day of Reckoning.

i) Disbelief among man.
ii) Spread of sensuality among men.
iii) Sedition and tumults
iv) Great distress in the world
v) Rising of sun in the west
vi) A monster will emerge from Mount Safa
vii) Coming of Dajjal, who will be slain by God through the hand of Jesus
viii) A smoke will fill the whole earth
ix) Three eclipse of Moon
x) Coming of Al-Mehdi.

As regards the future existence the Holy Quran speaks in following manner,

[B][CENTER]“And that which comes after (al-Akhirat) is certainly much better for thee than which has gone before.”
(Ad-Dhuha: 4)[/CENTER][/B]


[B][U]Importance Of The Faith:[/U][/B]

This faith is not without effect rather it has a great effect in moulding human character. It awakens in man the sense of a higher life, and thus makes his life more useful. The man who sincerely believes in future life shall try his best to lead his life honestly in this world, so that he may attain the higher life in the next world. The faith in future life implies that every action, however, secretly it be done, must have its fruit and therefore this belief serves both as a impetus to the good and noble deeds and restraint upon evils. This faith leads man to the right path and prevents him from evils. The faith in future existence awakens the sense of moral responsibility, while disbelief in it weakens this sense. Thus, the faith in future life is a great means of establishing peace and order in the world.

Secondly, this faith teaches us with that human life has an aim and this aim is to attain a higher life after death, which can be achieved only by good deeds and actions done in this world. Lastly, this faith serves as a great source of consolation to the disappointed and distressed who believe that they will be allowed to attain the higher life after death which is the aim of every human being.

As regards future the Holy Quran speaks in the following terms;

[B][CENTER]“Fear Allah and ye know ye have to go to Allah. If ye die ye will get eternal life (while to battle in the cause of religion and truth). Whatever ye give in charity ye will get full compensation and ye will not be tormented (in life hereafter)”[/CENTER][/B]

It means that the importance of this is expressed in the Holy Quran itself.

Roshan wadhwani Thursday, July 21, 2011 07:53 PM

I request all the members to kindly check my notes and guide me thru your precious comments and suggestions..Regards:))

Roshan wadhwani Thursday, July 21, 2011 09:17 PM

[B][U][CENTER][SIZE="6"][FONT="Georgia"]Belief In Risalat[/FONT][/SIZE][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Definition Of Nabi
• Proofs From the Quran And Hadith
• Conclusion[/B]

[B][U]Definition Of Nabi:[/U][/B]

The word Prophet or Nabi means [B]“An ambassador between Allah and the rational being from amongst creatures.”[/B] Thus the second part of the Kalima, signifies that God has not left man without guidance for the conduct of his life. He has revealed His commands through His prophets. Thus, in Islamic teachings Risalat means transmitting or reaching the commandment of Allah revealed to a chosen by Him to the Creature of God. These commandments and percept may be in the form of a verbal message or practice of a prophet and these are to be conveyed to people by an Apostle, this is called Risalat or Prophethood.

The belief in the finality of Prophethood bears as much importance as other convictions of faith, because without verbal acceptance and inner conviction of this faith no one enters the fold of Islam.

[U][B]Proofs From The Quran And Hadith:[/B][/U]

[B]The Holy Quran says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Mohammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah, and the seal of the Prophets, and Allah is aware of all things.”
(Al-Ahzab: 40)[/CENTER][/B]

The second basic postulate of Islam is to believe in the Prophethood of Muhammad and to accept the religion presented by him, and to follow his commands.

[B]The Holy Quran says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“O’ thou Prophet!
We have surely sent thee as a
witness and as bringer of
glad tidings and as a warner.
And as one who summons towards
God with His commands and
as a light-giving sun.
and give glad tidings to the
faithful that for them is great
grace from God.”
(Al-Ahzab: 45-47)[/CENTER][/B]

The Muslims must have faith not in Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) alone but also in all other prophets who appeared before Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). “Righteousness is this that one should have faith in Allah; and the Last Day and the angels, the books and the prophets.” (Al-Quran). All the prophets belong to one community and they were all raised for the same purpose and their teachings were essentially the same.

Mohammad is the last prophet and as such the final model for mankind. To believe in him means to accept his authority as representative of the Supreme Lord and follow his example in thought and behaviour. Belief in him involves the acceptance of Sharia, the Path, he conveyed and implement that in all walks of life. Thus the will of God is fulfilled on the earth.

[B]The Quran said:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Every Messenger who was sent by Us was sent for the purpose that he should be obeyed under the sanction of Allah.”
(An-Nisa: 69)[/CENTER][/B]

And that for the last prophet it is explicitly stated that:

[B][CENTER]‘Nay, O, Mohammad! By your Lord, They are not believer until they accept you the final arbiter in all their disputes and submit your decision whole heartedly without headache.”
(An-Nisa: 65)[/CENTER][/B]

The test of acceptance in God and prophets lies in conducting all human affairs in accord with the Law revealed by Allah.

[B][CENTER]“And those who do not make their decisions in accordance with that revealed by God, they (in fact) are disbelievers.”
(Al-Ma’ida: 44)[/CENTER][/B]

It was announced by Prophet (PBUH) that:

[B][CENTER]“I am the last messenger, there will be no messenger after me.”[/CENTER][/B]

Therefore, after the advent of the last Prophet, the message of Islam has come to its perfection. There will be no prophet after as he was the seal of prophets.


[U][B]Conclusion:[/B][/U]

Above stated facts prove that “Faith in the finality of prophet” has got fundamental value. Together with faith in the oneness of God, it is imperative also to have faith that Muhammad (PBUH) of all the prophets came in the last and God completed His Commands and messages through him, and also that his Prophethood was not for a particular people, but he was chosen as an Apostle for the entire world. The canons communicated through him are to last till Doomsday and these percept and practices were made to be followed as Quranic injunctions in all times. No deviation from this is ever permissible. Under these circumstances if any one claims himself to be a Prophet, he is a liar, imposter and Dajjjal. Anyone following him is an infidel.

Roshan wadhwani Thursday, July 21, 2011 09:21 PM

It seems dat members are not taking interest in my notes and donot bother to comment and give their useful seggestions...very discouraging, i take pains to convert my notes in soft copy only to get my notes checked by seniors and experienced members, but!!!!!!!!!!???????????.....:sad:

mariashamshad Thursday, July 21, 2011 10:11 PM

nodoubt great work.your hard work is clear from your piece of work.but Ariz mentioned the more important points also.

blossom Friday, July 22, 2011 01:17 AM

@Roshan:
Can u please mention the source of these notes?

& yes,u hv done a wonderful work..keep it up!

aariz Friday, July 22, 2011 03:16 AM

COmments on the Day of the judgement.

Good work on this topic.
Can u solve this? How the day of the judgement in Islam is a concept of accountability and justice?

Waiting Roshan :P test hai :P

@Roshan. Post a topic a day. Seniors dont spend all the time on forum. Ur work is appreciable.

@Roshan. Risalat is also a part of EMAAN E MUFASIL.

Roshan wadhwani Friday, July 22, 2011 05:40 PM

[QUOTE=aariz;332508]COmments on the Day of the judgement.

Good work on this topic.
Can u solve this? How the day of the judgement in Islam is a concept of accountability and justice?

Waiting Roshan :P test hai :P[/QUOTE]

As justice is the main concern of Islam it is necessary that people should get justice in this world and the world hereafter. It sounds natural and logical that everyone should reap what he has sown. One should receive the fruit of his deeds. If one has sown flowers he should pluck flowers. If one has sown thorns he should pick thorns. Virtues breed virtues and vices breed vices.

Roshan wadhwani Friday, July 22, 2011 05:49 PM

[B][U][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"][CENTER]Tauheed[/CENTER][/SIZE][/FONT][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Definition
• Significance Of Tauheed
• Effects Of Tauheed
i) Width Of Vision
ii) Self-respect
iii) Modesty And Humbleness
iv) Virtuous And Upright
v) Satisfaction Of Heart
vi) Determination
vii) Peace And Contentment
viii) Obedience
• Conclusion[/B]

[B][U]Definition:[/U][/B]

Tauheed means belief in the unity of God. The starting point of Islam is this belief in the unity of God. Tauheed is a revolutionary concept and constitutes the essence of the teachings of Islam. It means that there is only one Supreme God of the Universe. He is Omnipresent, Omnipotent and the Sustainer of the world and mankind.

[B][U]Significance Of Tauheed:[/U][/B]

The Holy Quran has laid greatest stress on the doctrine of unity of God. The first and foremost principle of Islam is the belief in unity of Allah. Unless a man believes in unit of God, he cannot be a Muslim.

Allah said;

[CENTER][B]“O’ Mankind! Worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, so that you may ward off evil. Who has appointed the earth a resting place for you, the sky a canopy, and who causes water to pour down from the heavens, thereby producing fruits as food for you? So, do not set up rivals to Allah, when you know better.”

(Al-Baqara: 21-22)[/B][/CENTER]

There are a number of verses in the Quran which clearly explain the oneness of God. In Surah Baqara, book says;

[B][CENTER]“And your God is one; There is no other God. He is the most merciful and Benevolence.”[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER](Al-Baqara: 163)[/CENTER][/B]

This is the basic tenet to which Muhammad (PBUH) asked to adhere. The Doctrine Of divine Unity is a standing protest against polytheism, dualism, atheism and idolatry. And it generally means that Allah is one and Eternal; there is no other God but Allah who is the Supreme Being, Creator and Lord of all. He alone is to be worshiped and From Him lone help and mercy are to be sought.

The unity of Allah implies that Allah is one in His person, One in His attributes, and One in His work. His Oneness in His person means that there is neither plurality of God, nor plurality of persons in the Godhood; His Oneness in His attributes implies that no other being possess one or more Divine attributes in perfection; His Oneness in His work implies that no one can do what God has done or can do. The Doctrine of Unity of Allah has beautifully been summed in the small verse of the Holy Quran in the following manner.

[B][CENTER]‘Say thou, “He: Allah is one: Allah is He on whom all depend, He begets not nor is He begotten; and none is like Him.”
(Al-Ikhlas: 1-4)[/CENTER][/B]


[B][U]Effects Of Tauheed:[/U][/B]

[B][U]i) Width Of Vision:[/U][/B]

A believer of this Kalima (La illah ill Allah) can never be narrow-minded. He believes in Allah who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, the Master of the East and the West, the Sustainer of the entire universe. After this belief he does not regard anything in this universe as stronger to himself. He knows that everything belongs to God whom he himself belong. So, his vision is enlarged, his intellect horizon widens and, his outlook become liberal.

[B][U]ii) Self-respect:[/U][/B]

This belief produces in man the highest degree of self-respect and self-esteem. The believer knows, that Allah alone is the possessor of all power, or harm a person, or provide for his needs, or give and take away life. This belief make him indifferent to, and independent of all power other than those of Allah. He never bows his head in homage to any of Allah’s creatures nor did he stretch his hands before anyone else except Allah.

[B][U]iii) Modesty And Humbleness:[/U][/B]

Along with self-respect this belief also generates in man a sense of modesty and humbleness. It makes him uncontentious and unpretending. A believer never becomes proud, haughty or arrogant. The boisterous pride of power, wealth and worth can have no room in the heart, because he knows that whatever he possesses has been given by Allah and Allah can take away just as He can give.

[B][U]iv) Virtuous And Upright:[/U][/B]

This belief makes man virtuous and upright. He has the conviction that there is no other means of success and salvation for him except purity of soul and righteousness of behaviour. This belief creates in man the consciousness that unless he lives rightly and acts justly he cannot success.

[B][U]v) Satisfaction Of Heart:[/U][/B]

The believer does not become despondent and broken hearted under any circumstances. He has a firm faith in God who is the Master of all the treasures of the earth and the heavens, whose grace and bounty have no limit, power are infinite. This faith imparts to his heart a great consolation, fills it with satisfaction and keeps if filled with hopes.

[B][U]vi) Determination:[/U][/B]

This belief provides in man a strong degree of determination and trust in God. When he makes up his mind and devotes his resources to fulfil Divine Commands in order to secure Allah’s pleasure, he trusts that he has the support and baking of Allah. This belief makes him strong and firm like mountain and no amount of difficulties, impediments and hostile opponent can make him give up his resolution.

[B][U]vii) Peace And Contentment:[/U][/B]

This belief in this faith creates an attitude of peace and contentment, purges the mind from envy and greed, and keeps away the idea of resorting to unfair means for achieving success. The believer understands that wealth is in Allah’s hands and He gives it out more or less as He likes, that all power, reputation, authority, everything is subjected to His will, and He bestows them if He wills, and man’s duty is only to struggle and endeavour fairly. He knows that success and failure depends upon Allah’s will, if He wills to give no power in the world can prevent Him from doing so, if he does not will, no power can force Him to give.

[B][U]viii) Obedience:[/U][/B]

The most important effect in this belief is that it makes man obey and observe Allah’s Law. One who has belief in, it is sure that Allah knows everything hidden or open and is nearer to him even his own Jugular vein. If he commits a sin in a secluded corner and in the darkness of night, Allah knows it, He even knows our thoughts and intentions, bad or good we can hide from everyone but we cannot hide anything from God. We can evade everyone, but we cannot evade Allah’s grip. The firmer a man’s belief in this respect, the more observant will he be in Allah’s Commands, and will shun everything Allah has forbidden and carry out Allah’s behest in solitude and in the darkness of night, because he knows that Allah’s police never leaves him alone. It is for this reason that the first and the most important condition for being a Muslim is to have faith in La illah ill Allah.

[B][U]Conclusion:[/U][/B]

In the teachings of Mohammad (PBUH) faith in one Allah is the most important and fundamental principle. It is the bedrock of Islam and the mainspring of its power. All other beliefs, commands and laws of Islam stand firm on this very foundation. All of them receive strength from this source. Take it away and there in nothing left in Islam.

aariz Friday, July 22, 2011 06:23 PM

[QUOTE=Roshan wadhwani;332685]As justice is the main concern of Islam it is necessary that people should get justice in this world and the world hereafter. It sounds natural and logical that everyone should reap what he has sown. One should receive the fruit of his deeds. If one has sown flowers he should pluck flowers. If one has sown thorns he should pick thorns. Virtues breed virtues and vices breed vices.[/QUOTE]
The day also exhibits that there is the ONE omnipotent and no one can escape from His catch.

@Roshan. Tauheed per acha likha hai. :) I have questions related to this topic.

Roshan wadhwani Friday, July 22, 2011 08:19 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Jihad:[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Meaning Of Jihad
• Importance Of Jihad
• Kinds Of Jihad
i) Jihad With Self
ii) Jihad By Wealth
iii) Jihad By Knowledge
iv) Jihad By Sword
• Conditions For Physical Jihad
• Necessity Of Jihad
• Conclusion[/B]

[B][U]Meaning Of Jihad:[/U][/B]

The word Jihad’s literal meaning is to strive for anything good, including striving for peace and the welfare of humanity.

Jihad word is derived from [B]Juhd [/B]means to make an effort. From Islamic point of view it means efforts for establishment and expansion of Din-e-Islam. Jihad signifies a vast meaning. It means [B]“to make the utmost possible efforts for the uplift of Islam.” [/B]It comprises every kind of sacrifice including laying down of life in the cause of Allah. A Mujahid is a person who strives hard for the glory of Islam. Mujahid sacrifices his wealth, his time and even his own life in the cause of Allah.

[B][U]Importance Of Jihad:[/U][/B]

Jihad is obligatory on every Muslim of the world. Both the Quran and the Hadith stress its importance. Owing to its importance a space has been allotted to it along with “Five pillars of Islam.”

[B][CENTER]“And do not say to those who have laid their lives in the cause of Allah that they are dead, but in fact, they are living, although you do not understand.”
(Al-Baqara: 154)[/CENTER][/B]

The great sacrifice in the cause of Allah is made in Jihad, because a loss of few lives, some thousands, some lacs, or even more does not count anything as compared with the dreadful calamity that may befall mankind as a result of the victory of evil over good, and of aggressive atheism over the religion of Allah i.e. Islam for, as a result of it, it is not only the religion of Islam that will suffer but the whole world would become the abode of evil, immoralities and perversion and sin. In order to escape this greater calamity Allah has, therefore, commanded the Muslims of the world to sacrifice their lives and properties for His cause.

[B][U]Kinds Of Jihad:[/U][/B]

Following means and ways come under the heading of Jihad.

i) Jihad With Self
ii) Jihad By Wealth
iii) Jihad By Knowledge
iv) Jihad By Sword

[B][U]Jihad With Self:[/U][/B]

The Quran has explained that a man has to make efforts to control on his self-desires. It is also one of the types of Jihad. [B]The Quran says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Whoever makes efforts, and surely he makes efforts for his self.”[/CENTER][/B]

The Prophet of Islam once said that to control on one’s own desires is great Jihad than to wage war against the enemies of Islam. Once the Prophet said to a man who returned from Jihad but now you have joined [B]“Jihad-e-Akbar”[/B]. It means he has to keep himself away from evils and self-desires. One has to sacrifice ones comforts and luxurious life. To pray or the fast in summer or winter or at the sleeping time is also Jihad with oneself.

[B][U]Jihad By Wealth:[/U][/B]

The people who possess property is bestowed by Allah, therefore one must spend in the way of Allah. The movement for the promotion and propagation of Islam requires financial aid. For this collective cause, it is Jihad, for those who spend their wealth in the name of Allah. In the earlier days of Islam, there are a number of examples, in which people gave their property for the cause of Islam. [B]The Quran says;[/B]

[B][CENTER]“And those believe and migrate and make effort with their property and self in the way of Allah have great reward with Allah. Such persons are successful.”[/CENTER][/B]

At other place, the Quran defines that Jihad is better for piousness, therefore to achieve that highest virtue; one may sacrifice one’s wealth and self.

[B]The Book says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“And make efforts in the way of Allah with your wealth and life that is better for you, that you may become pious.”[/CENTER][/B]


[U][B]Jihad By Knowledge[/B][/U]

Ignorance is the cause of all evils. Knowledge is the light, which shows the right path. So through learning and seeking knowledge, one comes to know the purpose of life. The Quran is the basic source of knowledge which shows the true perspective of life. This is the guide Book for the whole humanity. Through learning Al-Quran, one comes to know the right path.

It is compulsory for every Muslim to learn and to teach Quran to others. On the basis of the Quranic knowledge, one must make efforts to convince the infidels with argument and discussion. It is also Jihad. [B]The Book says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“And do not obey the infidels and make efforts with it (Quran) to them for great Jihad.”[/CENTER][/B]

It is a great Jihad to convert non-Muslim to Muslim through teachings of Al-Quran.

[B][U]Jihad By Sword:[/U][/B]

There are two words used in the Holy Quran. One is Jihad and the other is Qital. It has been already explained that Jihad means to make an effort in the way of Allah, and Qital means to fight with the enemies of Allah. Therefore Jihad in terms of fighting is one of the types of Jihad.

Armed Jihad is most loved by god because in it a Muslim is prepared to sacrifice his property, his time, his energies and even his life i.e. everything.

[B]The Quran says:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Then let those fight in Allah’s way who sell this world’s
Life for the Future;
And as to him who fights in Allah’s way.
Then should he be killed.
Or should he conquer,
We shall, then, give him a great reward.
And why should you not fight in Allah’s way?
(An-Nisa: 74-75)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Those who believe, fight in Allah’s way.”
(An-Nisa: 76)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Fight thou then in Allah’s way.”
(An-Nisa: 84)[/CENTER][/B]


A Muslim who sacrifices his life in the war (Jihad) is called Shaheed. He is not dead but alive. The Quran is testimony of it:

[B][CENTER]“And do not say of those who have laid down their lives in the cause of Allah that they are dead, but in fact they are living, although you do not know.”
(Al-Baqara: 154)[/CENTER][/B]

Armed Jihad is the most difficult kind of Jihad, and is only possible where there is an Islamic-state in existence. For the defence of an Islamic-State such Jihad is necessary. If fight is not waged to check trouble (Fitna) against religion. Din cannot be protected and trouble mongers would full this whole earth with Fitna and Fasad and it would be difficult to take the name of Allah. Therefore, for the protection and longevity of the faith, armed Jihad is necessary.

[B][U]Conditions For Physical Jihad:[/U][/B]

A war waged regardless of the prescribed pre-conditions will have no value. It will not be Jihad at all. Nor it would be entitled to any reward. It will be instead a cause for displeasure of Allah.

The pre-conditions for physical Jihad are as follows:

i) Those who go for Jihad must be free and independent Muslims and must have a collective system of their own and must led by a Caliph or Amir (Chief). In the absence of such a system, any act of war (Jihad) is forbidden. An act of war, even of a defensive nature can only be taken in a free atmosphere under the leadership of an authorized leader.

ii) Sufficient force to combat with the enemy is necessary because the Divine Injunction repeatedly emphasizes:

[B][CENTER]“No one should be charged beyond his capacity.”[/CENTER][/B]

On the basis of this principle, it has been ordained in the Quran:

[B][CENTER]“So keep your duty to Allah as best as you can.”[/CENTER][/B]

iii) Jihad should be exclusively for the sake of Allah and the sole aim of those engaged in Jihad should be no other than the service of the religion and the glorification of Allah. The single aim of those who participate in Jihad should be only the eradication of evil and the promotion of goodness and justice. This entire struggle should be done with one and the only objective of winning the pleasure of Allah.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was asked [B]“O! Messenger of Allah: if a man wished to fight for Allah but at the same time has also some worldly gain in view, how will he be viewed by you?”[/B]

[B]The Holy Prophet replied:[/B]

[B][CENTER]“He will not get any reward.”[/CENTER][/B]

Similarly, Holy Prophet also declared the principles:

[B][CENTER]“He is not one of us who fight under some prejudice and he is not one of us who dies for some prejudice.”
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]Necessity Of Jihad:[/U][/B]

Islam is not a religion of mere dogmas and ceremonies. It has come to perfect the whole life of humanity. The religion Islam has been introduced to eliminate cruelties and lawlessness from the world. There are always some anti-social elements. Therefore, Jihad is necessary to give lessons to such persons.

Jihad is necessary for every Muslim because their mission is to spread Islam throughout the world. To make efforts for pleasing Allah is the purpose of Allah. Jihad is the basic source for achieving that purpose.


[B][U]Conclusion:[/U][/B]

It is now made clear that a true believer (Mumin) is identified by his efforts to obliterate the false Din and establish a true Din in its place. If he strives in this direction and exerts his full strength in this endeavour and even stakes his life and suffers all sorts of loses, then he is true Muslims irrespective of success or failure in his efforts.

fromQAU Friday, July 22, 2011 08:35 PM

dun worry roshan, u r going really well.
i hv also been following ur posts.
Aariz has been a good guide 4 u. :)
keep it up :)

Roshan wadhwani Saturday, July 23, 2011 10:19 AM

[QUOTE=blossom;332482]@Roshan:
Can u please mention the source of these notes?

& yes,u hv done a wonderful work..keep it up![/QUOTE]

I hav prepared these notes referring 3 or 4 books

the main book that i consulted was anwer hashmi's, then there were two others from faridi and dogar's publication.....wat abt urs dear?

SYEDA SABAHAT Saturday, July 23, 2011 11:04 AM

salam to all. roshan calm down dear :D sorry for late reply bcoz i had my admission tests so i was very busy.

now come to the main point, roshan your notes are good but not very good, bcoz there is something missing in every note like you have explained the effect of TAUHEED under few heading, you have to explain its effect on INDIVIUAL AND ON SOCIETY seperatly.

one thing more when you write importance on any topic try to write its importance from diffierent perspectives like[B] " importance of zakat"[/B]

[B]its impotance from
1:islamic point of view
2:social point of view
3:-economic point of view.[/B]


i will inshallah now read the rest of your topics and will point out mistakes later.

keep your spirits high and keep posting one topic a day,i will try my best to help you.
and my geography partner mr.aariz is also guiding you well.

regards sabahat :king

Roshan wadhwani Saturday, July 23, 2011 08:45 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Sharia[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Definition Of Sharia
• Purpose Of Sharia
• Sources Of Sharia
i) The Holy Quran
ii) The Sunnah
iii) The Ijma
iv) The Qiyas
• Conclusion
[/B]

[B][U]Definition Of Sharia:[/U][/B]

The word Sharia literally means [B]“open bright, straight and clean path.” [/B]But in religious sense it is meant for those laws and orders which present code for obedience to one God, one prophet.

Shariah is the Divine Law which was pronounced through the Holy Prophet to mankind. The technical definition of “Sharia” is[B] “That Divine Law which establishes common beliefs, corrects line of actions, teaches good character, brings welfare to family life and strengthens state affairs and finally is approved by a prophet.”[/B]

[B][U]Purpose Of Sharia:[/U][/B]

The purpose of Sharia is to see that [B]“the great workshop of Allah should go on functioning regularly and gloriously and that the man should make full use of all his powers, make everything in this world serve him, make full use of all the means provided for him in the earth and in the Heavens, but should not use intentionally or in ignorance to harm himself or to harm others.”[/B]

Its objective is to show the best way to man. The violation of it amounts to sin. Sharia deals with all aspects of life of a Muslim both religious and secular. The religious and secular rights and duties have been divided under four heads:

[B]i) The rights of God
ii) The rights of man
iii) The rights of other individuals
iv) The rights of all creatures[/B]

The technical term of Sharia is referred to in the Holy Quran, thus:

[B][CENTER]“We gave thee a Sharia in religion; follow in and do not follow those who do not know.”
(Al-Jathiya: 18)[/CENTER][/B]
And again:

[B][CENTER]“To everyone (people) of you, We have given a Shra; and minhadj (a clear path).”[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]Sources Of Sharia:[/U][/B]

There are four sources of Sharia:

[B]i) The Holy Quran
ii) The Sunnah or practices of the Holy Prophet (Hadith)
iii) The Ijma
iv) The Qiyas
[/B]

These four sources also constitute Islamic jurisprudence or Fiqah. Sharia is the Law of Allah.It is binding upon Muslims and man has to accept it without question.

[B][U]The Holy Quran:[/U][/B]

The first authentic origin of Islamic Law is the Holy Quran which is voice of God.

[B][CENTER]“This is a scripture that We have revealed unto thee, full of blessing that they may ponder its revelation, and that men of understanding may reflect.”
(Sad: 29)[/CENTER][/B]

In fact, the Quran is the real fount of Islamic Law. All the basic Islamic Laws ‘Sharia’ is given in it. The detail about worshipping and human rights is described in it. In Islamic law Quran enjoys the same status as the constitution may have in state laws.

In the Quran it is said for mankind: [B]Say; I follow only that is inspired in me from my Lord. This (Quran) is insight for your Lord, and guidance, and a mercy for people who believe.[/B]

[B][CENTER]“Lo! We revealed thee the scripture with the truth, Allah thou mayst judge, between mankind by that which Allah showeth thee.”[/CENTER][/B]

That’s why Quran is considered the main source of Sharia. At another place in Quran it is said:

[B][CENTER]“Lo! This Quran gives the guidance of that way which is straightest.”
(Al-Isra: 9)[/CENTER][/B]

The value of Quran among human life affairs is like an order. It means a Muslim is that man whose all affairs are dealt under the light of Quran. It said:

[B][CENTER]“Who so judgeth not by that which Allah, has revealed such are disbelievers.”
(Al-Ma’ida)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]Hadith Or Sunnah:[/U][/B]

The Hadith or Sunnah is the secondary source of Muslim Law. The [B]Hadith literally means ‘saying’ and Sunnah means “a way or rule or manner of acting or mode of life.” [/B]Sunnah, we mean [B]“actions of the Holy Prophet and Hadith is the record of Sunnah.[/B] Sunnah of the Holy Prophet comprises [B]“his deeds, utterance and unspoken approval.”[/B]

We know that the Quran deals with the broad principals and instructions of religion going in details in a very rare case. [B]“The details were generally supplied by the Holy Prophet, either by showing in his practice how an injunction shall be carried out or giving an explanation in words.”[/B]

The Holy Prophet had to pass through different grades and conditions in his life with a view to furnish instructions to misguided people of the world. [B]“His trials and difficulties, struggles and battles, his happiness and enjoyments and everything which occurred during his Apostolistic career, were not but dictations from the Almighty; so that these things may be so many torch-lights for the guidance of all classes of men who were groping in utter spiritual darkness.”[/B]

[B][U]The Holy Quran says:[/U][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Certainly, you have got in the Apostle of Allah an excellent example for him, who hopes in Allah and the latter days and remembers Allah much.”[/CENTER][/B]

The chief characteristic of the Holy Prophet was that, he not only gave practical rules for guidance but also gave practical illustrations of all those rules.

All those rules are collectively called the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet recorded in the Hadith which is the secondary source of Muslim Law. It is narrated in[B] Sahih Muslim[/B] that:

[B][CENTER]“Allah is connected with the community by His Quran and Muhammad (PBUH) by his Sunnah.”[/CENTER][/B]

In [B]Sahih Bukhari[/B] it appears:

[B][CENTER]“He who is tired of my Prophet’s Sunnah, does not belong to me.”[/CENTER][/B]

Therefore every Muslim requires, in addition to the Quran, guidance of the Sunnah and Hadith in life.

[B][U]Ijma[/U][/B]

Ijma constitutes the third source of Muslim Law. It is defined as [B]“the consensus of opinion of the companions of the Holy Prophet or of the Muslim jurists on a quest of Law.”[/B]

According to some jurists Ijma is the consensus of opinion of the companion of the Holy Prophet only; while some other maintains that it is an agreement of the Muslim jurists on any matter of the faith. A third group holds that Ijma is the agreed opinion of the Muslim jurists of the First three centuries of Hijra.

Ijma literally means [B]“agreeing upon” or “uniting in opinion”[/B]. Ijma is inferred in three ways, Firstly, by Qaul or word i.e. when the Mujtahids express their opinion on the point in question; secondly, by F’al or deed i.e. when there is unanimity in practice and, thirdly, by Sukut or silence, i.e. when the Mujtahid do not agree with the opinion expressed by one or more of them.

Ijma came into existence after the death of the Holy Prophet. During his life every question whatever might have been its nature, was decided by the Holy Prophet. But after his demise and with expansion of Islam and growing interests of theological and juristic speculations; there arose complexities in various matters for which there were no clear directions or decision in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah. Therefore, there was the necessity of finding out new rules and regulations to decide those matters. To find out new rules on the basis of Quran and Hadith there were mutual consultations among the companions of the Holy Prophet.

After the death of the Holy Prophet when there was any dispute on any question for which there were no directions in the Quran the Sunnah, then the companions of the Holy Prophet or the Muslim jurists of that age exercising their individual judgment gave their decision in accordance with the Quran and Sunnah. The decision on which all the companions or Muslim jurists or majority of them agreed is called Ijma.

The authority od Ijma is bases on the verse of the Holy Quran and the traditions of the Holy Prophet.

The Holy Quran says:

[B][CENTER]“Do not like those who separated and divided after they had received the clear proofs.”[/CENTER][/B]

And again:

[B]“Obey the Prophet and those who have authority among you………….”[/B]

Hadith Sharif refers:

[B][CENTER]“It is incumbent upon you to follow the most numerous body.”[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]“Whoever separates himself from the main body will go to the Hell.”[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]“He who opposes the people’s decision will die the death of man who died in the days of ignorance…..”[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]“If anything comes to you for decision, decide according to the book of Allah, if anything come to you which is not in the Book of Allah, then look into the Sunnah of The Holy Prophet, if anything comes to you is not in the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet, then look to what the people unanimously agreed upon.”[/CENTER][/B]

Ijma is of two kinds, [B]Ijma-i-Azimah and Ijma-e-Rukhsah[/B]. When the Mujtahids give their consent on particular point is Ijma-i-Azimah. When the Mujtahids do not agree upon any point but the community as a whole accepts the decision given by some Mujtahids is called Ijma-e-Rukhsah.

[B][U]Qiyas:[/U][/B]

Qiyas is the fourth important source of Islamic Law. Qiyas literally means [B]“comparing with” or “judging by comparing with a thing.”[/B]

Qiyas is generally described as analogical deduction. It is an analogical deduction from the three sources of law, namely the Quran, the Sunnah and Ijma. Abu Hanifa, one of the four great Imams used to make profuse use of Qiyas.

Qiyas is used in those cases which are not discussed in the Quran, or the Ijma or the Sunnah. For instance, when the Holy Prophet was sending Muaz bin Jabal as a Governor, he asked him, what he should do if any new problem arose. He said that he would follow the Quran, if it is not clear in the Quran, he would follow the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet and if it failed to satisfy him, he would use his own judgement. The Holy Prophet appreciated his reply and encouragement to exercise his own judgement.

Besides the Quran and the Hadith, Ijma and Qiyas are the two important sources of Islamic law. The basis of these two sources is the Quran, the Sunnah and the individual judgement.

Important sections of Muslim Laws such as rules regarding the caliphate, administrative measures etc. are based on Ijma and Qiyas.


[B][U]Conclusion:[/U][/B]

Total and unqualified submission to the will of Allah is the fundamental tenet of Islam. Islamic law is therefore the expression of Allah’s command for Muslim society and, in application, constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief. Known as the Shari’ah (literally, the path), the law constitutes a divinely ordained path of conduct that guides the Muslim towards a practical expression of his religious conviction in this world and the goal of divine favour in the world to come.

Roshan wadhwani Saturday, July 23, 2011 08:59 PM

[QUOTE=SYEDA SABAHAT;332897]salam to all. roshan calm down dear :D sorry for late reply bcoz i had my admission tests so i was very busy.

now come to the main point, roshan your notes are good but not very good, bcoz there is something missing in every note like you have explained the effect of TAUHEED under few heading, you have to explain its effect on INDIVIUAL AND ON SOCIETY seperatly.

one thing more when you write importance on any topic try to write its importance from diffierent perspectives like[B] " importance of zakat"[/B]

[B]its impotance from
1:islamic point of view
2:social point of view
3:-economic point of view.[/B]


i will inshallah now read the rest of your topics and will point out mistakes later.

keep your spirits high and keep posting one topic a day,i will try my best to help you.
and my geography partner mr.aariz is also guiding you well.

regards sabahat :king[/QUOTE]

Walekum Salam Dear Syeda:))

Nice to see ur reply and comments after sum time..o i see u were busy in admission test....how went the test dear? may God give u success:))

ya dear being a non-muslim (hindu) iam totally aware that my notes lack that touch and need great help in islamiat, i have tried my best to make my notes effective, and in order to make them more effective i have started placing them here on this forum so as i cud get critical views of u all senior and experienced members, and every time wait for reply....

i'll surely add the more points in the topics mentioned by u...ya dear from now i'll post a topic per day so as kind members lyk u and arriz cud check my notes thoroughly and guide me.. :))

Thnkng u for ur cooperation and guidance....waiting for ur suggestions.....Regards:))

aariz Sunday, July 24, 2011 12:22 AM

@roshan. There are other sources of sharia too. Ijtihad is missing. Have a look thoroughly on the sources.

SYEDA SABAHAT Sunday, July 24, 2011 12:11 PM

[QUOTE=Roshan wadhwani;333089]Walekum Salam Dear Syeda:))

Nice to see ur reply and comments after sum time..o i see u were busy in admission test....how went the test dear? may God give u success:))

ya dear being a non-muslim (hindu) iam totally aware that my notes lack that touch and need great help in islamiat, i have tried my best to make my notes effective, and in order to make them more effective i have started placing them here on this forum so as i cud get critical views of u all senior and experienced members, and every time wait for reply....

i'll surely add the more points in the topics mentioned by u...ya dear from now i'll post a topic per day so as kind members lyk u and arriz cud check my notes thoroughly and guide me.. :))

Thnkng u for ur cooperation and guidance....waiting for ur suggestions.....Regards:))[/QUOTE]



thanks roshan the test gone well and now hope for the best.

ohh i didn`t know that you are non muslim, but dont worry we will help you,infact we are helping you,and i am sure with your high speed catching power you will be able to make islamiat notes as good as you make other subject notes.


now come to notes. good but add few more points. like

expalin some [B]distinguished characteristics of QURAN.[/B]
1:-it was send in arabic language and still present in the same language without any alteration.
2:-its a complete and comprehensive book,which have solution of all human problems
3:-its truly divine.
and many more.

beside that also expalin the [B]quranic rules[/B] like
[B]1:- adam-e-haraj [/B]:- means islam does not use force on anyone ( deen ma tum per koi tangi nhi rakhi)
[B]2:- qilat-e takleef [/B]:- it means the quran is in simple language not in a difficult one so as to make comfort for its believers to understand it easily. ( pas siwaye iska nhi k ay NABI(PBUH) hum na is kitab ko apki zaban ma sahal bana diya ha takay ye log nasihat hasil karen)
[B]3:- tadreej:-[/B] it mean slower process of retification. like ( ay logo! jo imaan laye ho jab nashay ki halat ma ho to namaz ke qareeb na jao)

the bracketed words are ayas of quran.



second comes [B]IJMAH [/B]


you have expalined its definition from quran and hadith.

now add incident of MAAZ BIN JABAL when HOLY PROPHET( PBUH) made him governer of yamen and asked about affairs and he replied he will decide the matter after ijmah.

then add incident from hazrat abu bakar(r.a) rule,he did ijmah on compilation of quran after jang-E- yamamah

also add types of ijmah.



then comes[B] Qiyas[/B]

expalined qiyas but add the comments of its critics. then add coments of those who favours it.


aariz you are right there are other sources of shariah but they are mostly of conventional use and not asked in exams.but every one should knoe their definitions.ijtihad is importantas well.


reply bohat lamba ho gaya ha aisa lag raha ha ma lecture de rahe hun. baki ab dosare members apko batatin ga k kya add kerna ha.

regards sabahat

blossom Sunday, July 24, 2011 06:05 PM

[QUOTE=Roshan wadhwani;332884]I hav prepared these notes referring 3 or 4 books

the main book that i consulted was anwer hashmi's, then there were two others from faridi and dogar's publication.....wat abt urs dear?[/QUOTE]
I have got Islamic Ideology by S.M.Shahid, advanced concepts in Islamic Studies by M.Imtiaz Shahid & towards islamiat of dogar publishers

Roshan wadhwani Monday, July 25, 2011 06:16 PM

[QUOTE=SYEDA SABAHAT;333292]thanks roshan the test gone well and now hope for the best.

ohh i didn`t know that you are non muslim, but dont worry we will help you,infact we are helping you,and i am sure with your high speed catching power you will be able to make islamiat notes as good as you make other subject notes.


now come to notes. good but add few more points. like

expalin some [B]distinguished characteristics of QURAN.[/B]
1:-it was send in arabic language and still present in the same language without any alteration.
2:-its a complete and comprehensive book,which have solution of all human problems
3:-its truly divine.
and many more.

beside that also expalin the [B]quranic rules[/B] like
[B]1:- adam-e-haraj [/B]:- means islam does not use force on anyone ( deen ma tum per koi tangi nhi rakhi)
[B]2:- qilat-e takleef [/B]:- it means the quran is in simple language not in a difficult one so as to make comfort for its believers to understand it easily. ( pas siwaye iska nhi k ay NABI(PBUH) hum na is kitab ko apki zaban ma sahal bana diya ha takay ye log nasihat hasil karen)
[B]3:- tadreej:-[/B] it mean slower process of retification. like ( ay logo! jo imaan laye ho jab nashay ki halat ma ho to namaz ke qareeb na jao)

the bracketed words are ayas of quran.



second comes [B]IJMAH [/B]


you have expalined its definition from quran and hadith.

now add incident of MAAZ BIN JABAL when HOLY PROPHET( PBUH) made him governer of yamen and asked about affairs and he replied he will decide the matter after ijmah.

then add incident from hazrat abu bakar(r.a) rule,he did ijmah on compilation of quran after jang-E- yamamah

also add types of ijmah.



then comes[B] Qiyas[/B]

expalined qiyas but add the comments of its critics. then add coments of those who favours it.


aariz you are right there are other sources of shariah but they are mostly of conventional use and not asked in exams.but every one should knoe their definitions.ijtihad is importantas well.


reply bohat lamba ho gaya ha aisa lag raha ha ma lecture de rahe hun. baki ab dosare members apko batatin ga k kya add kerna ha.

regards sabahat[/QUOTE]

AOA Syeda!

First Of all wishing u good luck for ur result:))

Secondly bundle of thnx Syeda for pointing out deficiencies of notes and thorough explanation to adorn them..

I'll surely add all these points to enrich notes further...Keep giving me ur blessed piece of advice....Regards:))

Roshan wadhwani Monday, July 25, 2011 06:21 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Ijtihad (Interpretation)[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Introduction
• Definition Of Ijtihad
• Use Of Ijtihad
• Conditions Possible For Ijtihad
• Specialists Of Ijtihad
• Steps To Develop A fresh approach To Ijtihad
• Necessity Of Ijtihad In Life
[/B]

[B][U]Introduction:[/U][/B]

The true origins of Sharia are in fact Quran and Sunnah. But the position of Ijtihad (Interpretation) is implicit in the origins of Sharia which guides us within limits set by the Quran and the Sunnah.

[B][U]Definition Of Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

The root meaning of Ijtihad (Derived from jahada) is to strive, to make an effort. Ijtihad means to strive intellectually to comprehend problems facing the Islamic world and to find out their solution in keeping with basic principles and values of Quran. Ijtihad has been called by many scholars, including [B]Allama Iqbal as “the dynamic spirit of Islam.”[/B]

[B][U]Use Of Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

All great Imams and founders of different schools of Islamic law practised Ijtihad in finding out the solutions of various problems they tackled with in their own times.

Technically, Ijtihad was first used by Muaz bin Jabal, when he was appointed as a governor of Yemen by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) of Islam. When asked how he would govern when he did not find clear ruling in the Quran or the Sunnah, he said [B]“Ana ajtahidu” i.e. “I’ll strive” [/B](to understand the problem myself and find a way out). The holy Prophet approved his reasoning.

Ijtihad was a very much a living process in early Islam; its gates re shut, many scholars maintain, around the times at the sack of Baghdad in 1258 by Mongol hordes. Ironically, it was a half century after that when Ibn Taymiyyah, defining his own Hanbali school of Islamic law, issued a fatwa on Jihad. Thus, the gates of Ijtihad were closed and that of aggressive jihad flung open.

[B][U]Conditions Possible For Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

This is very difficult job to cope with and at the same time this is also of very important nature. A suitable knowledge and common sense for drawing conclusion is necessary for Ijtihad. So generally great emphasis is laid upon being a man of letters and sublime aesthetic sense. It I a wrong impression that every man can interpret Sharia in its true sense because a man should feel its full responsibility for all the time. Because the man who gives a decision of some daily life problem not only affects the life of others but also peoples life after death.

[B][U]Specialists Of Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

There are three specialists of Ijtihad.

i) Only that man is capable of Ijtihad who has complete hold on Quran and Sunnah.

ii) He should be able to apprehend the pith and marrow of the issue and also to reach the deepest core of the problem.

iii) He must be of very good character and conduct and in whom people can repose their confidence easily.

[B][U]Steps To Develop A fresh approach To Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

Here are few basic steps in developing a fresh approach and throwing open gates to Ijtihad.

i) Firstly, at least a few Ulema and Muslims intellectuals (and there are many who have been trained in the traditional Islamic literature of Tafseer, Hadith and jurisprudence and who feel need for change) must show courage and come forward to develop a fresh approach, defying powerful vested interests manning religious establishment as it were.

ii) Secondly, we must transcend all existing schools of Islamic Law and develop a unified Law applicable to all the Muslims. This will also give greater meaning to the otherwise hollow slogans of Islamic unity. It does not mean that we reject all provisions of schools of law but that we select from all those that which is best in them and keeping in view with the Quranic principles and values.

iii) Thirdly, a new Ijma (consensus) must be developed on issues that are peculiar to our age and time. If the Ulema could do in the first three centuries of Islam, why not us today? The past Ulemas’ Ijma was limited to their own schools; today is a globalised world so a much wider consensus across all the schools of thought will have to be developed. Modern means of information and communication technology have made it much easier.

[B][U]Necessity Of Ijtihad In Life:[/U][/B]

Ijtihad basically is inevitable for human being till they are not involved in life routine. And a man is involved in life routine he faces many times many problems in performing his duties and tries to get some problem solving method and in a Muslim society a Muslim is always prone to have some sort of better solutions of problems of life routine and he obviously falls with Ijtihad. And it is impossible to live without Ijtihad in modern world of miseries.

Neeni Monday, July 25, 2011 10:24 PM

request
 
excellent effort.... really helpful...:bow: Roshan,may i request you please to post something about "Rights of Minorities in Islam". Or any other member who may help out.

anticipatory thanks.
May Allah bless you.

Agha Zuhaib Tuesday, July 26, 2011 02:44 AM

@ Roshan. That is really a nice and hard work. I really appricaite your attempt.
One thing i want to make you notice that in "ZAKAT" try to explain the [B]condition of Zakat[/B] like who will pay zakat? when? how much? on which assets? etc.. and also on what types of assets we can pay Zakat? Amount of Zakat? Benificires of zakat means to whom we can give zakat and to whom we cannot?

Agha Zuhaib Tuesday, July 26, 2011 03:03 AM

[QUOTE=Neeni;333720]excellent effort.... really helpful...:bow: Roshan,may i request you please to post something about "Rights of Minorities in Islam". Or any other member who may help out.[/QUOTE]

[B]Introduction
[/B]
Under the Islamic law, non-Muslim minorities received rights and privileges that other minorities did not have under any other law in any other country. The relationship between the Muslim community and the non-Muslim minority is based on Allah's rule that says: {Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just.}[Al-Mumtahanah: 9].

This verse has identified the ethical and legal basis, with which Muslims must treat non-Muslims, namely kindness and justice with all those who do not have enmity against them. The humanity did not know these rules before Islam. It lived for centuries after Islam, but suffered the horrors of lacking them. It still looks forward to the day when it can apply these rules in modern societies but to no avail due to passion, fanaticism and racism.

[B]Minorities' right to freedom of belief
[/B]
The Islamic law has ensured several rights and privileges for non-Muslim minorities. Perhaps the most important of which is the freedom of belief, which is stated in Allah's saying: {There is no coercion in religion}[Al-Baqarah: 256]. This was also reflected in the Prophet's (peace be upon him) letter to the People of the Scripture in Yemen where he invited them to Islam. He (peace be upon him) said: "…and a Jew or a Christian who embraces Islam becomes one of the believers, having their rights and duties; and the one who remains Jewish or Christian should not be forced to disband his religion.."

As the Islamic law allowed non-Muslims to enjoy the freedom of belief, it enacted rules to preserve their lives, on the ground that they are human beings who have the right to life and existence. In this regard, the Prophet (peace be upon him) says: "whoever kills a contracting man(a non-Muslim protected by the state or an agreement) he will not smell the Paradise".

[B]Warning against doing non-Muslims injustice
[/B]
The Prophet (peace be upon him) warned against commitment of injustice against non-Muslims and diminishment of their rights. He vowed to be the opponent of their aggressors. He said: "Beware, if anyone wrongs a contracting man, or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall plead for him on the Day of Judgment."

One of the good stances of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in this regard is what happened with Al-Ansar in Khaybar, as Abdullah ibn Sahl Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him) was killed in the lands of the Jews. It was mostly expected that one of the Jews killed him. However, there was no evidence. Therefore, the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not punish the Jews, but he asked them to take an oath. Sahl ibn Abu Hathma (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that a number of people from his tribe went to Khaybar and dispersed, and then they found one of them murdered. They said to the people with whom the corpse had been found, "You have killed our companion!" Those people said, "Neither have we killed him, nor do we know his killer." The bereaved group went to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Messenger! We went to Khaybar and found one of us murdered." The Prophet said, "Let the older among you come forward and speak."Then the Prophet said, to them, "Bring your proof against the killer."They said "We have no proof." The Prophet said, "Then they(the defendants) will take an oath."They said, "We do not accept the oaths of the Jews." Allah's Messenger did not like that the blood-money of the killed one be lost without compensation, so he paid one-hundred camels out of the camels of Zakat (to the relatives of the deceased) as Diya (blood-money).

Here, the Prophet (peace be upon him) did what no one even imagined, as he himself paid the blood-money from the funds of Muslims in order to calm down the anxiety of Al-Ansar without committing an injustice against the Jews. So, the Islamic state assumed the burden so that a suspicious rule would not be applied to a Jew!

[B]Protection of non-Muslims' funds
[/B]
The Islamic law has guaranteed the right to protect the funds of non-Muslims. It prohibited taking or seizing these funds unjustly through theft, usurpation, damage or any form of injustice. This was practically applied the Prophet's (peace be upon him) promise to the people of Najran, as he said: "The people of Najran and their surrounding areas would be under the protection of Allah and His Prophet Muhammad; their funds, religion, trade and everything small or big would be also safe…"

Moreover, a non-Muslim minority has the right to be guaranteed by the Islamic state from the state treasury – Bayt Al-Mal (House of funding) – in case of inability, old age or poverty, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) says: "Everyone of you is a guardian and is responsible for his charge"[6], on the consideration that they are citizens just like Muslims, and the state is responsible for all of them before Allah (be He Exalted).

In this regard, Abu Ubayd[7]narrated in his book Al-Amwal (funds) on the authority of Sa'id ibn Al-Musayib[8]that he said: "The Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) gave alms to a Jewish family, so alms could be given to them."

What expresses the greatness of Islam and the humanity of the Islamic civilization in this regard is the story mentioned in the Sunnah (Prophet's traditions) books. The story says a funeral procession passed in front of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and he stood up. When he was told that it was a funeral of a Jew, he said, "Is it not a living being (soul)?"

These were the rights of non-Muslim minorities in Islam and the Islamic civilization. The rule is to respect every human being as long as he/she does not commit injustice or enmity.

SYEDA SABAHAT Tuesday, July 26, 2011 10:56 AM

[QUOTE=Roshan wadhwani;333657][B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Ijtihad (Interpretation)[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Introduction
• Definition Of Ijtihad
• Use Of Ijtihad
• Conditions Possible For Ijtihad
• Specialists Of Ijtihad
• Steps To Develop A fresh approach To Ijtihad
• Necessity Of Ijtihad In Life
[/B]

[B][U]Introduction:[/U][/B]

The true origins of Sharia are in fact Quran and Sunnah. But the position of Ijtihad (Interpretation) is implicit in the origins of Sharia which guides us within limits set by the Quran and the Sunnah.

[B][U]Definition Of Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

The root meaning of Ijtihad (Derived from jahada) is to strive, to make an effort. Ijtihad means to strive intellectually to comprehend problems facing the Islamic world and to find out their solution in keeping with basic principles and values of Quran. Ijtihad has been called by many scholars, including [B]Allama Iqbal as “the dynamic spirit of Islam.”[/B]

[B][U]Use Of Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

All great Imams and founders of different schools of Islamic law practised Ijtihad in finding out the solutions of various problems they tackled with in their own times.

Technically, Ijtihad was first used by Muaz bin Jabal, when he was appointed as a governor of Yemen by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) of Islam. When asked how he would govern when he did not find clear ruling in the Quran or the Sunnah, he said [B]“Ana ajtahidu” i.e. “I’ll strive” [/B](to understand the problem myself and find a way out). The holy Prophet approved his reasoning.

Ijtihad was a very much a living process in early Islam; its gates re shut, many scholars maintain, around the times at the sack of Baghdad in 1258 by Mongol hordes. Ironically, it was a half century after that when Ibn Taymiyyah, defining his own Hanbali school of Islamic law, issued a fatwa on Jihad. Thus, the gates of Ijtihad were closed and that of aggressive jihad flung open.

[B][U]Conditions Possible For Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

This is very difficult job to cope with and at the same time this is also of very important nature. A suitable knowledge and common sense for drawing conclusion is necessary for Ijtihad. So generally great emphasis is laid upon being a man of letters and sublime aesthetic sense. It I a wrong impression that every man can interpret Sharia in its true sense because a man should feel its full responsibility for all the time. Because the man who gives a decision of some daily life problem not only affects the life of others but also peoples life after death.

[B][U]Specialists Of Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

There are three specialists of Ijtihad.

i) Only that man is capable of Ijtihad who has complete hold on Quran and Sunnah.

ii) He should be able to apprehend the pith and marrow of the issue and also to reach the deepest core of the problem.

iii) He must be of very good character and conduct and in whom people can repose their confidence easily.

[B][U]Steps To Develop A fresh approach To Ijtihad:[/U][/B]

Here are few basic steps in developing a fresh approach and throwing open gates to Ijtihad.

i) Firstly, at least a few Ulema and Muslims intellectuals (and there are many who have been trained in the traditional Islamic literature of Tafseer, Hadith and jurisprudence and who feel need for change) must show courage and come forward to develop a fresh approach, defying powerful vested interests manning religious establishment as it were.

ii) Secondly, we must transcend all existing schools of Islamic Law and develop a unified Law applicable to all the Muslims. This will also give greater meaning to the otherwise hollow slogans of Islamic unity. It does not mean that we reject all provisions of schools of law but that we select from all those that which is best in them and keeping in view with the Quranic principles and values.

iii) Thirdly, a new Ijma (consensus) must be developed on issues that are peculiar to our age and time. If the Ulema could do in the first three centuries of Islam, why not us today? The past Ulemas’ Ijma was limited to their own schools; today is a globalised world so a much wider consensus across all the schools of thought will have to be developed. Modern means of information and communication technology have made it much easier.

[B][U]Necessity Of Ijtihad In Life:[/U][/B]

Ijtihad basically is inevitable for human being till they are not involved in life routine. And a man is involved in life routine he faces many times many problems in performing his duties and tries to get some problem solving method and in a Muslim society a Muslim is always prone to have some sort of better solutions of problems of life routine and he obviously falls with Ijtihad. And it is impossible to live without Ijtihad in modern world of miseries.[/QUOTE]



roshan good effort now do one thing more, first last two heading are important from paper point of view, 2nd a question was three time repeated in previous exams was

(in the present period the muslim ummah is facing different problems and the solution of these problems "ijtihad" is necessary,so point out such an institution that can offer solution to the new problems with the help of ijtihad?

now try to prepare this topic in this context.

regards sabahat

Roshan wadhwani Tuesday, July 26, 2011 07:44 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Islamic Social System:[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

[B]• Introduction
• Islamic Mode Of Life
• Basis Of Islamic Society
i) Equality
ii) Fraternity
iii) Wedding Bond
iv) Welfare Environment
v) Concept Of Responsibility
• Rules And Regulations Of Islamic Society
i) Mutual Relationship Of Members Of Family
ii) Relationship
iii) Mosque
iv) Respected Traditions
v) Education System
vi) Limits And Legal Codes[/B]


[B][U]Introduction:[/U][/B]

Man is a social animal. His nature is always inclined to love that’s why he likes to live collectively with other people. He is helpless in this regard forever. God has given man wisdom and intellect only to live within a society. When a man is born he always looks forward to people who look after him. When he comes to an age he stands in need of necessities of life. He always remains in need of someone or something and if h is cut off from all these things he will be totally for nothing.

[B][U]Islamic Mode Of Life:[/U][/B]

Islam has its own stable and firm mode of life which has certain and regulations. It has full code for justice on equal lines. Society is a name of united people thus Islam never ignores the basic rights of an individual as well as of a group. Islam looks all the individuals and groups form same angle.

Islam is a religion which favours the separate identity of an individual. It never considers a man only a spare of any system but considers an individual an important part of it. for the perfect training of an individual within a society Islam provides full chance to furnish his talents:

The Holy Quran says;

[B][CENTER]“Whoso doth good it is for his soul, and whoso doth wrong it is against it.”
(Fussilat: 46)[/CENTER][/B]

Islam lays great emphasis upon the acquisition of knowledge. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was particularly taught a Quranic verse:

[B][CENTER]“And Say, My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.”
(Ta-Ha: 114)[/CENTER][/B]

And the Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself said: [B]It is the duty of every Muslim man and woman to acquire knowledge.[/B]

The acquisition of knowledge is mainly for reformation of practical life. That’s why Islam ha stressed for the quest of knowledge. Quran in this regard openly says:

[B][CENTER]“And that man hath only that for which he maketh effort.”
(An-Najm: 39)[/CENTER][/B]

Islam sees Muslim Ummah as the central Ummah or an Ummah for God, therefore, every person is responsible for continuous struggle for the solidarity of religion and for the sacrifice of his life for the sake of the propaganda of religion.

The environment of Islamic society also provides a chance for the betterment of the world hereafter.

[B][U]Basis Of Islamic society:
[/U][/B]

[B][U]i) Equality:[/U][/B]

The first and most important basis of Islamic society is that all the human beings are from same pedigree. All the mankind is the children of Adam (RA). Brotherhood, colour, countries, forefathers, language, tribes and other natural things are only for the sake of introduction with each other. But to make these differences the basis of differences between each other is totally wrong. Because Islam preaches unity and equality among the mankind at all levels. In the Quran, it is said:

[B][CENTER]“O’ mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes, so that ye may know one another. Lo! The noblest among you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Is knower and Aware.”
(Al-Hujurat: 13)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]ii) Fraternity:[/CENTER][/B]

All the Muslims are brothers for each other. The relation due to religion is considered to be the greatest of all. Quran says:


[B][CENTER]“The believers are not else brothers.”
(Al-Hujurat: 10)[/CENTER][/B]

At another place in the Quran it is said:


[B][CENTER]“And holdfast, all of you together, to the cable of Allah, and do not separate.”

(Al-Imran: 103)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]iii) Wedding Bond:[/U][/B]

Men and women are two different pillars of a society. Both have their own cult and personality. Both take part in building of social set-up. There is equality between men and women on the legal basis. Both have same rights and responsibilities in this regard. In a family structure, male is considered leader and supervisor of the affairs. Generally every man and woman is just like brother and sister and they have no right to be but wedding is the only way through which they get united and share each other’s problems. This is the very legal method by which they are valid for each other. Here they lay the basis of a separate family.

[B][U]iv) Welfare Atmosphere:[/U][/B]

The atmosphere of the society must be developed on the basis of welfare, cooperation, help, and share in sorrows, sacrifice and brotherhood. When the people meet they must pray for eachother’s salvation. Every man must wish for his brother hat he likes for himself. All the evils must be avoided. Cooperation must be rendered in good deeds. Quran says:


[B][CENTER]“Help ye one another unto righteousness and pious duty. Help not one another unto sin and transgression.”
(Al-Ma’ida: 2)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Be thou kind even as Allah hath been kind to thee, and seek not corruption in the earth.”
(Al-Qasas: 77)
[/CENTER][/B]

Moreover, the Quran says:


[B][CENTER]“And spy not, neither backbite one another.”
(Al-Hujurat: 12)[/CENTER][/B]


All these verses mean that Islam wants to make society congenial for everyone.


[B][U]v) Concept Of Responsibility:[/U][/B]

Islam gives the concept of fulfilling some responsibilities-to propagate good deeds, to deter evil deeds and to help each other.


The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that the man who lives among others and shows patience on the misdeeds done to him by others is better than the man who does not live among the people and is not patient over excesses done to him.

After these instructions Islam has also given a system of basic human rights including rights of brothers, family members, relatives, neighbours, common men, and minorities. Even the rights of animals and plants are also determined in Islamic system.

[B][U]Rules And Regulations Of Islamic Society:[/U][/B]

There are some rules and regulations which Islam has authorized to develop a society of these are discussed briefly as under:

[B][U]i) Mutual Relationship Of Members Of Family:[/B][/U]

Family is the first and basic institution of human social training. That’s why the importance of a family in Islamic society is very great. First step of Islamic society is the formation of which is a pure and legitimate relation between a man and woman. This relation makes a unity within itself.

Here a new generation comes into being with it many new relations are also generated. Finally all these relations spread over to form a complete society.

[B][U]ii) Other Relations:[/U][/B]

There are much more in the family stock to deal with Kith and Kin outside one’s family. Islam wants to see all these to share eachother’s sorrows and happiness. In Quran there are many places where emphasis is laid upon good behaviour towards relatives. But it does not mean that there should be encouragement against Islam and its traditions. Islam has also set hereditary rules to strengthen existing relations.

[U][B]iii) Mosque:[/B][/U]

Mosque is symbol of unity among Muslims and it reflects the tone of existing relations. It also works as a permanent institution for the social tis. It is only mosque which can make Islamic social plan successful.

[U][B]iv) Respected Traditions:[/B][/U]

In an Islamic society sacred traditions must be guarded at all costs and the policy must also be framed upon these lines because this process does not break link with its past. But it is not meant for that no new tradition will be set up. Fast changes in routine life automatically change the boring old traditions. There is no need of change via revolution or revolt.

[U][B]v) Education System:[/B][/U]

The real reformation of an Islamic society is only possible through its education policy. Because to transfer one’s traditions and knowledge one must ponder over the faults of one’s education policy. Education is also one of the greatest pillars of Islamic society.

[U][B]vi) Limits And Legal Codes:[/B][/U]

There are many ways to cope with the evils and sins of any society but rules and regulation to curb evil-doers are also must. Islam also has such system with proper rules and regulations. These rules are made to save the citizens from evil-doers and sinners. Islam has set particular penalties and punishments to deal bad elements with an iron hand. No one is greater or smaller in the eyes of Islamic law. The Holy Prophet once said,

[B][CENTER]“If my daughter steals something, by God I will cut her hands too.”[/CENTER][/B]

Roshan wadhwani Wednesday, July 27, 2011 07:24 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Judicial System Of Islam[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]The Quran On Justice
• Concept Of Justice In Islam
• Principle Of Justice Under Islam[/B]

[B][U]The Quran On Justice:[/U][/B]

According to Islam, God is Sovereign, and He is Most Just. Man as the vicegerent of Allah is enjoined to do justice even though it may be against himself. According to Islam, justice is next to piety. There are numerous verses in the Holy Quran enjoining Muslims to do justice. Some of these verses are quoted here under:

[B][CENTER]“God commands that when you judge between man and man, judge with justice.”
(An-Nisa: 58)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Allah has sent down the Book in truth, so that you may judge between men as guided by God”
(An-Nisa: 103)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Allah commands justice, the doing of good and liberality to kith and kin. He forbids all shameful deeds, injustice and rebellion.”
(An-Nahl: 90)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“We sent down with Our Apostle the Balance of Justice, so that man may stand forth in justice.”
(Al-Hadid: 25)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“If you judge, judge in equity between them for Allah loves those who judge in equity.”
(Al-Ma’ida:45)[/CENTER][/B]


[B]Concept Of Justice In Islam:[/B]

The concept of justice in Islam is radically different from the concept of justice under other orders. For Greek concept of justice was that of remedial justice. The Roman concept of justice was that natural justice, while the Anglo-Saxon concept of justice is that formal justice. In Islam, justice is symbolised by “balance” and, this stands for absolute fairness. In Islam, justice is not merely a formal function of the Sate; it is a religious obligation. The concept of justice in Islam accordingly stands at a higher pedestal as compared with the concept of justice under other orders.

[B][U]Principle Of Justice Under Islam:[/U][/B]

From the verses of the Holy Quran concerning justice quoted above, we can deduce some principle of justice which distinguishes Islam from other orders. Some of these principles are as follows:

i) Justice must be substantial and not merely formal, which means that justice should be done not only in accordance with law (i.e. formal), but it should be done in such a way that it results in absolute justice and complete fairness (i.e. substantial).

ii) In Islam the doing of justice is not the concern of the judge alone; but it is the responsibility of the community as well. Every member of the community is involved in the process. If any injustice is committed to any person’s knowledge he cannot stand apart as a silent spectator even though he is not personally affected.

iii) Justice according to the Islamic concept demands a very high sense of moral standard, so that person has the courage to be a witness eve against him if he has done any wrong.

iv) According to Islam, justice is next to piety. As such the doing of justice is not merely a legal obligation or a moral duty; it is a religious imperative.

v) In an Islamic State, justice is to be done in the name of Allah and Allah is fully aware of the intentions of men. In Islam, therefore, administration of justice is not based merely on the overt act; the motive behind such act is also to be taken into account.

vi) Justice in Islam is not blind, it is very much enlightened.

vii) Islam stands for absolute equality before law, and the equal application of law. In Islam, no one enjoys immunity and no discrimination is permissible in the application of the law. Unlike the secular concept, “The King can do no wrong”, the Head of the State in an Islamic order is accountable before law for any wrong that he may have done.

viii) Under Islam, law and equity, are not two different concepts as in the Anglo-Saxon law. As such there are no separate courts of equity in Islam, nor there any different principles to govern the grant of equitable remedies. Specific performance is the rule and not an exception under the Islamic system of justice.

ix) In the matter of criminal justice, the principle adopted under the Islamic system is preventive rather than primitive. The aim of the Islamic system is to prevent the committing of crime and not merely to punish the offenders. Islamic State is not concerned merely with the punishment of offenders; it is under an obligation to create conditions which would prevent the commission of crime. In Islam, Justice is the basic obligation of the State and has therefore to be administrated free. No court fees can be levied under the Islamic system.

x) Islam does not recognize the Anglo-Saxon concept that “Ignorance of law is no excuse.” In an Islamic State, the State has to ensure that no one should suffer because of the ignorance of law.

xi) Under Islamic system, there can be no exploitation or professionalization of the Judicial process; if a lawyer knows that his client is guilty he cannot plead his case.

xii) In secular orders, justice long drawn out time consuming process. According to Islam, “Justice delayed is justice denied.” Islam stands for speedy justice.

xiii) In Islam, the laws of natural justice are of special significance. In Islam no one can be condemned or subjugated to any disability without being heard. In Islam if an unjust order has been passed by a judge because of any bias, it is the judge who should be removed and not merely his decision as in the secular orders.

Zoyee Thursday, July 28, 2011 05:39 PM

@Roshan wadhwan

I have read your notes regarding Islamic topics. Few suggestion for you work are as under:

[B][COLOR="Purple"][LIST][*]Add "subjects of Zakat (Musarfeen-e-Zakat)

[*]Add "concept of the Day of judgement in different religions" (major religions of the world)

[*]As far as Jihaad is concerned, Jihaad in contemporary scenario or Jihaad vs terrorism is most recent issue.

[*]Ijtihaad-------Just add little more like "who is Mujtahid? pre-requisite for Mujtahideen, Ijtihaadi institutions in the Muslim World and Pakistan as well.

[LIST]
[*]Compare current law in order situation in context of Islamic judicial system.[/LIST][/LIST][COLOR="Purple"][/COLOR]
[/COLOR][/B]
I'l give more suggestions later on.

Regards,

Zoyee Thursday, July 28, 2011 05:49 PM

For Ijtihaad see this useful link:

[url]http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compulsory-subjects/islamiat/islamiat-notes/41955-t-he-future-ijtihad-modern-islamic-thought.html[/url]

Regards,

Roshan wadhwani Thursday, July 28, 2011 07:28 PM

[B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Political System Of Islam:[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Introduction
• What Is An Islamic State?
• Purpose Of Islamic State:
• Basis Of Political System In Islam
• Main Features Of Islamic Political System
i) Sovereignty Of Allah
ii) Khalifah Of Mankind
iii) Legislation By Shura
iv) Accountability Of A Government
v) Independence Of Judiciary
vi) Equality Before Law[/B]


[B][U]Introduction:[/U][/B]

Religion and politics are one and same in Islam. They are intertwined. We already know that Islam is a complete system of life and politics is very much a part of our collective life. Just as Islam teaches us how to say Salt, observe Saum, pay Zakat and undertake Hajj, in the same way it also teaches us how to run a state, form a government, elect councillors and members of parliament, make treaties and conduct trade and business.

[B][U]What Is An Islamic State?[/U][/B]

The State is defined by Garner in these words, “The state, as a concept of political science and public law, is a community of persons more or less numerous and permanently occupying by a definite proportion of territory, independent, or nearly so of external control, and possessing an organized government to which the general body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.” Whereas in the Islamic State sovereignty rests with God who delegates political authority to some selected person. Here public law is the Quranic law. The Islamic State cannot frame any laws against the injunctions of the Quran and the Sunnah. Islamic State is a welfare State.

[B][U]Purpose Of Islamic State:[/U][/B]

The main object of the Islamic State is to promote good and stop the evils. The Muslims should be forced to act upon the injunctions of the Quran and the Sunnah. The Islamic state guides its citizens in all aspects of life including religious. It should promote good and order so that the law of justice by God must prevail everywhere.

[B][U]Basis Of Political System In Islam:[/U][/B]

The political system is based on two realities:
i) The personal position of Allah vis-à-vis this universe, particularly men: He is not only their Creator and Supporter but also their real Master.
ii) The personal position of Man: He is not only created and supported by Allah (Sustainer of all the worlds) but is also His humble slave and His vicegerent on this earth.


[B][U]Principles Of Islamic Political System:[/U][/B]

The Islamic Political system is based on the following principles:

[B][U]i) Sovereignty Of Allah.[/U][/B]

Sovereignty means source of power. In Islam, Allah is the source of all powers and laws.

[B][CENTER]“Legislation is not but for Allah. He has commanded that you worship not except Him.”

(Surah Yusuf: 40)[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]Say, “Indeed, the matter completely belongs to Allah.”[/CENTER][/B]
(Al-i-Imran: 154)

It is Allah who knows what is good and what is bad for His servants. His saying is final. All human beings unitedly cannot change His laws. The Quran says:


[B][CENTER]“As for the thief-male and female-chop off their hands. It is their reward of their action and exemplary punishment from Allah. Allah is Powerful, Wise.”
(Al-Ma’ida: 38)[/CENTER][/B]

According to Islam, this order is unchangeable by any parliament or government which claims it to be an Islamic state. There are many more laws in the Quran concerning our life and those laws must be put into practice by an Islamic state for the greater good of human beings.

[B][U]ii) Khalifah Of Mankind (Vicegerency Of Man):[/U][/B]

Man is the vicegerent or the agent or the representative of Allah on earth.

[B][CENTER]“And it is He who has made you successors upon the earth and has raised some of you above others in degrees [of rank] that He may try you through what He has given you. Indeed, your Lord is swift in penalty; but indeed, He is Forgiving and Merciful.”

(Al-An’am: 165)[/CENTER][/B]


Allah is the sovereign and man is his representative. Man should do as Allah commands him to do. But he has a choice either to obey or disobey Allah and because of this freedom of choice he will be tested on the Day of Judgement. In the political sense, Khalifah means that human beings would implement the will of Allah on earth as His deputy or agent. As Allah’s agent human beings will carry out the will of Allah on His behalf as a trust (Amanah). Khalifah is a trust. An agent is always expected to behave as his master wants him to behave.

[B][CENTER]“Then We made you successors in the land after them so that We may observe how you will do.”
(Yunus: 14)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]iii) Legislation By Shura (Consultation):[/U][/B]

Islam teaches us to run government to make decisions and legislations by the process of Shura. Shura means to take decision by consultation and participation.

[B][CENTER]“And whose affair is [determined by] consultation among themselves.”

(Ash-Shura: 38)
[/CENTER][/B]

This is one of the most important parts of the Islamic Political system. There is no scope of disposition in Islamic political system. The Quran and the Sunnah will be the basis of all legislation in Islam.

[B][U]iv) Accountability Of A Government:[/U][/B]

The Islamic Political System makes the ruler and the government responsible firstly to Allah and then to people. The ruler and the government will be elected by the people to exercise power on their behalf. We must remember here that both the ruler and the ruled are the Khalifah of Allah and the ruler shall have to work for the welfare of the people according to the Quran and Sunnah. A ruler is a servant of the people of Islam. Bothe the ruler and the ruled will appear before Allah and account for their actions on the Day of Judgement. The responsibility of the ruler is heavier than the ruled. An ordinary citizen in an Islamic State has the right to ask any question on any matter to the ruler and the government.

[B][U]v) Independence Of Judiciary:[/U][/B]

In the Islamic Political System, the judiciary is independent of the Executive. The head of the State or any government minister could be called to court if necessary. They will be treated no different from other citizens.

[B][CENTER]“O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice.”
(Al-Ma’ida: 8)[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]“O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm in justice, witnesses for Allah, even if it be against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is more worthy of both.”
(An-Nisa: 135)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice.”
(An-Nisa: 58)
[/CENTER][/B]


There are many Quranic injunctions about justice. One of the main functions of the Islamic system is to ensure justice to all citizens. The ruler and the government have no right to interfere in the process of justice.

[B][U]vi) Equality Before Law:
[/U][/B]

The Islamic Political System ensures equality of all citizens before the law. Islam does not recognize any discrimination on the basis of language, colour, territory, sex and descent. Islam recognizes the preference of one over the other only on the basis of Taqwa. One who fears Allah most is the noblest in Islam.

[B][CENTER]“O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.”
(Al-Hujurat:13)[/CENTER][/B]

Agha Zuhaib Friday, July 29, 2011 05:47 AM

@ Dear Roshan your work is perfect, but only if you add the reffernces of hadiths. tou keya baat he :-)

SYEDA SABAHAT Friday, July 29, 2011 12:36 PM

[QUOTE=Roshan wadhwani;334776][B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Political System Of Islam:[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

• [B]Introduction
• What Is An Islamic State?
• Purpose Of Islamic State:
• Basis Of Political System In Islam
• Main Features Of Islamic Political System
i) Sovereignty Of Allah
ii) Khalifah Of Mankind
iii) Legislation By Shura
iv) Accountability Of A Government
v) Independence Of Judiciary
vi) Equality Before Law[/B]


[B][U]Introduction:[/U][/B]

Religion and politics are one and same in Islam. They are intertwined. We already know that Islam is a complete system of life and politics is very much a part of our collective life. Just as Islam teaches us how to say[B] Salt,[/B](it must be salawat) observe Saum([B]having fast), [/B]pay Zakat and undertake Hajj, in the same way it also teaches us how to run a state, form a government, elect councillors and members of parliament, make treaties and conduct trade and business.

[B][U]What Is An Islamic State?[/U][/B]

The State is defined by Garner in these words, “The state, as a concept of political science and public law, is a community of persons more or less numerous and permanently occupying by a definite proportion of territory, independent, or nearly so of external control, and possessing an organized government to which the general body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.” Whereas in the Islamic State sovereignty rests with God who delegates political authority to some selected person. Here public law is the Quranic law. The Islamic State cannot frame any laws against the injunctions of the Quran and the Sunnah. Islamic State is a welfare State.

[B][U]Purpose Of Islamic State:[/U][/B]

The main object of the Islamic State is to promote good and stop the evils. The Muslims should be forced to act upon the injunctions of the Quran and the Sunnah. The Islamic state guides its citizens in all aspects of life including religious. It should promote good and order so that the law of justice by God must prevail everywhere.

[B][U]Basis Of Political System In Islam:[/U][/B]

The political system is based on two realities:
i) The personal position of Allah vis-à-vis this universe, particularly men: He is not only their Creator and Supporter but also their real Master.
ii) The personal position of Man: He is not only created and supported by Allah (Sustainer of all the worlds) but is also His humble slave and His vicegerent on this earth.


[B][U]Principles Of Islamic Political System:[/U][/B]

The Islamic Political system is based on the following principles:

[B][U]i) Sovereignty Of Allah.[/U][/B]

Sovereignty means source of power. In Islam, Allah is the source of all powers and laws.

[B][CENTER]“Legislation is not but for Allah. He has commanded that you worship not except Him.”

(Surah Yusuf: 40)[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]Say, “Indeed, the matter completely belongs to Allah.”[/CENTER][/B]
(Al-i-Imran: 154)

It is Allah who knows what is good and what is bad for His servants. His saying is final. All human beings unitedly cannot change His laws. The Quran says:


[B][CENTER]“As for the thief-male and female-chop off their hands. It is their reward of their action and exemplary punishment from Allah. Allah is Powerful, Wise.”
(Al-Ma’ida: 38)[/CENTER][/B]

According to Islam, this order is unchangeable by any parliament or government which claims it to be an Islamic state. There are many more laws in the Quran concerning our life and those laws must be put into practice by an Islamic state for the greater good of human beings.

[B][U]ii) Khalifah Of Mankind (Vicegerency Of Man):[/U][/B]

Man is the vicegerent or the agent or the representative of Allah on earth.

[B][CENTER]“And it is He who has made you successors upon the earth and has raised some of you above others in degrees [of rank] that He may try you through what He has given you. Indeed, your Lord is swift in penalty; but indeed, He is Forgiving and Merciful.”

(Al-An’am: 165)[/CENTER][/B]


Allah is the sovereign and man is his representative. Man should do as Allah commands him to do. But he has a choice either to obey or disobey Allah and because of this freedom of choice he will be tested on the Day of Judgement. In the political sense, Khalifah means that human beings would implement the will of Allah on earth as His deputy or agent. As Allah’s agent human beings will carry out the will of Allah on His behalf as a trust (Amanah). Khalifah is a trust. An agent is always expected to behave as his master wants him to behave.

[B][CENTER]“Then We made you successors in the land after them so that We may observe how you will do.”
(Yunus: 14)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]iii) Legislation By Shura (Consultation):[/U][/B]

Islam teaches us to run government to make decisions and legislations by the process of Shura. Shura means to take decision by consultation and participation.

[B][CENTER]“And whose affair is [determined by] consultation among themselves.”

(Ash-Shura: 38)
[/CENTER][/B]

This is one of the most important parts of the Islamic Political system. There is no scope of disposition in Islamic political system. The Quran and the Sunnah will be the basis of all legislation in Islam.

[B][U]iv) Accountability Of A Government:[/U][/B]

The Islamic Political System makes the ruler and the government responsible firstly to Allah and then to people. The ruler and the government will be elected by the people to exercise power on their behalf. We must remember here that both the ruler and the ruled are the Khalifah of Allah and the ruler shall have to work for the welfare of the people according to the Quran and Sunnah. A ruler is a servant of the people of Islam. Bothe the ruler and the ruled will appear before Allah and account for their actions on the Day of Judgement. The responsibility of the ruler is heavier than the ruled. An ordinary citizen in an Islamic State has the right to ask any question on any matter to the ruler and the government.

[B][U]v) Independence Of Judiciary:[/U][/B]

In the Islamic Political System, the judiciary is independent of the Executive. The head of the State or any government minister could be called to court if necessary. They will be treated no different from other citizens.

[B][CENTER]“O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice.”
(Al-Ma’ida: 8)[/CENTER][/B]


[B][CENTER]“O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm in justice, witnesses for Allah, even if it be against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is more worthy of both.”
(An-Nisa: 135)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice.”
(An-Nisa: 58)
[/CENTER][/B]


There are many Quranic injunctions about justice. One of the main functions of the Islamic system is to ensure justice to all citizens. The ruler and the government have no right to interfere in the process of justice.

[B][U]vi) Equality Before Law:
[/U][/B]

The Islamic Political System ensures equality of all citizens before the law. Islam does not recognize any discrimination on the basis of language, colour, territory, sex and descent. Islam recognizes the preference of one over the other only on the basis of Taqwa. One who fears Allah most is the noblest in Islam.

[B][CENTER]“O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.”
(Al-Hujurat:13)[/CENTER][/B][/QUOTE]



roshan do explain following points in the same systems it will save your time
1:duties of ruler
2:- right of citizens in islamic state
3:- right of minorities has already explained in the previous page.

[QUOTE=Roshan wadhwani;334062][B][U][CENTER][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Islamic Social System:[/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER][/U][/B]

[B][U]Outline:[/U][/B]

[B]• Introduction
• Islamic Mode Of Life
• Basis Of Islamic Society
i) Equality
ii) Fraternity
iii) Wedding Bond
iv) Welfare Environment
v) Concept Of Responsibility
• Rules And Regulations Of Islamic Society
i) Mutual Relationship Of Members Of Family
ii) Relationship
iii) Mosque
iv) Respected Traditions
v) Education System
vi) Limits And Legal Codes[/B]


[B][U]Introduction:[/U][/B]

Man is a social animal. His nature is always inclined to love that’s why he likes to live collectively with other people. He is helpless in this regard forever. God has given man wisdom and intellect only to live within a society. When a man is born he always looks forward to people who look after him. When he comes to an age he stands in need of necessities of life. He always remains in need of someone or something and if h is cut off from all these things he will be totally for nothing.

[B][U]Islamic Mode Of Life:[/U][/B]

Islam has its own stable and firm mode of life which has certain and regulations. It has full code for justice on equal lines. Society is a name of united people thus Islam never ignores the basic rights of an individual as well as of a group. Islam looks all the individuals and groups form same angle.

Islam is a religion which favours the separate identity of an individual. It never considers a man only a spare of any system but considers an individual an important part of it. for the perfect training of an individual within a society Islam provides full chance to furnish his talents:

The Holy Quran says;

[B][CENTER]“Whoso doth good it is for his soul, and whoso doth wrong it is against it.”
(Fussilat: 46)[/CENTER][/B]

Islam lays great emphasis upon the acquisition of knowledge. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was particularly taught a Quranic verse:

[B][CENTER]“And Say, My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.”
(Ta-Ha: 114)[/CENTER][/B]

And the Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself said: [B]It is the duty of every Muslim man and woman to acquire knowledge.[/B]

The acquisition of knowledge is mainly for reformation of practical life. That’s why Islam ha stressed for the quest of knowledge. Quran in this regard openly says:

[B][CENTER]“And that man hath only that for which he maketh effort.”
(An-Najm: 39)[/CENTER][/B]

Islam sees Muslim Ummah as the central Ummah or an Ummah for God, therefore, every person is responsible for continuous struggle for the solidarity of religion and for the sacrifice of his life for the sake of the propaganda of religion.

The environment of Islamic society also provides a chance for the betterment of the world hereafter.

[B][U]Basis Of Islamic society:
[/U][/B]

[B][U]i) Equality:[/U][/B]

The first and most important basis of Islamic society is that all the human beings are from same pedigree. All the mankind is the children of Adam (RA). Brotherhood, colour, countries, forefathers, language, tribes and other natural things are only for the sake of introduction with each other. But to make these differences the basis of differences between each other is totally wrong. Because Islam preaches unity and equality among the mankind at all levels. In the Quran, it is said:

[B][CENTER]“O’ mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes, so that ye may know one another. Lo! The noblest among you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Is knower and Aware.”
(Al-Hujurat: 13)[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]ii) Fraternity:[/CENTER][/B]

All the Muslims are brothers for each other. The relation due to religion is considered to be the greatest of all. Quran says:


[B][CENTER]“The believers are not else brothers.”
(Al-Hujurat: 10)[/CENTER][/B]

At another place in the Quran it is said:


[B][CENTER]“And holdfast, all of you together, to the cable of Allah, and do not separate.”

(Al-Imran: 103)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][U]iii) Wedding Bond:[/U][/B]

Men and women are two different pillars of a society. Both have their own cult and personality. Both take part in building of social set-up. There is equality between men and women on the legal basis. Both have same rights and responsibilities in this regard. In a family structure, male is considered leader and supervisor of the affairs. Generally every man and woman is just like brother and sister and they have no right to be but wedding is the only way through which they get united and share each other’s problems. This is the very legal method by which they are valid for each other. Here they lay the basis of a separate family.

[B][U]iv) Welfare Atmosphere:[/U][/B]

The atmosphere of the society must be developed on the basis of welfare, cooperation, help, and share in sorrows, sacrifice and brotherhood. When the people meet they must pray for eachother’s salvation. Every man must wish for his brother hat he likes for himself. All the evils must be avoided. Cooperation must be rendered in good deeds. Quran says:


[B][CENTER]“Help ye one another unto righteousness and pious duty. Help not one another unto sin and transgression.”
(Al-Ma’ida: 2)
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Be thou kind even as Allah hath been kind to thee, and seek not corruption in the earth.”
(Al-Qasas: 77)
[/CENTER][/B]

Moreover, the Quran says:


[B][CENTER]“And spy not, neither backbite one another.”
(Al-Hujurat: 12)[/CENTER][/B]


All these verses mean that Islam wants to make society congenial for everyone.


[B][U]v) Concept Of Responsibility:[/U][/B]

Islam gives the concept of fulfilling some responsibilities-to propagate good deeds, to deter evil deeds and to help each other.


The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that the man who lives among others and shows patience on the misdeeds done to him by others is better than the man who does not live among the people and is not patient over excesses done to him.

After these instructions Islam has also given a system of basic human rights including rights of brothers, family members, relatives, neighbours, common men, and minorities. Even the rights of animals and plants are also determined in Islamic system.

[B][U]Rules And Regulations Of Islamic Society:[/U][/B]

There are some rules and regulations which Islam has authorized to develop a society of these are discussed briefly as under:

[B][U]i) Mutual Relationship Of Members Of Family:[/B][/U]

Family is the first and basic institution of human social training. That’s why the importance of a family in Islamic society is very great. First step of Islamic society is the formation of which is a pure and legitimate relation between a man and woman. This relation makes a unity within itself.

Here a new generation comes into being with it many new relations are also generated. Finally all these relations spread over to form a complete society.

[B][U]ii) Other Relations:[/U][/B]

There are much more in the family stock to deal with Kith and Kin outside one’s family. Islam wants to see all these to share eachother’s sorrows and happiness. In Quran there are many places where emphasis is laid upon good behaviour towards relatives. But it does not mean that there should be encouragement against Islam and its traditions. Islam has also set hereditary rules to strengthen existing relations.

[U][B]iii) Mosque:[/B][/U]

Mosque is symbol of unity among Muslims and it reflects the tone of existing relations. It also works as a permanent institution for the social tis. It is only mosque which can make Islamic social plan successful.

[U][B]iv) Respected Traditions:[/B][/U]

In an Islamic society sacred traditions must be guarded at all costs and the policy must also be framed upon these lines because this process does not break link with its past. But it is not meant for that no new tradition will be set up. Fast changes in routine life automatically change the boring old traditions. There is no need of change via revolution or revolt.

[U][B]v) Education System:[/B][/U]

The real reformation of an Islamic society is only possible through its education policy. Because to transfer one’s traditions and knowledge one must ponder over the faults of one’s education policy. Education is also one of the greatest pillars of Islamic society.

[U][B]vi) Limits And Legal Codes:[/B][/U]

There are many ways to cope with the evils and sins of any society but rules and regulation to curb evil-doers are also must. Islam also has such system with proper rules and regulations. These rules are made to save the citizens from evil-doers and sinners. Islam has set particular penalties and punishments to deal bad elements with an iron hand. No one is greater or smaller in the eyes of Islamic law. The Holy Prophet once said,

[B][CENTER]“If my daughter steals something, by God I will cut her hands too.”[/CENTER][/B][/QUOTE]



roshan in Rules and Regulations of islamic soceity you didn`t explain in detail how they are helpful in mentaining social order.

Roshan wadhwani Friday, July 29, 2011 06:43 PM

[QUOTE=SYEDA SABAHAT;334992]roshan do explain following points in the same systems it will save your time
1:duties of ruler
2:- right of citizens in islamic state
3:- right of minorities has already explained in the previous page.[/QUOTE]

[QUOTE=SYEDA SABAHAT;334998]roshan in Rules and Regulations of islamic soceity you didn`t explain in detail how they are helpful in mentaining social order.[/QUOTE]

[B]thanx alot dear Syeda Sabahat.:)).ya i'll add these points in related topics.....if you have material in soft copy related to these topics do share with me here or send me on my id so as i cud enrich these notes furhter...i'l be always indebted to you.:))[/B]

SYEDA SABAHAT Sunday, July 31, 2011 11:31 AM

[B][U] Rights Of The Citizens In An Islamic State[/U][/B]


[B]1. The Security of Life and Property[/B]

In the address which the Prophet delivered on the occasion of the
Farewell Hajj, he said:[B] "Your lives and properties are forbidden to one
another till you meet your Lord on the Day of Resurrection."[/B]

God Almighty has laid down in the Holy Quran: "[B]Anyone who kills a
believer deliberately will receive as his reward (a sentence) to live in
Hell for ever. God will be angry with him and curse him, and prepare
dreadful torment for him" (4:93).[/B]

The Prophet has also said about the
dhimmis (the non-Muslim citizens of the Muslim State): [B]"One who kills
a man under covenant (i.e. a dhimmi) will not even smell the fragrance
of Paradise" (al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud). [/B]
Islam prohibits homicide but
allows only one exception, that the killing is done in the due process of
law which the Quran refers to as bi al-haqq (with the truth). Therefore
a man can be killed only when the law demands it, and it is obvious
that only a court of law can decide whether the execution is being
carried out with justice or without justification. In case of war or
insurrection a just and righteous government alone, which follows the
Shari'ah or the Islamic Law, can decide whether a war is just or unjust,
whether taking of a life is justified or not; and whether a person is a
rebel or not and who can be sentenced to death as a punishment.

These weighty decisions cannot be left in the hands of a court which has
become heedless to God and is under the influence of the administra-
tion. A judiciary like this may miscarry justice. Nor can the crimes of
state be justified on the authority of the Holy Quran or Traditions
(hadith) when the state murders its citizens openly and secretly without
any hesitation or on the slightest pretext, because they are opposed to
its unjust policies and actions or criticize it for its misdeed, and also
provides protection to its hired assassins who have been guilty of the
heinous crime of murder of an innocent person resulting in the fact,
that neither the police take any action against such criminals nor can
any proof or witnesses against these criminals be produced in the courts
of law. The very existence of such a government is a crime and none of
the killings carried out by them can be called[B] "execution for the sake of
justice"[/B] in the phraseology of the Holy Quran.
Along with security of life, Islam has with equal clarity and
definiteness conferred the right of security of ownership of property, as
mentioned earlier with reference to the address of the Farewell Hajj. On
the other hand, the Holy Quran goes so far as to declare that the taking
of people's possessions or property is completely prohibited unless they
are acquired by lawful means as permitted in the Laws of God. The
Law of God categorically declares [B]"Do not devour one another's wealth
by false and illegal means" (2:188). [/B]



[B]2. The Protection of Honour[/B]


The second important right is the right of the citizens to the
protection of their honour. In the address delivered on the occasion of
the Farewell Hajj, to which I have referred earlier, the Prophet did not
only prohibit the life and property of the Muslims to one another, but
also any encroachment upon their honour, respect and chastity were
forbidden to one another. [B]The Holy Quran clearly lays down:
(a) "You who believe, do not let one (set of) people make fun of
another set.
(b) Do not defame one another.
(c) Do not insult by using nicknames.
(d) And do not backbite or speak ill of one another" (49:11-12). [/B]

This is the law of Islam for the protection of honour which is
indeed much superior to and better than the Western Law of Defama-
tion.
According to the Islamic Law if it is proved that someone has
attacked the honour of another person, then irrespective of the fact
whether or not the victim is able to prove himself a respectable and
honourable person the culprit will in any case get his due punishment.
But the interesting fact about the Western Law of Defamation is that
the person who files suit for defamation has first to prove that he is a
man of honour and public esteem and during the interrogation he is
subjected to the scurrilous attacks, accusations and innuendoes of the
defence council to such an extent that he earns more disgrace than the
attack on his reputation against which he had knocked the door of the
court of law.

On top of it he has also to produce such witnesses as
would testify in the court that due to the defamatory accusations of
the culprit, the accused stands disgraced in their eyes. Good Gracious!
what a subtle point of law, and what an adherence to the spirit of Law!
How can this unfair and unjust law be compared to the Divine law?
Islam declared blasphemy as a crime irrespective of the fact whether the
accused is a man of honour or not, and whether the words used for
blasphemy have actually disgraced the victim and harmed his reputation
in the eyes of the public or not. According to the Islamic Law the mere
proof of the fact that the accused said things which according to
common sense could have damaged the reputation and honour of the
plaintiff, is enough for the accused to be declared guilty of defamation.


[B]3. The Sanctity and Security of Private Life[/B]


Islam recognizes the right of every citizen of its state that there
should be no undue interference or encroachment on the privacy of his
life. [B]The Holy Quran has laid down the injunction: "Do not spy on
one another" (49:12). "Do not enter any houses except your own
homes unless you are sure of their occupants' consent" (24:27). [/B]

The Prophet has gone to the extent of instructing his followers that a man
should not enter even his own house suddenly or surreptitiously. He
should somehow or other inform or indicate to the dwellers of the
house that he is entering the house, so that he may not see his mother,
sister or daughter in a condition in which they would not like to be
seen, nor would he himself like to see them in that condition.
Peering
into the houses of other people has also been strictly prohibited, so
much so that there is the saying of the Prophet that if a man finds
another person secretly peering into his house, and he blinds his eye or
eyes as a punishment then he cannot be called to question nor will he
be liable to prosecution.
The Prophet has even prohibited people from
reading the letters of others, so much so that if a man is reading his
letter and another man casts sidelong glances at it and tries to read it,
his conduct becomes reprehensible.
This is the sanctity of privacy that
Islam grants to individuals. On the other hand in the modern civilized
world we find that not only the letters of other people are read and
their correspondence censored, but even their photostat copies are
retained for future use or blackmail. Even bugging devices are secretly
fixed in the houses of the people so that one can hear and tape from a
distance the conversation taking place behind closed doors. In other
words it means that there is no such thing as privacy and to all practical
purposes the private life of an individual does not exist.

This espionage on the life of the individual cannot be justified on
moral grounds by the government saying that it is necessary to know
the secrets of the dangerous persons. Though, to all intents and
purposes, the basis of this policy is the fear and suspicion with which
modern governments look at their citizens who are intelligent and
dissatisfied with the official policies of the government.
This is exactly
what Islam has called as the root cause of mischief in politics. [B]The
injunction of the Prophet is: "When the ruler begins to search for the
causes of dissatisfaction amongst his people, he spoils them" (Abu
Dawud).[/B]

The Amir Mu'awiyah has said that he himself heard the
Prophet saying: [B]"If you try to find out the secrets of the people, then
you will definitely spoil them or at least you will bring them to the
verge of ruin." [/B]The meaning of the phrase 'spoil them' is that when
spies (C.I.D. or F.B.I.agents) are spread all around the country to find
out the affairs of men, then the people begin to look at one another with
suspicion, so much so that people are afraid of talking freely in their
houses lest some word should escape from the lips of their wives and
children which may put them in embarrassing situations.

In this manner
it becomes difficult for a common citizen to speak freely, even in his
own house and society begins to suffer from a state of general distrust
and suspicion.


[B]4. The Security of Personal Freedom[/B]


Islam has also laid down the principle that no citizen can be
imprisoned unless his guilt has been proved in an open court. To arrest
a man only on the basis of suspicion and to throw him into a prison
without proper court proceedings and without providing him a reason-
able opportunity to produce his defence is not permissible in Islam.
[B] It is
related in the hadith that once the Prophet was delivering a lecture in
the mosque, when a man rose during the lecture and said: "O Prophet
of God, for what crime have my neighbours been arrested?" The
Prophet heard the question and continued his speech. The man rose
once again and repeated the same question. The Prophet again did not
answer and continued his speech. The man rose for a third time and
repeated the same question. Then the Prophet ordered that the man's
neighbours be released. The reason why the Prophet had kept quiet
when the question was repeated twice earlier was that the police officer
was present in the mosque and if there were proper reasons for the
arrest of the neighbours of this man, he would have got up to explain
his position. Since the police officer gave no reasons for these arrests
the Prophet ordered that the arrested persons should be released. The
police officer was aware of the Islamic law and therefore he did not
get up to say: "the administration is aware of the charges against the
arrested men, but they cannot be disclosed in public. If the Prophet
would inquire about their guilt in camera I would enlighten him." [/B]

[B]If
the police officer had made such a statement, he would have been dis-
missed then and there. The fact that the police officer did not give any
reasons for the arrests in the open court was sufficient reason for the
Prophet to give immediate orders for the release of the arrested me[/B]n.

The injunction of the Holy Quran is very clear on this point. [B]"When-
ever you judge between people, you should judge with (a sense of)
justice" (4:58). [/B]
And the Prophet has also been asked by God: [B]"I have
been ordered to dispense justice between you."[/B]

This was the reason
why the Caliph 'Umar said: [B]"In Islam no one can be imprisoned except
in pursuance of justice." [/B]

The words used here clearly indicate that
justice means due process of law. What has been prohibited and
condemned is that a man be arrested and imprisoned without proof of
his guilt in an open court and without providing him an opportunity
to defend himself against those charges.
If the Government suspects
that a particular individual has committed a crime or he is likely to
commit an offence in the near future then they should give reasons for
their suspicion before a court of law and the culprit or the suspect
should be allowed to produce his defence in an open court, so that the
court may decide whether the suspicion against him is based on sound
grounds or not and if there is good reason for suspicion, then he should
be informed of how long he will be in preventive detention.
This
decision should be taken under all circumstances in an open court, so
that the public may hear the charges brought by the government, as
well as the defence made by the accused and see that the due process of
law is being applied to him and he is not being victimized.

The correct method of dealing with such cases in Islam is
exemplified in the famous decision of the Prophet which took place
before the conquest of Makkah.
The Prophet was making preparations
for the attack on Makkah, when one of his Companions, Hatib ibn Abi
Balta'ah sent a letter through a woman to the authorities in Makkah
informing them about the impending attack. The Prophet came to
know of this through a Divine inspiration. He ordered 'Ali and Zubayr:
"Go quickly on the route to Makkah, at such and such a place, you will
find a woman carrying a letter. Recover the letter from her and bring it
to me." So they went and found the woman exactly where the Prophet
had said. They recovered the letter from her and brought it to the
Prophet. This was indeed a clear case of treachery.
To inform the
enemy about a secret of an army and that too at the time of a war is a
very serious offence tantamount to treachery. In fact one cannot think
of a more serious crime during war than giving out a military secret to
one's enemy. What could have been a more suitable case for a secret
hearing; a military secret had been betrayed and common sense
demanded that he should be tried in camera.
But the Prophet
summoned Hatib to the open court of the Mosque of the Prophet and
in the presence of hundreds of people asked him to explain his position
with regard to his letter addressed to the leaders of Quraysh which had
been intercepted on its way.
The accused said: "O God's Messenger
(may God's blessings be on you) I have not revolted against Islam, nor
have I done this with the intention of betraying a military secret. The
truth of the matter is that my wife and children are living in Makkah
and I do not have my tribe to protect them there. I had written this
letter so that the leaders of Quraysh may be indebted to me and may
protect my wife and children out of gratitude." 'Umar rose and respect-
fully submitted: "O Prophet, please permit me to put this traitor to the
sword." The Prophet replied: "He is one of those people who had
participated in the Battle of Badr, and the explanation he has
advanced in his defence would seem to be correct."

Let us look at this decision of the Prophet in perspective. It was a
clear case of treachery and betrayal of military secrets. But the Prophet
acquitted Hatib on two counts. Firstly, that his past records were very
clean and showed that he could not have betrayed the cause of Islam,
since on the occasion of the Battle of Badr when there were heavy odds
against the Muslims, he had risked his life for them. Secondly, his
family was in fact in danger at Makkah. Therefore, if he had shown
some human weakness for his children and written this letter, then this
punishment was quite sufficient for him that his secret offence was
divulged in public and he had been disgraced and humiliated in the eyes
of the believers. God has referred to this offence of Hatib in the Holy
Quran but did not propose any punishment for him except rebuke
and admonition.

The attitude and activities of the Kharijis in the days of the
Caliph 'Ali are well-known to the students of Muslim history. They
used to abuse the Caliph openly, and threaten him with murder. But
whenever they were arrested for these offences, 'Ali would set them
free and tell his officers "As long as they do not actually perpetrate
offences against the State, the mere use of abusive language or the
threat of use of force are not such offences for which they can be
imprisoned." The imam Abu Hanifah has recorded the following saying
of the Caliph 'Ali (A): "As long as they do not set out on armed
rebellion, the Caliph of the Faithful will not interfere with them." On
another occasion 'Ali was delivering a lecture in the mosque when the
Kharijis raised their special slogan there. 'Ali said: "We will not deny
you the right to come to the mosques to worship God, nor will we stop
to give your share from the wealth of the State, as long as you are with
us (and support us in our wars with the unbelievers) and we shall never
take military action against you as long as you do not fight with us."
One can visualize the opposition which 'Ali was facing; more violent
and vituperative opposition cannot even be imagined in a present-day
democratic State; but the freedom that he had allowed to the opposi-
tion was such that no government has ever been able to give to its
opposition. He did not arrest even those who threatened him with
murder nor did he imprison them.

[B]5. The Right to Protest Against Tyranny[/B]

Amongst the rights that Islam has conferred on human beings is
the right to protest against government's tyranny. Referring to it the
Quran says: [B]"God does not love evil talk in public unless it is by some-
one who has been injured thereby" (4:148).[/B]
This means that God
strongly disapproves of abusive language or strong words of condemna-
tion, but the person who has been the victim of injustice or tyranny,
God gives him the right to openly protest against the injury that has
been done to him. This right is not limited only to individuals. The
words of the verse are general. Therefore if an individual or a group of
people or a party usurps power, and after assuming the reins of
authority begins to tyrannize individuals or groups of men or the entire
population of the country, then to raise the voice of protest against it
openly is the God-given right of man and no one has the authority to
usurp or deny this right. If anyone tries to usurp this right of citizens
then he rebels against God. The talisman of Section 1444 may protect
such a tyrant in this world, but it cannot save him from the hell-fire in
the Hereafter.

[B]6. Freedom of Expression[/B]

Islam gives the right of freedom of thought and expression to all
citizens of the Islamic State on the condition that it should be used
for the propagation of virtue and truth and not for spreading evil and
wickedness. This Islamic concept of freedom of expression is much
superior to the concept prevalent in the West. Under no circumstances
would Islam allow evil and wickedness to be propagated. It also does
not give anybody the right to use abusive or offensive language in the
name of criticism.
The right to freedom of expression for the sake of
propagating virtue and righteousness is not only a right in Islam but an
obligation. One who tries to deny this right to his people is openly at
war with God, the All-Powerful. And the same thing applies to the
attempt to stop people from evil. Whether this evil is perpetrated by an
individual or by a group of people or the government of one's own
country, or the government of some other country; it is the right of a
Muslim and it is also his obligation that he should warn and reprimand
the evil-doer and try to stop him from doing it. Over and above, he
should openly and publicly condemn it and show the course of
righteousness which that individual, nation or government should
adopt.

The Holy Quran has described this quality of the Faithful in the
following words: [B]"They enjoin what is proper and forbid what is
improper" (9:71).[/B]
In contrast, describing the qualities of a hypocrite,
the Quran mentions: [B]"They bid what is improper and forbid what is
proper" (9:67). [/B]The main purpose of an Islamic Government has been
defined by God in the Quran as follows: [B]"If we give authority to these
men on earth they will keep up prayers, and offer poor-due, bid what
is proper and forbid what is improper" (22:41). [/B]

[B]The Prophet has said:
"If any one of you comes across an evil, he should try to stop it with
his hand (using force), if he is not in a position to stop it with his hand
then he should try to stop it by means of his tongue (meaning he
should speak against it). If he is not even able to use his tongue then he
should at least condemn it in his heart. This is the weakest degree of
faith" (Muslim).[/B]

This obligation of inviting people to righteousness and
forbidding them to adopt the paths of evil is incumbent on all true
Muslims. If any government deprives its citizens of this right, and
prevents them from performing this duty, then it is in direct conflict
with the injunction of God. The government is not in conflict with its
people, but is in conflict with God. In this way it is at war with God
and is trying to usurp that right of its people which God has conferred
not only as a right but as an obligation. As far as the government which
itself propagates evil, wickedness and obscenity and interferes with
those who are inviting people to virtue and righteousness is concerned,
according to the Holy Quran it is the government of the hypocrites.


[B]7. Freedom of Association[/B]

Islam has also given people the right to freedom of association and
formation of parties or organizations. This right is also subject to
certain general rules. It should be exercised for propagating virtue and
righteousness and should never be used for spreading evil and mischief.
We have not only been given this right for spreading righteousness and
virtue, but have been ordered to exercise this right. [B]Addressing the
Muslims, the Holy Quran declares:
You are the best community which has been brought forth for mankind.
You command what is proper and forbid what is improper and you believe
in God ... (3:110) [/B]

This means that it is the obligation and duty of the entire Muslim
community that it should invite and enjoin people to righteousness and
virtue and forbid them from doing evil. [B]If the entire Muslim community
is not able to perform this duty then "let there be a community among
you who will invite (people) to (do) good, command what is proper and
forbid what is improper, those will be prosperous" (3:104). [/B]
This clearly
indicates that if the entire Muslim nation collectively begins to neglect
its obligation to invite people to goodness and forbid them from doing
evil then it is absolutely essential that it should contain at least a
group
of people which may perform this obligation. As has been said before
this is not only a right but an obligation and on the fulfilment of which
depends success and prosperity here as well as in the Hereafter. It is an
irony with the religion of God that in a Muslim country the assembly
and association that is formed for the purposes of spreading evil and
mischief should have the right to rule over the country and the
association and party which has been formed for propagating righteous-
ness and virtue should live in perpetual fear of harassment and of being
declared illegal. Conditions here are just the reverse of what has been
prescribed by God. The claim is that we are Muslims and this is an
Islamic State5 but the work that is being done is directed to spreading
evil, to corrupt and morally degrade and debase the people while there
is an active and effective check on the work being carried out for
reforming society and inviting people to righteousness. Moreover the
life of those who are engaged in spreading righteousness and checking
the spread of evil and wickedness is made intolerable and hard to bear.


[B]8. Freedom of Conscience and Conviction[/B]


Islam also gives the right to freedom of conscience and conviction
to its citizens in an Islamic State. [B]The Holy Quran has laid down the
injunction: "There should be no coercion in the matter of faith"
(2:256).[/B]
Though there is no truth and virtue greater than the religion of
Truth-Islam, and Muslims are enjoined to invite people to embrace
Islam and advance arguments in favour of it, they are not asked to
enforce this faith on them. No force will be applied in order to compel
them to accept Islam. Whoever accepts it he does so by his own choice.
Muslims will welcome such a convert to Islam with open arms and
admit him to their community with equal rights and privileges. But if
somebody does not accept Islam, Muslims will have to recognize and
respect his decision, and no moral, social or political pressure will be
put on him to change his mind.

[B]9. Protection of Religious Sentiments[/B]

Along with the freedom of conviction and freedom of conscience,
Islam has given the right to the individual that his religious sentiments
will be given due respect and nothing will be said or done which may
encroach upon this right. [B]It has been ordained by God in the Holy
Quran: "Do not abuse those they appeal to instead of God" (6:108). [/B]

These instructions are not only limited to idols and deities, but they
also apply to the leaders or national heroes of the people. If a group of
people holds a conviction which according to you is wrong, and holds
certain persons in high esteem which according to you is not deserved
by them, then it will not be justified in Islam that you use abusive
language for them and thus injure their feelings. [B]Islam does not prohibit
people from holding debate and discussion on religious matters, but it
wants that these discussions should be conducted in decency. "Do not
argue with the people of the Book unless it is in the politest manner"
(29:46)-says the Quran.[/B]
This order is not merely limited to the people
of the Scriptures, but applies with equal force to those following other
faiths.

[B]10. Protection from Arbitrary Imprisonment[/B]


Islam also recognizes the right of the individual that he will not be
arrested or imprisoned for the offences of others. [B]The Holy Quran has
laid down this principle clearly: "No bearer of burdens shall be made to
bear the burden of another" (6:164).[/B]
Islam believes in personal
responsibility. We ourselves are responsible for our acts, and the
consequence of our actions cannot be transferred to someone else. In
other words this means that every man is responsible for his actions.
If
another man has not shared this action then he cannot be held
responsible for it, nor can he be arrested. It is a matter of great regret
and shame that we are seeing this just and equitable principle which has
not been framed by any human being, but by the Creator and Nourish-
er of the entire universe, being flouted and violated before our eyes. So
much so that a man is guilty of a crime or he is a suspect, but his wife
being arrested for his crime.
Things have gone so far that innocent
people are being punished for the crimes of others. To give a recent
example, in Karachi (Pakistan), a man was suspected of being involved
in a bomb throwing incident. In the course of police investigation he
was subjected to horrible torture in order to extract a confession from
him. When he insisted on his innocence, then the police arrested his
mother, his wife, daughter and sister and brought them to the police
station. They were all stripped naked in his presence and he was
stripped naked of all his clothes before their eyes so that a confession
of the crime could be extracted from him.
It appears as if for the sake
of investigation of crime it has become proper and legal in our country
to strip the innocent women folk of the household in order to bring
pressure on the suspect. This is indeed very outrageous and shameful.
This is the height of meanness and depravity. This is not a mere hearsay
which I am repeating here, but I have full information about this case
and can prove my allegations in any court of law. I would here like to
ask what right such tyrants who perpetrate these crimes against
mankind have to tell us that they are Muslims or that they are conduct-
ing the affairs of the state according to the teachings of Islam and their
state is an Islamic State. They are breaching and flouting a clear law of
the Holy Quran. They are stripping men and women naked which is
strictly forbidden in Islam. They disgrace and humiliate humanity and
then they claim that they are Muslims.

[B]11. The Right to Basic Necessities of Life[/B]


Islam has recognized the right of the needy people that help and
assistance will be provided for them. [B]"And in their wealth there is
acknowledged right for the needy and the destitute" (51:19).[/B]
In this
verse, the Quran has not only conferred a right on every man who asks
for assistance in the wealth of the Muslims, but has also laid down that
if a Muslim comes to know that a certain man is without the basic
necessities of life, then irrespective of the fact whether he asks for
assistance or not, it is his duty to reach him and give all the help that
he
can extend. For this purpose Islam has not depended only on the help
and charity that is given voluntarily, but has made compulsory charity,
zakat as the third pillar of Islam, next only to profession of faith and
worship of God through holding regular prayers.
[B] The Prophet has
clearly instructed in this respect that: "It will be taken from their rich
and given to those in the community in need" (al-Bukhari and Muslim).[/B]
In addition to this, it has also been declared that the Islamic State
should support those who have nobody to support them.[B] The Prophet
has said: "The Head of state is the guardian of him, who has nobody to
support him" (Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi).[/B]
The word wali which has been
used by the Prophet is a very comprehensive word and has a wide range
of meanings. If there is an orphan or an aged man, if there is a crippled
or unemployed person, if one is invalid or poor and has no one else to
support him or help him, then it is the duty and the responsibility of
the state to support and assist him. If a dead man has no guardian or
heir, then it is the duty of the state to arrange for his proper burial. In
short the state has been entrusted with the duty and responsibility of
looking after all those who need help and assistance. A truly Islamic
State is therefore a truly welfare state which will be the guardian and
protector of all those in need.

[B]12. Equality Before Law[/B]


Islam gives its citizens the right to absolute and complete equality
in the eyes of the law. As far as the Muslims are concerned, there are
clear instructions in the Holy Quran and hadith that in their rights and
obligations they are all equal:[B] "The believers are brothers (to each
other)" (49:10). "If they (disbelievers) repent and keep up prayer and
pay the Ipoor-due, they are your brothers in faith" (9:11). [/B]
[B]The
Prophet has said that: "The life and blood of Muslims are equally
precious" (Abu Dawud; Ibn Majjah).[/B]
[B]In another hadith he has said:
"The protection given by all Muslims is equal. Even an ordinary man
of them can grant protection to any man" (al-Bukhari; Muslim; Abu
Dawud)[/B].

In another more detailed Tradition of the Prophet, it has been
said that those who accept the Oneness of God, believe in the Prophet-
hood of His Messenger, give up primitive prejudices and join the Muslim
community and brotherhood, [B]"then they have the same rights and
obligations as other Muslims have" (al-Bukhari; al-Nisa'i).[/B]
Thus there is
absolute equality between the new converts to Islam and the old
followers of the Faith.
This religious brotherhood and the uniformity of their rights and
obligations is the foundation of equality in Islamic society, in which the
rights and obligations of any person are neither greater nor lesser in any
way than the rights and obligations of other people.
As far as the non-
Muslim citizens of the Islamic State are concerned, the rule of Islamic
Shari'ah (law) about them has been very well expressed by the Caliph
'Ali in these words: [B]"They have accepted our protection only because
their lives may be like our lives and their properties like our properties"
(Abu Dawud).[/B]

[B]In other words, their (of the dhimmis) lives and
properties are as sacred as the lives and properties of the Muslims.
Discrimination of people into different classes was one of the greatest
crimes that, according to the Quran, Pharaoh used to indulge in: "He
had divided his people into different classes," ... "And he suppressed
one group of them (at the cost of others)" (28:4). [/B]


[B]13. Rulers Not Above the Law[/B]


Islam clearly insists and demands that all officials of the Islamic
State, whether he be the head or an ordinary employee, are equal in
the eyes of the law. None of them is above the law or can claim
immunity. Even an ordinary citizen in Islam has the right to put
forward a claim or file a legal complaint against the highest executive of
the country.

[B]The Caliph 'Umar said, "I have myself seen the Prophet,
may God's blessings be on him, taking revenge against himself
(penalizing himself for some shortcoming or failing)." [/B]

[B]On the occasion
of the Battle of Badr, when the Prophet was straightening the rows of
the Muslim army he hit the belly of a soldier in an attempt to push him
back in line. The soldier complained "O Prophet, you have hurt me
with your stick." The Prophet immediately bared his belly and said: "I
am very sorry, you can revenge by doing the same to me." The soldier
came forward and kissed the abdomen of the Prophet and said that this
was all that he wanted. [/B]

[B]A woman belonging to a high and noble family was arrested in
connection with a theft. The case was brought to the Prophet, and
it was recommended that she may be spared the punishment of theft.
The Prophet replied: "The nations that lived before you were destroyed
by God because they punished the common men for their offences and
let their dignitaries go unpunished for their crimes; I swear by Him
(God) who holds my life in His hand that even if Fatimah, the daughter
of Muhammad, has committed this crime then I would have amputated
her hand."[/B]

[B]During the caliphate of 'Umar, Muhammad the son of 'Amr
ibn al-'As the Governor of Egypt, whipped an Egyptian. The Egyptian
went to Medina and lodged his complaint with the Righteous Caliph,
who immediately summoned the Governor and his son to Medina.
When they appeared before him in Medina, the Caliph handed a whip to
the Egyptian complainant and asked him to whip the son of the
Governor in his presence. After taking his revenge when the Egyptian
was about to hand over the whip to 'Umar, he said to the Egyptian:
"Give one stroke of the whip to the Honourable Governor as well. His
son would certainly have not beaten you were it not for the false pride
that he had in his father's high office." The plaintiff submitted: "The
person who had beaten me, I have already avenged myself on him." [/B]

[B]'Umar said: "By God, if you had beaten him (the Governor) I would
not have checked you from doing so. You have spared him of your own
free will." Then he ('Umar) angrily turned to 'Amr ibn al-'As and said:
"O 'Amr, when did you start to enslave the people, though they were
born free of their mothers?" [/B]

When the Islamic State was flourishing in
its pristine glory and splendour, the common people could equally
lodge complaints against the caliph of the time in the court and the
caliph had to appear before the qadi to answer the charges. And if the
caliph had any complaint against any citizen, he could not use his
administrative powers and authority to set the matter right, but had to
refer the case to the court of law for proper adjudication.

[B]14. The Right to Avoid Sin[/B]


Islam also confers this right on every citizen that he will not be
ordered to commit a sin, a crime or an offence; and if any govern-
ment, or the administrator, or the head of department orders an
individual to do a wrong, then he has the right to refuse to comply with
the order. His refusal to carry out such crime or unjust instructions
would not be regarded as an offence in the eyes of the Islamic law.
On
the contrary giving orders to one's subordinates to commit a sin or do a
wrong is itself an offence and such a serious offence that the officer
who gives this sinful order whatever his rank and position may be, is
liable to be summarily dismissed.

These clear instructions of the Prophet
are summarized in the following hadith: [B]"It is not permissible to dis-
obey God in obedience to the orders of any human being" (Musnad of
Ibn Hanbal).[/B]

In other words, no one has the right to order his
subordinates to do anything against the laws of God. If such an order
is given, the subordinate has the right to ignore it or openly refuse to
carry out such instructions. According to this rule no offender will be
able to prove his innocence or escape punishment by saying that this
offence was committed on the orders of the government or superior
officers. If such a situation arises then the person who commits the
offence and the person who orders that such an offence be committed,
will both be liable to face criminal proceedings against them. And if an
officer takes any improper and unjust measures against a subordinate
who refuses to carry out illegal orders, then the subordinate has the
right to go to the court of law for the protection of his rights, and he
can demand that the officer be punished for his wrong or unjust orders.


[B]15. The Right to Participate in the Affairs of State[/B]


According to Islam, governments in this world are actually
representatives (khulafa') of the Creator of the universe, and this
responsibility is not entrusted to any individual or family or a particular
class or group of people but to the entire Muslim nation.
[B]The Holy
Quran says: "God has promised to appoint those of you who believe
and do good deeds as (His) representatives on earth" (24:55). [/B]

This
clearly indicates that khilafah is a collective gift of God in which the
right of every individual Muslim is neither more nor less than the right
of any other person.

The correct method recommended by the Holy
Quran for running the affairs of the state is as follows: [B]"And their
business is (conducted) through consultation among themselves"
(42:38).[/B]

According to this principle it is the right of every Muslim that
either he should have a direct say in the affairs of the state or a
representative chosen by him and other Muslims should participate in
the consultation of the state. Islam, under no circumstance, permits or
tolerates that an individual or a group or party of individuals may
deprive the common Muslims of their rights, and usurp powers of the
state. Similarly, Islam does not regard it right and proper that an
individual may put up a false show of setting up a legislative assembly
and by means of underhand tactics such as fraud, persecution, bribery,
etc., gets himself and men of his choice elected in the assembly.

This is
not only a treachery against the people whose rights are usurped by
illegal and unfair means, but against the Creator Who has entrusted the
Muslims to rule on this earth on His behalf, and has prescribed the pro-
cedure of an assembly for exercising these powers. The shura or the
legislative assembly has no other meaning except that:
(1) The executive head of the government and the members of the
assembly should be elected by free and independent choice of the
people.
(2) The people and their representatives should have the right to
criticize and freely express their opinions.
(3) The real conditions of the country should be brought before
the people without suppressing any fact so that they may be able to
form their opinion about whether the government is working properly
or not.
(4) There should be adequate guarantee that only those people
who have the support of the masses should rule over the country and
those who fail to win this support should be removed from their
position of authority.

[B]Reference:
HUMAN RIGHTS IN ISLAM
by 'Allamah Abu al-'A'la Mawdudi
al Tawhid Journal, vol. IV No. 3 Rajab-Ramadhan 1407 [/B]


i will post rest of the topics step by step,i hope roshan it might help you alot.

regards sabahat

Roshan wadhwani Sunday, July 31, 2011 07:28 PM

[CENTER][B][U][FONT="Georgia"][SIZE="6"]Islamic concept of charity[/SIZE][/FONT][/U][/B][/CENTER]

[B][U][CENTER]By Bilal Ahmed Malik[/CENTER][/U][/B]


POVERTY next to sickness is the biggest threat to humankind. Extreme poverty has existed everywhere in the world during various stages of history, and still continues to exist in many parts of the world. Islam as the last of the Divine messages of Allah has also taken a very comprehensive view of poverty, and the Quran and Sunnah have recommended numerous measures to alleviate its pain and anguish in a society. Islam encourages its followers to spend money for Allah’s Sake whenever they are capable of doing so, and it stresses on the great virtues of giving a charity.

Thus, of all Islamic virtues emphasised in the Quran, charity is perhaps the one mentioned most frequently. The Holy Book repeatedly enjoins upon Muslims to give generously to the poor, so that inequality of wealth is somewhat eliminated. The Quran states that for Muslims, Prayer and Zakat are of comparable significance. That is why the two are often mentioned side by side. There are innumerable verses in the Quran which urge Muslims to be mindful of the poor, helpless and needy. These verses leave no doubt about the importance of Zakat and Sadaqa for the legal, moral and economic betterment of the Muslim Ummah.

The following are some verses of the Quran that deal with this issue.

[B][CENTER]“Establish worship, pay the poor due, and bow your heads with those who bow”(Quran2:43). [/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]Pay the poor due, and hold fast to Allah. He is your Protecting Friend. A blessed Patron and a blessed Helper! (Quran 22:78).[/CENTER][/B]

In the following verses, those who spend freely in Allah’s cause are being praised by Him.

[B][CENTER]“The steadfast, and the truthful, and the obedient, those who spend and (hoard not), those who pray for pardon in the watches of the night”. (Quran 3:17).
[/CENTER][/B]

The following people are yet again mentioned by Allah, as being righteous:

[B][CENTER]“Such as persevere in seeking their Lord’s countenance and are regular in prayer and spend of that which We bestow upon them secretly and openly, and overcome evil with good. Theirs will be the sequel of the (heavenly) Home.(Quran 13:22).[/CENTER][/B]

While putting emphasis on charity the Quran further specifies the categories of people who are to be considered appropriate recipients of generosity.

Following are some verses that explain this point further:

[B][CENTER] “They ask thee (O Mohammad) what they shall spend. Say: That which ye spend for good (must go) to parents and near kindred and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer. And whatsoever good ye do, lo! Allah is aware of it.(Quran 2 :215).
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER](“Alms are) for the poor who are straightened for the cause of Allah, who cannot travel in the land (for trade). The unthinking man accounteth them wealthy because of their restraint. Thou shall know them by their mark: They do not beg of men with importunity. And whatsoever good thing ye spend, lo! Allah knoweth it.” (Quran2;273).
[/CENTER][/B]

In the above mentioned verse the Quran states that “Charity is for those in need.” This is general principle which enjoins us to help people in need, be they good or bad, on the right path or not, Muslims or non-Muslims. We are not supposed to judge in these matters.

The ends in charity, as reiterated here, should be God’s pleasure and our own spiritual good. This verse in the first instance was revealed in Madina, but it is of general applications.

The concept of charity in Islam is thus linked with justice.

It is not limited to the redressal of grievances. It implies apart from the removal of handicaps, the recognition of the right that every human being has to attain the fullness of life.

In the verse below, the Quran clearly specifies the amount that is to be spent in charity and almsgiving.

[B][CENTER]“And they ask thee what they ought to spend. Say: that which is superfluous.
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]Thus Allah maketh plain to you (His) revelations, that haply ye may reflect “(Quran 2:219)
[/CENTER][/B]

Allah provides incentives to people by promising them great rewards, so as to encourage them to practice charity.

[B][CENTER]“Who is it that will lend unto Allah a goodly loan, so that He may give it increase manifold? Allah straiteneth and enlargeth, Unto him ye will return.”(Quran 2 :245)[/CENTER][/B]

There are certain parameters and ethical boundaries set by the Quran that a person must not cross while practising charity.

The act of charity must be accompanied by humility and must not be executed as a favour to the one receiving it. The following verses elucidate this point.

[B][CENTER]“O ye who believe! Render not vain your almsgiving by reproach and injury, like him who spendeth his wealth only to be seen by men and believeth not in Allah and the Last Day.
[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“His likeness is as the likeness of a rock wheron is dust of earth; a rainstorm smiteth it, leaving it smooth and bare. They have no control of aught of that which they have gained. Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk.” (Quran 2:262, 263, 264.)[/CENTER][/B]

The Quran also brings to light the importance of spending only that which is good, towards a charitable cause. Most individuals give away in charity only items which they deem not fit for their own use. Allah warns against this attitude.

[B][CENTER]“O ye who believe. Spend of the good things which ye have earned, and of that which we bring forth from the earth for you, and seek not the bad (with intent) to spend thereof (in charity) when you would not take it for yourselves save with disdain; and know that Allah is Absolute Owner of Praise.” (Quran 2:267).[/CENTER][/B]

[B][CENTER]“Ye will not attain unto piety until ye spend of that which ye love. And whatsoever ye spend, Allah is aware thereof.”(Quran.3: 92)
[/CENTER][/B]

The Quran also recommends that charity be given privately, not only to prevent engendering arrogance on the part of the person giving alms, but also to preserve the interest of the receiver, as it might cause the latter embarrassment.

[B][CENTER]“If ye publish your almsgiving, it is well, but if ye hide it and give it to the poor, it will be better for you, and will atone for some of your ill-deeds. Allah is informed of what ye do.”(Quran 2:271)
[/CENTER][/B]

The Quran in above mentioned verse, warns us against spending “to be seen of men”. This is false charity.

Alms-giving with this motive is worse than not giving away anything at all.

Allah also urges creditors to forego their debts as almsgiving, if the borrowers are experiencing hardship. This is indicated by the following verses:

[B][CENTER]“And if the debtor is in straightened circumstances, then (let there be) postponement to (the time of) ease;. and that which ye remit the debt as almsgiving would be better for you if ye did but know.”(Quran 2: 280).
[/CENTER][/B]

Charity is a virtue that the Quran urges Muslims to display in times of abundance as well as in times of adversity.

The following verse illustrates this further:

[B][CENTER]“Those who spend (of that which Allah hath given them) in ease and in adversity, those who control their wrath and are forgiving toward mankind;Allah loveth the good”(Quran 3:134).[/CENTER][/B]

Last but not least; Muslims are urged not to let anything distract them from the remembrance of Allah, the performance of Salat and the paying of Alms.

[B][CENTER]“Men whom neither merchandise nor sale beguileth from the remembrance of Allah and constancy in prayer and paying to the poor their due; who fear a day when hearts and eyeballs will be overturned” (Quran 24:37)[/CENTER][/B]

From the above verses, it is evident, that the Quran regulates with specific injunctions, the virtues of all Muslims, when they come in giving charity to the poor. Thus honesty and truthfulness demand that a person should act unselfishly.

Unfortunately, the accumulation of worldly riches for one’s own benefit is a common practice, often leading people to succumb to dishonest temptations.

In order for honest charity to be effective it has to be genuine, and not a mere act of expediency resulting from fear or injury or a mere showoff of wealth. Charity must also be a habit of mind, rather than something practiced as a result of a need or something to show off ones wealth.

Since charity is purely for the sake of God, it has value only if something good and valuable is given. It should be lawfully earned or acquired by the giver. It should include such things as are of use and value to others. Charity is, in the words of the Prophet, to place a thing in the palm of God.


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