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Old Wednesday, January 30, 2008
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Post Facts & figures about society & people of Pakistan

Society and People of Pakistan:
Introduction:
Pakistan has an estimated population of over 169 million inhabitants in 2007. During 1951-98, Pkistan's urban population expanded sevenfold. Non-governmental and international sources report that Pakistan's current population is estimated to be 165,803,560(July 2006 est.). In the past, the country's population had a relatively high growth rate that has, however, been moderated by declining fertility and birth rates. Dramatic social changes have led to rapid urbanization and the emergence of megacities. During 1990-2003, Pkistan sustained its historical lead as the most urbanized nation in South Asia, with city dwellers making up 34% of its population.
Pakistan has a multicultural society and hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world as well as a young population.

Geographical Distribution:
The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. In the northern half, most of the population lives about an arc formed by the cities of Faisalabad, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, and Peshawar.

Population & Growth
>Population: 165,803,560(July 2006 est.)
>Growth rate: 2.09% (w006 est.)
>Birth rate: 29.74 births/1000 population (2006 est.)
>Death rate: 8.23 deaths/1000 population(2006 est.)
>Net migration rate: -0.59 migrant(s)/1000 population (2006 est.)

Age Structure:
>0-14 years: 39%(male 33,293,428; female 31,434,314)
>15-64: 56.9% (male 48,214,298; female 46,062,933)
>65 years and over: 4.1%(male 3,256,065; female 3,542,522) (2006 est.)

Gender Ratios:
>Sex ratio at birth: 1.05male(s)/female
>under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
>15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
>65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
>total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Human Development: Mortality and life expectancy
>Infant motality rate: 70.45 deaths/1000 live births(2006 est.)
>Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.39 years
male: 62.4 years
female: 64.44 years (2006 est.)

Fertility:
>Total fertility rate: 4 children born/woman (2006 est.)
>Fertility decline rate: 1.8 children per woman per decade (2nd fastest in world)

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write.

>total population: 48.7% (2004 est.)
>male: 61.7 %
>female: 35.2 %

Nationality and Ethnicity:

Ethnic Group in Pakistan:
Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, 1980. Pakistan's ethnic diversity is obvious and yet accurate numbers have been elusive. They constitute a variety of races and ethnic groups, although largely of caucasoid stock. Most believe that the large majority of Pakistanis belong to the Indo-Aryan group. There are a substantial number of Iranic peoples and smaller numbers of dravidians. There are many ethnic groups: Pakistan's census and rough estimates vary, but the consensus is that the Punjabis are by far the largest group, and that Pukhtuns(also known as Pushtuns) and Sindhis are the next two largest groups. The Punjabi population is estimated to comprise 44.15% of the national total. The Pukhtuns are the second-largest group at roughly 15.42%, followed by Sindhis at 14.1%. Seraikis, a group seen as transitional between Punjabis and Sindhis, ake up 10.53% of the population. The remaining groups that comprise large percentage include the Muhajirs at 7.57% and the Balochis at 3.57%. The other main ethnic groups include the Brahui, Kashmiri, Hindko, Pukhtuns, And the various peoples of the Northern Areas, who all together total roughly 4.66% of the total population.
In addition, over five million Afghan refugees came to Pakistan during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and it is estimated that over three million remain, with a large proportion settling permanently in Pakistan. If added to the census, Afghan refugees would boost the percentage of the Pukhtuns and "others" categories.

Religions in Pakistan:

Census data indicates that over 98% of the population are Muslims. The Muslims have different schools which are called Madhahib( singular: Maghhab) i-e., schools of jurisprudence ( also Maktab-e-Fikr of School of thought in Urdu). Nearly 90% of Pakistani Muslims are Sunni Muslims and roughly 9% are Shi'a Muslims. Nearly all Sunni Muslims belong to the Hanafi school with a small Hanbali school represented by Wahabis and Ahle Hadith.The Hanafi school includes the Barelvis and Deobandis schools. Although the majority of Pkistani Shia Muslims belong to Ithna Ashariyah school, there are significant minorities : Nizari Khoja Ismailis(Aga Khanis) and the smaller Mustaali Dawoodi Bohra school. by one estimate, in Pakistan, Muslims are divided into following schools: the Barelvis 48%, Deobandis 35%, Ithna Ashari 9%, Ahle Hadith 4%, Khojas 1%, Bohras 0.25%, and other smaller sects. The Ahle Hadith are part of Hanbali school. Nearly 65% of the total seminaries(Madaris) are run by Deobandis 25 % by the Barelvis, 6% by the Ahle Hadith are 3% by vaious Shia organizations. Zikris are considered to be a heretical sect by mainstream Muslims and are concentrated in Makran, Balochistan.
The difference among Sunni schools( Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi and Hanbali) are small in practice, and thay may pray together in any Sunni Masjid(Mosque). In Pakistan, adherents of the Barelvi and Deobandi schools also pray together in some Masjids.
There are small non-Muslim religious groups: Christians, Jews, Hindus, Sikhs, Qadianis, Parsis, Bahais and others 3%.
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