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Post Evolution and Growth Of Muslim Society in Subcontinent

Evolution and Growth Of Muslim Society in Subcontinent

Pakistan emerged on the world map on August 14 1947. It has its roots into the remote past. When British archaeologist, SIR MORITIMER WHEELER was commissioned in 1947 by the government of Pakistan, he entitled his work as “Five Thousand Years of Pakistan”. He writes in “The Indus Civilization” that Pakistan has a history that can be dated back to the Indus valley civilization.

A. ADVENT OF ISLAM IN INDIA (712-1206):

1. Arab rule of Sindh: During Hazrat Omar’s Caliphate, the Governor of Iraq sent an expedition by land, which captured Makran under the command of Rabi Bin Zeyad Haris. Though Makran was conquered but the victory was short-lived, as the locals recaptured the country. In fact the permanent Muslim foothold in the subcontinent was achieved with the entrance of Muhammad Bin Qasim.
2. Trade relations b/w Arabia & the Subcontinent:
Long before the advent of Islam in Arabia, the Arabs used to visit the coast of Southern India, which then provided the link b/w the ports of South and South East Asia. A number of Arabs lived in coastal area embraced Islam. During those days of 711 A. D., some Muslim traders living in Ceylon died and the ruler of Ceylon sent their widows and orphans back to Baghdad. They made their journey by sea. The King of Ceylon also sent many valuable presents to Walid and Hajjaj. As the eight-ship caravan passed by the seaport of Daibul, Sindhi pirate, who were being supported by Raja Dahir, looted it and took the women and children prisoner.
3. Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion (712):
In 712, Hajjaj sent 6000 selected Syrian and Iraqi soldiers and a baggage train of 3000 camels to Sindh under the command of his nephew and son-in-law Imad-ud-din Muhammad Bin Qasim (695-715). He first captured Daibul, and then turned towards Nirun. Dahir was overpowered and killed and Muslims conquered Brahmanbad.
In the words of Italian scholar “F. Gabrieli,” “Present day Pakistan, holding the values of Islam in such high esteem, should look upon the young Arab conqueror, Muhammad Bin Qasim, almost as a founding father, a hero of South Asian Islam.”
Besides being a great general, he was also an excellent administrator. He established peace and order as well as a good administrative structure.
4. Spread of Islam:
5. Raids of Mahmud of Ghazni (998-1030): Mahmud of Ghazni (979-1030) led a series of raids against Rajputs and rich Hindu temples and established a base in Punjab for future incursions. His court was full of scholars including Ferdosi the poet, Behqi the Historian and Al-Beruni the versatile scholar. He was called the Idol Breaker.
6. Al-Beruni, real founder of two-nation theory in South Asia: he wrote Kitab-ul-Hind
7. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghuri’s rule: he was the first Muslim ruler to conquer Delhi and established a Muslim rule in India. In 1192, he defeated Raj Chauhan in the 2nd battle of Tarain. He had no heirs so he left his throne for his slaves to whom he treated as sons.
8. Effects of the establishment of Muslim rule

B. DELHI SULTANATE (1206-1526):
1. Slave Dynasty: Qutbuddin Aibak, the first Muslim Governor of Delhi.
2. Khalji Dynasty (1209-1320): founder was Jalal-ud-din.
3. Tughluq Dynasty (1325-1413): Muhammad Ibn Tughluq (1290-1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325- 1351. Mahmud was the last ruler from 1399-1413.
4. Destruction of Delhi by Tamerlane (1398):
5. Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451):
6. Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526):
7. Role of Delhi Sultanate in expansion of Islam:
I. Role of Sufis & Ulemas: Hazrat Ali Hajveri, Moin-ud-din Chisti, Qutub-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki, Farid-ud-din Ganj Shakar, Nizam-ud-din Aulliya, Bahaudin Zikariya, Rukn-ud-din Alam.
II. System of administration:
III. Cultural development:
IV. Economic development:
V. Social development

C. ESTABLISHMENT OF MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526):
1. Battle of Panipat (April 1526): Babar ousted Ibrahim Lodi
2. Wars of Succession, Humayun & Sher Shah (1530-1556): Humayun defeated Bahadar Shah in 1535 and captured Gujarat. Later on, Sher Khan defeated Humayun and ruled over many parts of subcontinent and finally died in 1545.
3. 2nd battle of Panipat & reestablishment of Mughal Empire (1556): Humayun recaptures Hindustan just before his death.
4. Akbar the Great (1556-1605): I. Akbar and Islam II. Prosecution of Islam in the name of Din-e-Illahi III. Political impact of Akbar’s Toleration policies on Muslims.
5. Glorious period of Shah Jahan (1628-1658):
6. Shah Jahan & English Company: in 1632, he permitted the English merchants to set up a trading post in Surat. K. K. Aziz in ‘A History of the Idea of Pakistan’ “By 1700, the East India Company extended its commercial activities in Bengal and had established itself as a leading player in Indian politics.”
7. Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707): he was regarded as Zinda Peer. He compiled Fatawa-I-Alamgiri. He converted Dar-ul-Harb into Dar-ul-Islam.
8. Fall of Mughal Empire:
9. Ahmed Shah Abdali & 3rd battle of Panipat (1761):
D. IMPACT OF ISLAM:
1. Religious influence:
2. Cultural influence:
3. Social influence:
4. Influence on intellectual life:
5. Economic influence:
6. Influence on political life:
7. Influence on Business

E. RELIGIOUS AMALGAMATION:
1. Bhakti Movement: the purpose of the movement was to eradicate the evils of Hindu religion. There was no difference b/w Ram and Rahim and Quran and Pran in this movement. The main purpose was to resist spread of Islam.
2. Mahdavi Movement: Sayyid Muhammad of Junapur stood and claimed himself as Mehdi. But with the blessing of God, he was put to his end at the fatwa of Sheikh Makhdum-al-mulk.
3. Akbar’s Din-I-Illahi
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