Research Projects Completed (ISLAMABAD)
Promotion of Research Activities
This project was approved at a total cost of Rs.1.7733 million during 1985 for a period of 4 years. The main objective of this scheme was to promote/introduce research oriented projects/studies at the university level by supporting some of the brilliant students undertaking M.Phil/Doctorate degree at the local Engineering and Agricultural Universities. So that by the time the scholars complete their degree, they should be ready to undertake objective research programmes on the priorities assigned by the Council. This will be an enormous help for research activities being undertaken in the water sector.
In the first year, 8 fellowships were available for utilization in local Universities. Travel grant was also available for four foreign fellowships every year @Rs.20,000 each to four candidates who may be perusing research programme within or outside the country. So far 29 research studies at various universities have been completed. Details are as under:
• List of Completed Research Studies Under Promotion of Research Activities
• Estimation of Seepage and its Effect on Water logging and Crop Yield.
• Parametric Evaluation of Unconfined Aquifer Parameters.
• Regression Analysis to determine Snyder’s Unit Hydrograph Parameters.
• A Stochastic Model for Flow analysis for the River Chenab at Marala and Khanki.
• Calibration of Drain Pipe Weir
• Calibration and Validation of Hydro-Salinity Model in a Conjunctive Use System.
• Design and performance of evaluation of high efficiency irrigation system.
• Mineralization/Dissolution process of sparingly soluble salt of Calcium in the Ground water in NWFP.
• Scouring on Down Stream of Hydraulic Structure.
• Simulation of Water Hammer Characteristics.
• Tile Drainage through Homogenous Soil.
• Implication of Wara-bandi System on Irrigation Management Drainage, Water course at Command
• Pollution of Lahore Canal Water and it Effects on Soil Hydraulic Property
• Estimation of Flood Losses by Chanab River between Qadirabad and Khanki headworks
• Effect of Effluent from Tanneries on Groundwater
• Effect of Drainage Density on the Peak Discharge of Catchment by Using HEC Model.
• Irrigation System Design for Agricultural Farm at New Site of UET Peshawar
• Re-use of Drainage Water for Crop Production
• Alternate Pump Selection for the Sump System of Fourth Drainage Project
• Effect of Eucalyptus Plantation on Groundwater
• Water Evaluation of different Restaurant and Hospital in Rawalpindi and Islamabad
• Determination of Consumptive Use of Water and Establishing of Irrigation Scheduling of Summer Maiz (Grain and Fodder)
• Irrigation System Design for Agriculture Farm at new site
• Alternative Pump System for the Sump System of Fourth Drainage Project
• Optimum Design of Rainwater Harvesting System in Cholistan Desert by Using Computer Modeling.
• Drainage Performance.
• Lysimeter Study of Consumptive Use of Water and Nitrate Leaching of Maize Crop.
• Design and Fabrication of Sand Tank Model for Testing of various Drainage Filter Materials under Different Soil Conditions.
• Groundwater Flow Modeling in Bari Doab.
Special Short Term Research Studies (STRESS)
The original scheme was approved at a cost of Rs. 1.5 million for a period of three years in June 1982. Later on the scheme was revised for a cost of Rs 9.5 million for another 3 years ending in 1988. However due to shortage of funds the first Revised PC-I could not be made fully operative so that the programme is still on. The scheme is still under implementation. Realizing the importance of the project the PC-I has once again revised at a cost of Rs. 11.233 million for a period 9 years i.e. 1988-97. The objectives of the project are:
• To conduct research on localized issues which are of prime importance and need immediate solution;
• To compile, prepare and publish scientific information in the form of manuals, monographs and books;
• To test equipments, materials, chemicals machinery, etc. for their appropriateness under local conditions;
• To survey and evaluate the extent of potentials and problems in specialized disciplines of water science, when and where required; and
• To investigate and report the specific problems faced by the agencies/ organizations involved in development and management of water resources such as WAPDA, PIDs, Small Dam Organization, etc.
This project has made a great deal of contribution in understanding and solving some isolated and localized problem like Karez Development, delay action dam contribution to groundwater recharge, water harvesting techniques and water quality problems. The project has been closed after completion of 20 research studies.
• List of Completed Research Studies Under Special Short Term Research Studies
• Prospects of Inland Navigation in Pakistan
• Groundwater Development and Management of SCARP-I
• Manual for Water Well Design and Testing.
• Hydrological Network in Balochistan (Phase-II)
• Completion, Analysis and Portraiture of water Resources in Pakistan.
• Hydrological Network in Balochistan (Phase-II)
• Assessment and Improvement6 of Traditional Karez Irrigation System in Balochistan.
• Appraisal of Groundwater Resources in Ziarat Valley using Isotopic and Chemical Techniques
• Survey and Evaluation of Delay Action Dams and Ground Water Recharging in Balochistan
• Study on Crop Water Requirement and Scheduling with System Constraints
• Pollution Problems in the Water Supply System of Islamabad.
• Estimation of flood frequency and flood damages for future flood control
• Socio-Economic and technical Evaluation of small dams in barani areas
• Survey of drinking water quality in the rural areas of Rawalpindi District.
• Monograph of Irrigation water quality for agricultural land.
• Hydrological Studies on Surface Drain.
• Preparation of Shallow Groundwater Quality map for Bari Doab Area.
• A case Study for eradication of small scale Waterlogging and Salinity Problems of Peshawar Area.
• Pollution Problems in the Water Supply Systems of Islamabad and Rawalpindi (under STRESS Program).
• Survey of Drinking Water Quality in the Rural Areas of Rawalpindi District (under STRESS Program).
• Other Related Studies
• De-Contamination Efficiency of Musaffa Bags.
• Establishment of National Drinking Water Quality Standards.
• Effects of Gulf Crises on Rain Water Quality in Pakistan.
• Water Pollution in the Industrial Area of Islamabad.
• Low Cost Water Treatment Plant (Unesco Sponsored Project).
• Quality Evaluation of Drinking Water Obtained from different Restaurants and Hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi.
• Labeled and Analytical Bottled Water Quality.
Research Projects Completed (TANDO JAM)
Since large areas were earmarked in Pakistan for providing tile drainage, therefore, it was felt essential to conduct research on tile drainage to define parameters of design, locate and select suitable materials and test them in actual field conditions. The Centre therefore assigned first priority to conduct research on tile drainage as a measure to control waterlogging and salinity problems. The projects completed and on-going ones are reported in the ensuing pages.
East Khairpur Tile Drainage Pilot Project
A Pilot Tile Drainage Project at Khairpur was planned and implemented. The monitoring of the installed system to see its performance for soil improvement and crop production was undertaken. The drainage system comprised of collectors and PVC laterals with spacing of 150m and 300m.
The pilot study has produced encouraging results and the system can offer the best alternative where the tubewell drainage is not suitable, because of limited aquifer depth and saline groundwater. In the pilot project, the water table is controlled upto 100cm and there is a good improvement in groundwater and soil quality. However, from the year 1994 watertable has again risen in the whole project area. This happened because the project was handed over to SCARPs authorities where due to poor O&M the project is not getting the desired results. There are frequent faults in pumps and electricity breakdowns as well. However, following results are reached from first effort of DRC.
• Composite system of laterals excelled over long laterals.
• Maximum soil salinity decreased from 168 dS/m to 18 dS/m in 1995 within 2 cm of soil surface.
• Watertable lowered below 100 cm from ground surface.
• Usable groundwater increased from 8% to 43% of the project area.
• Cotton yield increased from 5 maunds/acre to 15 maunds/acre.
• Wheat yield increased from 8 maunds/acre to 25 maunds/acre.
• Fibre envelope can replace gravel due to its efficient performance for 14 years.
• Capital cost can be reduced because actual drainage coefficient is 1.75 mm/day against design value of 3 mm/day.
• Capital cost can be further reduced by supplementing electric motor-pumping with low power diesel engines to ensure uninterrupted operation.
Surface Drainage and Watertable Control Project
Under the Irrigation System Management Research (ISM-R) Program, which was co-funded by the USAID and GoP; DRC was recognized as a specialized Center. It is capable of conducting research in drainage of waterlogged and saline soils. This project was meant to establish physical, chemical, social and economic criteria for the selection, design, construction and evaluation of drainage system on isolated farms. It endeavoured to develop and test the low cost on-farm drainage.
DRC constructed six isolated tile drainage units under ISM-R in areas, which were outside project boundaries of SCARPs of WAPDA. The idea of collaborative drainage was developed to create awareness in the farming community about the importance of drainage and to associate them in drainage activity by sharing capital cost of the project and taking full responsibility of operation and maintenance. The average cost of drainage was Rs.21,800 per hectare. The farmers shared upto 60 percent of the capital cost and full operational and maintenance cost.
Monitoring and evaluation of these tile drainage units indicate that waterlogged and saline soils were reclaimed. The concept of collaborative land drainage proved highly successful. Looking into the great success of isolated tile drainage units for control of soil salinity, waterlogging, and increase in crop yields, many progressive farmers approached DRC for on-farm drainage on cost sharing basis.
• Suitability of Interceptor Drains
Interceptor drains are one of the physically feasible drainage alternatives to recover seepage losses from unlined irrigation channels near their vicinity. Suitability of these drains has been worked out over tile drains, which are running parallel to perennial channels in DRC constructed tile drainage projects at Khairpur and Bughio Farm. The benefit of interceptor drains lies in recovering 67% of the drainage coefficient. It was observed that Dupit-Forchheimer method applies to estimate seepage recovery if a calibration factor of 0.523 was introduced.
Based on available data, it is recommended to place drains between 1.8 and 2.8 metres depth below the ground surface at a distance between 15 and 23 metres from the canal bank. To achieve better simulation for seepage interception a two-dimensional numerical model for an isotropic media should be preferred over simple analytical models.
• Disposal of Drainage Effluent
Leaching and disposal of saline drainage water are the two basic requirements for maintaining salt balance. Disposal requirements can be reduced by improved irrigation water management and by reusing drainage water. There will however always remain a greater need for disposal. Disposal is being effected through evaporation ponds, surface drains, outfall drains, irrigation canals and most recently injection wells. Each solution has its merits and demerits, however, gained experience is still limited and it needs further research. At Nuclear Institute of Agriculture farm, drainage effluent was first reused for growing kallar grass and later diverted for irrigation of arable crops. Whereas at Bughio farm, the drainage effluent is disposed off into the canal and at Sujawal into the fishpond for one year. At Nawazabad farm, drainage effluent is used for irrigating crops. The most recent started effort is an experiment to dispose off drainage water deep into the aquifer through injection well at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture farm. Also, the data collected from this project has been used to calibrate the tile drainage and injection well model under non-steady-state conditions. The model results suggest the drainage effluent may be injected into underlying deep aquifer without doing any harm to local hydrological balance.
Tile Drainage System at Niaz Stadium Hyderabad
The rising of groundwater level by accumulation of rainwater in the adjoining areas of Niaz Stadium Hyderabad led to a serious problem of waterlogging and salinity. This polluted the ground and did not allow the grass to flourish and consequently the ground became unfit for playing cricket and other games. Commissioner Hyderabad Division and Chairman Sports Committee, realizing the problem, called on DRC management to explore the possible solution to the problem. It was considered that a sub surface tile drainage and rainwater evacuation system with disposal arrangement would be an appropriate solution of the problem. DRC agreed to install the system on full cost basis. After approval of the design and cost estimate, DRC completed installation by July 1995.
Alternative Project Development for Drainage of Irrigated Lands
The project endeavors to develop physically feasible drainage alternatives for different hydrological and agronomic units in the country. It seeks to evolve an integrated irrigation and drainage complex. It should be comparably efficient and less expensive than the existing drainage systems.
• Tile Drainage unit at Nabi Shah Wagan Farm was completed on 40 ha. Drainage Coefficient is 3.5 mm/day.
• Land owners have paid 35% capital cost & 100% O&M costs.
• Cropping pattern has been changed from paddy to sugarcane, wheat, vegetables and fruit farming.
• Farm returns substantiate that land owner can recover his share of the drainage cost within 3 years. Incremental benefit over incremental cost ratio is 1.22.
• Due to over irrigation to paddy, tile drainage has become necessary for adjacent lands to control high watertable conditions of surroundings.
• Construction of shallow tile drainage system to cultivate sugarcane at Matiari Sugar Mill Farm Hyderabad.
• Construction of tile drainage to cultivate banana crop at Shaikh Suleman Farm Saeedabad, Hyderabad.
Development of Tile Drainage Project in Phase-II area of DRC in East Khairpur Tile Drainage Pilot Project
Departmental Development Working Party of Ministry of Science and Technology and DRC Technical Advisory Committee decided to extend the scope of this project to other areas on cost sharing basis with the farmers. The landowners in the Phase-II area were contacted for capital cost sharing and to take full responsibility of operation and maintenance of the system after completion. As they showed their inability, a tile drainage project was initiated at Jagir Farm District Shikarpur to study the various aspects of the drainage in stressed areas having severe waterlogging and salinity problems. Total area of the project was 100 hectares and tile drainage units at Soomro Farm Jacobabad and Suhbatpur Balochistan were implemented. Post project results are encouraging as regard to watertable and salinity control.
Skimming Well Modeling for Irrigation and Drainage of Agricultural Lands
The aim of this project is to develop a simulation model for groundwater resources of Pakistan to predict its quantum of flow and quality at various depths below ground surface in response to groundwater withdrawal rates. It is also envisaged to establish criteria for the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater.
Sixteen Skimming wells were constructed for irrigation and drainage on cost-sharing basis and at eight allocations, pumping and testing was performed.
Three-Dimensional Finite Element Groundwater Flow Model was developed and exercised for Interceptor drains and comparison of Skimming and Scavenger wells. Aquifer parameters like, hydraulic conductivity, storativity and solute dispersivity for stratified conditions were determined in 3 dimensional spatial coordinates. Management strategies for reducing the up coning of saline groundwater into fresh groundwater were simulated and tested.
Modelling suggested that through injection wells, artificial recharge to groundwater is practicable only when recharge rates are small. Moreover, for injecting wastes the strainer of injection well should be placed sufficiently deep. It is proved that for the same discharge upcoming of saline groundwater is less in case of multi-bore i.e. double or triple bore skimming wells rather than for a single bore. Similarly double and triple bore skimming wells result in greater control of rising watertable than is possible from a single bore skimming well. Modelling exercises also predicted that multilateral shallow interceptors are more effective and economical than a single deep drain for seepage interception. For particular cases long term consequences of groundwater mining and recharge were also predicted.
Salt Affected Soils and their Reclamation Project
Research on soil salinity, sodicity, economic and technical evaluation of various reclamation methods, salinity control and management of reclaimed soils has been undertaken. This is under a separate development project namely Salt Affected Soils and their Reclamation.
Eighteen research studies are completed under this project. These cover aspects such as reclamation, saline water use, resalinization, management of saline soils, salt tolerance and biological reclamation.
Consumptive Use of Water by Crops
Consumptive use of water of sugar cane, wheat and cotton at pre-fixed watertable depth was determined in conventional lysimeters. The water requirement of sugarcane at 1.5 m depth is found to be 2,100mm and for wheat and cotton it is 450mm and 713mm at 1.25m and 1.5m depth respectively. The reference evapotrans-piration of berseem was also determined.
Determination of consumptive use of water for paddy and spring maize is in progress, nearby the main lysimeter station. Two crop seasons of paddy and one crop season of spring maize is completed. The interim results are as under:
1) CU of water for paddy = 1500 mm
2) CU of water for spring maize=413 mm.
Water Management Research Studies Under Field Conditions
The following research studies have been completed:
1. Determination of water requirement of sugarcane (BL-4 Variety).
2. Determination of water requirement for wheat and cotton crops under field conditions.
3. Determination of water requirement of two wheat and two cotton varieties under field conditions.
4. Development and testing of irrigation schedules for wheat, cotton and sugarcane crops under rotational delivery water (wara bundi).
5. Effect of alternate, irrigation skipping on the yields of wheat and cotton.
6. Effect of different irrigation levels on the yields of wheat and cotton and soil salinity assessment.
7. Effect of different irrigation methods on the yield of cotton.
Innovative Irrigation Techniques
Recognizing the problem of scarcity of irrigation water, the center conducted experiments on comparatively newer methods of irrigation with the aim to save irrigation water without causing any decrease in crop yield, and also to see how far those methods were useful in preventing soil salinity development in the root zone. Water management practices through innovative irrigation techniques can prevent the problems of waterlogging and salinity in the root zone.
Trickle Irrigation System
Results from research on trickle irrigation system are summarized as follows:
i) This method of irrigation is capable to save irrigation water upto 60% over furrow irrigation for vegetable crops.
ii) Weed emergence is minimized, thus less labour cost.
iii) All the system components are working satisfactorily for about 8 years. However, the life of trickler is only for two crop seasons.
iv) Soil salinity did not develop in the wetted zone. However, it developed at wetted periphery. Thus the land needs leaching operation after three years if sufficient rainfall is not received.
v) Higher yield of vegetables and higher water use efficiency was noted in trickle irrigation when compared with furrow method.
Sprinkler Irrigation System
DRC is conducting research on sprinkler irrigation system. For this purpose, DRC engineers and scientists have designed and fabricated sprinkler system for about one acre. All the components used in this system are fabricated from local material. The system is immovable type which is connected directly to a tubewell.
i) Under this system, 27-30% irrigation water could be saved over flood irrigation method by growing wheat and cotton crops.
ii) The system has been working satisfactorily for about 8 years.
iii) Higher yield and higher water use efficiency are achieved in sprinkler irrigation method as compared to flood irrigation method.
Agricultural Research Project-II
Following two projects were sponsored by Pakistan Agricultural Research Council through PCRWR:
• Project No.1: Analysis and Monitoring Water Quality of Lower Indus Down Stream Kotri.
• Project No.2: Analysis of Water Quality of Hamal and Manchar Lakes.
Nitrate Concentration in Effluent from Isolated Drainage Units
Nitrate-N has been recognized as one of the most important agriculture related contaminant of groundwater. It also contributes to global warming and ozone layer depletion. Increasing levels of Nitrate-N in drinking water are associated with blue baby disease and cancer. Most of the population, especially rural people, utilizes groundwater for drinking, which is at the verge of deterioration due to excessive use of nitrogen-fertilizers. Keeping in view the health as well as environmental concerns of nitrate nitrogen a pilot study was launched to investigate the seriousness of the problem. Field sites were selected within the boundaries of DRC installed isolated tile drainage units Nawazabad Farm, Bughio Farm, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam, East Kharipur Pilot Project, Essani Farm, at Nabishah Farm, and Minilysimeters installed at DRC Campus.
The objectives of these studies were:
(a) to assess magnitude and seriousness of the problem in the selected areas;
(b) to delineate the problem area specially in shallow groundwater; and
(c) to create awareness among fellow researchers, scientists and farming community about nitrate contamination.
• The results of the study conducted at different isolated tile drainage units in lower Indus reveal, that there is no serious danger of groundwater contamination by Nitrate-N leaching if the existing drainage system is functioning well.
• The Nitrate-N concentrations at the selected sites were within the maximum permissible limits except a few from lateral lines. Nevertheless, they clearly pointed out the potential for contamination.
• In auger holes Nitrate-N concentration was more in collected samples being in comparatively deeper watertable depths, however, in shallow watertable depths within tile drainage area, its accumulation is low and Nitrate-N is removed by drainage effluent.
Research Projects Completed (BAHAWALPUR)
Desertification Assessment and Mapping of the Cholistan Desert
The PCRWR under PADMU project at Bahawalpur has assessed and mapped about 2.6 million hectares of Cholistan desert by ground truth survey and remote sensing data. Considering all major desertification parameters i.e. soil problems, vegetation cover and species, wind erosion, soil salinity, water resources, land capability, land carrying capacity and over all desertification. As a result of these surveys, four technical reports have been prepared including number of maps i.e. soil, vegetation, wind erosion, soil salinity, land capability, soil compaction, range carrying capacity, water resources and desertification. The nature and extent of desertification has been brought in picture with recommendations and measures, essential to combat and reverse desertification as well as to utilize existing natural resources in a better way for sustainable production of desert areas.
On-going Research Projects (LAHORE)
Ground Water Management Cell
The cell was established in 1987 with the main objective of providing consultancy/technical services in Public and Private Sector for selecting the potential sites for installation of tubewells to get fresh groundwater with less time and low cost. The cell also provides services of bore hole logging in respect of single point resistance short normal, long normal and gamma ray log to know exact thickness and depth of various sub-surface formations for proper designing of tubewells.
Lysimeter Research Studies
This project is being conducted in collaboration with Directorate of Land 0Reclamation, Irrigation and Power Department, Government of the Punjab, Lahore. Research has been conducted on various crops to determine water requirement including surface irrigation requirements, groundwater contribution and deep percolation losses under different types of soil profiles & different depths of water tables. The crops experimented include wheat, maize, sugarcane, sunflower, berseem, sorghum and rice etc. Each crop has been experimented more than twice for confirmation of results. The crop co-efficient have also been worked out for the implementation of results in other areas also where meteorological conditions are different from the experimental site.
Designing and Fabrication of Soil Moisture Instruments
The following soil moisture instruments are designed, fabricated, tested and finalized for their production and use in various research activities.
ii) Gypsum blocks;
iii) Temperature probe (sensor);
iv) Soil Moisture Extractor;
v) Sprinkler; and
vi) Groundwater level indicator.
All the soil moisture instruments have been displayed in science fairs etc. to local and foreign scientists and high dignitaries. Various organizations have shown interest in purchasing these soil moisture instruments.
Conjunctive Water Management Study
This study has been initiated in collaboration with International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI) from January 1999. The Broad Goal of the research project is to:
Identify combinations of institution and management tools to manage surface and subsurface water conjunctively to maximize agricultural productivity of water (crop per drop) and promote environmental sustainability of irrigated Agriculture and Evaluate appropriate combinations identified
• Rechna Doab in Pakistan and Murrumbidgee Region in Australia.
Study of Groundwater Pollution by Industrial Wastes in North Lahore
This study is initiated in collaboration with PINSTECH, Islamabad to monitor movement of heavy metals and other toxic elements into groundwater from industrial as well as municipal wastes. In this regards two field visits have been conducted and samples of water from surface drain and hand pump, tubewell, open wells etc were collected. The analysis of these samples is in progress. This study will be very helpful to adopt suitable measures to save groundwater from pollution.
On the basis of these results this study will be under taken in other problematic areas of the country and suitable measure will be recommended to avert entry of toxic element in to groundwater.
A study to evaluate the bed-and-furrow irrigation method
It has been started from kharif 2001 with the transplanting of rice crop. Various efficient irrigation methods will be tested in the context of water use efficiency. The useful results will be disseminated.
In the context of irrigation agronomy, the applied research and dissemination of these findings for efficient use of irrigation water and land resources to enhance the agricultural productivity has been initiated.
Research Projects Completed (QUETTA)
Following is the list of completed research studies conducted by this Centre:
Survey and Evaluation of Delay Action Dams in Balochistan
The main purpose of the study was to establish the hydraulic link between the reservoir infiltration and the karez flow downstream the delay action dams built by Irrigation and Power Department, Government of Balochistan. These dams have been constructed to replenish the ground-water aquifer so as to increase the flow of karezes. The study was initiated from October, 1988. Two dams, namely Pechi in Ziarat and Amachbund in Mastung were selected for in depth study in which basic data of rainfall, inflow statistics, flow in karezes, ground-water level fluctuation in open wells downstream the dams were monitored. Besides these, in-situ infiltration tests were also conducted to establish the infiltration capacity of the reservoir area. Storage draft technique was applied to determine the frequency of obtaining full supply level of dam based on rainfall data from which runoff was computed by developing rainfall-runoff model and with empirical approach. The water balance based on black box technique was used to evaluate the impact of infiltration on groundwater regime. It was found out that reservoir inflow was not contributing to the flow of karezes. In order to reconfirm the results of the hydrological linkage between reservoir and the karezes downstream the Pechi Dam, PINSTECH was also involved which collected the water samples for isotope analysis and confirmed the above stated inferences. Based on the results of the study, a set of recommendations were made and forwarded to Irrigation and Power Department, Government of Balochistan, for improvement in the design of the dams.
The final report based on isotopic and chemical analysis of water samples entitled “Survey and Evaluation of Delay Action Dams in Balochistan: Study of Hydraulic Relationship Between Pechi Dam Reservoir and the Adjacent Karezes Using Isotopic and Chemical Techniques” has been published collaboratively by PINSTECH and PCRWR. The Abstract of this report is reproduced below:
“Hydraulic relationship between Pechi Dam reservoir and the adjacent downstream karezes viz. (New Pechi, Chinah and Nomind Karezes) has been investigated by using isotopic and chemical techniques. Water samples from dam reservoir and all the karezes on monthly basis and Pechi rain were collected, the samples were analyzed for 18O, 2H, 3H, and major/minor chemical ions. The results showed that karezes are mainly fed by precipitation with short transit time, Hydraulic interconnection between the dam reservoir and the karezes do not seem to exit under the prevailing conditions”.
Appraisal of Ground Water Resources of Ziarat Valley Using Isotopic and Chemical Techniques
On the basis of results obtained in final report of Pechi Delay Action Dam and to reconfirm the findings of previous study, another research proposal on “Appraisal of Ground-water Resources of Ziarat Valley Using Isotopic and Chemical Techniques” was initiated during 1997. To develop a relationship between inflow, recharge and outflow as well as to confirm the hypothesis of hydraulic links between the reservoir of delay action dam and the nearby karezes flow and ground-water aquifer; more number of surrounding wells, Streams, Karezes, Ponds etc. of Ziarat Valley have been selected from where the water and precipitation samples were collected and sent to the PINSTECH for analysis. In addition to above, the map of sampling points were prepared. Level of water in the wells and reservoir was monitored with respect to the mean sea level. Collection of water samples from wells, karezes and dam reservoirs were undertaken on monthly basis. The relevant data about water level in the well and reservoirs and flow in the karezes was collected during sampling. The precipitation sampling at Ziarat was arranged in such a way that we got about one litre of water for isotopic and chemical analysis. Resistivity survey was carried out to know the ground-water regime. A location map of the resistivity & water-sampling points was prepared and sent to PINSTECH. The compilation of final draft report is in progress and would be printed soon.
Assessment and Improvement of Karez Irrigation System in Balochistan
Karezes are old indigenously developed traditional system of tapping ground-water for irrigation and are practiced in Balochistan since centuries. They are a unique system suited to the physical and environmental conditions of Balochistan. Basically it consists of high yielding mother well in the upper reach of an alluvial fan. The mother well is connected to a series of open wells through a gradually sloping under-ground tunnel conveying water to the agricultural lands in the valleys. The open wells serve the dual purpose of lighting and ventilation and removal of the excavated material. Typically the mother well is seldom deeper than 100 feet. The average discharge of the karezes varies from 0.5 to over 2 cusecs. The water from the Karezes is generally considered the collective property of the community depending on the supplies for supporting their agriculture and other domestic needs.
The system never uses any energy to pump ground water being flowing under gravity. Over the years, however, the system has come under great stress, because of the commissioning of a large number of deep tubewells in the valleys. These tubewells have been instrumental in causing ground water mining and lowering of the water table. Many of the flowing Karezes have since gone dry of their discharges reduced drastically. Another problem faced by the Karez owners is the frequent collapsing of the wells due to excessive rains or manmade activities or simply through aging. The systems as such are dying a slow death creating social problems of water coming into the hands of a few powerful landlords.
There are quite a number of Karezes, which are still flowing through with lower discharges. In places where Karezes have gone dry due to excessive pumping of ground water by tubewells, people have been forced to buy water from tubewell owners for irrigating their farms. This water is also sometime not guaranteed to be available. It is therefore imperative that Karezes whose discharge has decreased due to pumping should be rehabilitated and improved to increase their discharge by applying advanced construction and engineering approaches.
• New Pechi Karez
New Pechi Karez downstream Pechi Dam was selected for rehabilitation and improvement purpose. The karez is about 50 years old. It has 30 wells and the length from mother well to daylight point is about 900 metres. The total drop in water surface from its first to last well is 7.28 metres.
The flow of karez was measured on monthly basis. However, due to excessive rains during 1992, the tunnel collapsed and the study has to be discontinued, as the community was unable to put back the karez into operation, the de-watering being the major problem in its rehabilitation.
• Rahim Gul Karez
A number of farmers belonging to remote village of Balochistan i.e. Feroze Khan Tehsil Muslim Bagh, District Kila Saifullah applied for improvement and rehabilitation of their karez to the Federal Secretary, MoST and Chairman, PCRWR. A team of scientists, WRRC, Quetta visited the site and conducted detailed survey of Rahim Gul Karez Kanmetherzai. The work of improvement at new Pechi Karez could not be started because the karez tunnel alongwith well No.18 and No.19 have been collapsed due to excessive seepage of rain water of Ziarat “Manda”. This karez was initially built by Balochistan Rural Support Program (BRSP) and has also conducted some tunnel improvement work of this karez a few years ago. The karez serves around 200 families settled around but has a rather low discharge not sufficient to support intensive agricultural activity. It was decided that site promised to be a challenge to WRRC, Quetta if the Centre can increase the discharge by enlarging the influence of the mother well and taking improvement works. A technical team comprising SRO, RO and Sub. Engineer visited the site and performed a number of prerequisite works prior to start the major rehabilitation and improvement work of the karez i.e. wells enumeration by inserting sign boards, installation of flume at daylight point for discharge measurements, total karez length and recording of inter-wells distances, topo surveys, static water levels measurements, collection of water samples and flow measurement etc.
To enhance the discharge of existing Rahim Gul karez at Kanmetherzai, the excavation work, silt and gravel clearance from the main tunnel has almost completed. The works like digging and shearing of stones, gravels, silt and other earth materials from the underground tunnel and its uplifting to the ground surface were very much labour consuming and life risky so the ordinary labor was unable to perform such specific jobs. After cleaning of about 3,000 ft of existing karez, the enhancement of discharge was nil, hence the extension of tunnel about 200 ft with 2 new mother wells were conducted, which replaced old mother well. Now, the overall discharge of the karez has been increased. The whole exercise has increased the actual cost of tunnel cleaning from Rs.45,000/- (estimated) to the tune of Rs.1,58,000/-. The Excavation Work performed in the Karez Tunnel was measured as length = 3,500 ft; depth = 3 ft; width = 2.5 ft.
Conjunctive use of Flood and Groundwater in Loralai, Balochistan
This research study was initiated to investigate the existing water resources of the Project area. The hill torrents in the area bring a substantial quantity of flash floods, which can be harnessed, for the beneficial use. It has been envisaged to analyze the ground-water potential in conjunction with the availability of surface water at different levels of assurances for irrigation purposes to attain optimum water resources utilization. In order to obtain maximum irrigation efficiency, new water management techniques were introduced. This was achieved by adopting trickle irrigation system and lining of water distribution network to minimize conveyance losses.
The study site at the land of Abdul Salam Khan in village Zhar karez district Loralai was selected. The site is situated about 15 km from Loralai on Loralai-Kila Saifullah-Quetta Road which is about 280 km away from Quetta. The appropriate locations for trickle irrigation system installation, rainwater harvesting reservoir and setting up of meteorological station were identified at the farm. This study was conducted on an area of 2.5 hectares. The staff of WRRC, Quetta installed the trickle irrigation system comprising pipes, lateral lines etc., according to the experimental plan.
The previous layout plan of trickle irrigation system installation has been totally changed and modified as per guidelines and instructions of the Chairman, PCRWR and Dr. Abdul Salam Abi-Samara, FAO Expert, after their visit to the site. The specifications of materials being used in the system were finalized after extensive visits and meetings with Dr. Abdul Salam Abi-Samara; the materials and diversified components of trickle irrigation system as per proposed modifications and specifications were arranged. The installation process of trickle irrigation system as well as reservoir for tubewell water storage have been completed in the field.
Development and Fabrication of Trickle Irrigation System on Orchards in Pakistan
With a view to attain maximum irrigation efficiency, it was proposed to introduce water saving application techniques for orchard growing in Pakistan.
Fruits are major source of income in areas where water is scarce. Expansion in fruit area is generally constrained by water availability. Trickle Irrigation System has been recognized as a method of irrigation which provides maximum possible irrigation water efficiency and which is claim to be upto 90%. Efficient use of irrigation water increases both area and production. Increase in acreage results from saving in water and increase in production from added area and therefore increase in per unit yield and overall good impact on national economy.
To initiate the research study, 3 sites were selected in Balochistan having basic infrastructure and facilities for successful implementation of these studies. The field layout plans have been prepared after conducting detailed survey and approximate costs of materials as well as design analysis of the systems were worked out. At present the study at Amir Ali Shah Farm, Mastung; PCSIR Research Station, Hazar Gunji and Marri Farm, Mian Gundi has been executed. The trickle systems at Amir Ali Shah Farm; PCSIR research station and Marri Farm, have been installed and in operation. All installation processes of trickle irrigation systems at three sites were completed by the staff of WRRC, Quetta and in this way the installation charges of about Rs.0.15 million were saved. The fruit trees have beard fruits.
• Amir Ali Shah Farm
The Amir Ali Shah Farm, Mastung is located at Karachi-Mastung Road, which is about 70 km from Quetta. This study has been conducted on an area of about 2.5 hectares.
The WRRC, Quetta had completed the construction of one representative water reservoir (40’x 40’ x 4’) to be used for trickle irrigation system. The funds utilized for the construction of storage tank were totally provided by Irrigation & Power Department, Government of Balochistan. The already installed trickle irrigation system was extended upto remaining farm area.
• PCSIR Research Station
The PCSIR Research Station is located at Quetta-Mastung Road Hazar Gunji, which is about 17 km from Quetta. This study has been conducted on an area of about 1.0 hectare.
The bill of quantities of materials, components and accessories with their estimated approximate cost, detailed design analysis and layout plan of the experiment and head works + various components of the system were prepared. After making all arrangements the system was installed and delivering the water to the cultivated fruit trees. After completion of the system, it was handed over to the PCSIR.
• Mian Gundi Farm
The installation of trickle, bubbler and sprinkler irrigation system simultaneously on 1.0 acre orchard of cherry, apple, peaches and grassy lawn at the Marri Farm, Mian Gundi the system was completed. The Marri Farm is located in interior on Quetta-Mastung Road at Mian Gundi site, which is about 20 km away from Quetta. This study has been conducted on an area of about 1.0 acre. Water conveyance efficiency from source is almost 100% since water is flowing under pressure in closed pipes, as there is no evaporation and seepage losses. The beauty of the study is that three types of micro irrigation systems viz. trickle, bubbler and sprinkler would be demonstrated simultaneously. The orchard of cherry, peaches, grassy lawn and compartments of roses, would be irrigated at the same time and the provision of split irrigation to the desired area through installing of risers has been provided in the system.
Research Projects Completed (PESHAWAR)
• Development and construction of low cost (Gabion) Diversion structure for community channels in Swat;
• Design and installation of pipeline for efficient conveyance of irrigation water in hilly areas;
• Local development and fabrication of alfalfa valves for irrigation pipeline;
• Completion of spring water pipeline at Drushkhela;
• Determination of Nitrogen in the selected parts of Mardan SCARP;
• Waterlogging problems at Military Farm, Noshera;
• Evaluation and development of Appropriate Water Harvesting Technologies in NWFP; and
• Alleviation of small-scale waterlogging, Peshawar vall.
kareiN meiN ney kesi ebaadateiN
rahi aetaqaaf mein chasm-e-num
kaeiN rath-jugouN ki dukhi huwee
na hi buth miley naa pari milee
merey charagarh mere hum-navaa
naa pari milee, na hi buth miley
naa hee en buthouN ka Khuda mila