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Old Wednesday, September 15, 2010
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Default Quaid's role as governor general

Salam.i am preparing for P.A and solving all past papers.

Plz tell me where i can find these questions related to quaid's role as governor general.

How far it is correct to say that Quaid consolidated the nascent state of Pakistan.please elaborate.

Also proivide with some relevant points.

Thank you.
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Old Thursday, September 16, 2010
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Post Quaid as Governor-General

Jinnah became the first Governor-General of Pakistan and president of its constituent assembly.

The office of Governor-General was ceremonial, but Jinnah also assumed the lead of government. The first months of Pakistan's independence were absorbed in ending the intense violence that had arisen in the wake of acrimony between Hindus and Muslims. Jinnah agreed with Indian leaders to organise a swift and secure exchange of populations in the Punjab and Bengal. He visited the border regions with Indian leaders to calm people and encourage peace, and organised large-scale refugee camps. Despite these efforts, estimates on the death toll vary from around two hundred thousand, to over a million people. The estimated number of refugees in both countries exceeds 15 million.The then capital city of Karachi saw an explosive increase in its population owing to the large encampments of refugees, which personally affected and depressed Jinnah.

Inaugurating the assembly on August 11, 1947, Jinnah spoke of an inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for all citizens regardless of religion, caste or creed. This address is a cause of much debate in Pakistan as, on its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech is being taken out of context when compared to other speeches by him.

On October 11, 1947, in an address to Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi, he said:

We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play.

On February 21, 1948, in an address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th Light Ack Ack Regiments in Malir, Karachi, he said:

You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.

In his first visit to East Pakistan, under the advice of local party leaders, Jinnah stressed that Urdu alone should be the national language; a policy that was strongly opposed by the Bengali people of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). This opposition grew after he controversially described Bengali as the language of Hindus.

Jinnah authorised force to achieve the annexation of the princely state of Kalat and suppress the insurgency in Baluchistan. He controversially accepted the accession of Junagadh—a Hindu-majority state with a Muslim ruler located in the Saurashtra peninsula, some 400 kilometres (250 mi) southeast of Pakistan—but this was annulled by Indian intervention. It is unclear if Jinnah planned or knew of the tribal invasion from Pakistan into the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir in October 1947, but he did send his private secretary Khurshid Ahmed to observe developments in Kashmir. When informed of Kashmir's accession to India, Jinnah deemed the accession illegitimate and ordered the Pakistani army to enter Kashmir. However, Gen. Auchinleck, the supreme commander of all British officers informed Jinnah that while India had the right to send troops to Kashmir, which had acceded to it, Pakistan did not. If Jinnah persisted, Auchinleck would remove all British officers from both sides. As Pakistan had a greater proportion of Britons holding senior command, Jinnah cancelled his order, but protested to the United Nations to intercede.

This is not a full account of Quaid's role as Governor General. You may consult some quality books on this topic.
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Old Saturday, September 18, 2010
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aoa ,
Quaid's role as governor general:
- problems faced by pakistan: administration; defence;communal riots; economic constraints tec
quaid resolved these issues:
-revival of the doomed spirit; removal of military from tribal belt; steps to mitigate tension with india; accession of kalat; formation of first cabinet; establishment of state bank of pakistan; establishment of the federal court; pak membership of u n o; cordial relations with islamic world.
jinnah left with very short time- poor health. consolidated the infant state successfully. stable foundation. nation owes a lot.
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Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the Father of Pakistani Nation, functioned as Pakistan’s first Governor-General from 14 August 1947 up to his death on 11 September 1948.

All persons, including his adversaries, admit that the Quaid-e-Azam was a highly honest and incorruptible person. There is no doubt that the colleagues of the Quaid-e-Azam had always a great regard for his opinion. Quaid-e-Azam never gave a decision on any important matter without being authorized by the relevant bodies. Even after becoming the Governor General of Pakistan, his temperament did not change.

India complained to President of the U.N. Security Council against Pakistan of sending Pakistani nationals and tribesmen for operation in Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan pleaded with U.N. Commission to consult with Azad Kashmir Government for solution of Kashmir issue in which the Pakistan Government was ready to assist.

Apart from the Kashmir issue, the issue of accession of 10 states within the boundaries of Pakistan was causing tension especially the Khans of Kalat. These states were: Chitral, Amb, Swat, Dir, Makran, Kharan, Lasbella, Kalat, Khairpur, and Bahawalpur. The Quaid played very important role in convincing the Rulers of these states to accede to Pakistan. Jinnah towards the end of his life assumed the responsibility for the newly created “Ministry of state and the tribal areas”.

Pakistan established its own Central Bank called State Bank of Pakistan by separating its monetary arrangements from the Reserve Bank of India. This separation was necessitated because of two reasons. Firstly, Reserve Bank of India refused to carry out its obligation of handling Pakistan’s financial affairs. Secondly, Pakistan wanted to evolve her own economy in the light of Islamic commandments.

Jinnah was a firm believer of peaceful existence and fully realized the importance of UN membership for Pakistan. It could help Pakistan establish friendly relations with other member states. Therefore, Pakistan became the member of UNO. (30th September 1948)

Upon a direction from Quaid-i-Azam, the Governor-General, the Frontier Ministry headed by Dr. Khan Sahib was dismissed. It is said that the Quaid should have dissolved the provincial assembly and called for new elections. In East Punjab, Hindus were massacring Muslims, millions of Muslim refugees were migrating to Pakistan. At that time, the most important task was to save Pakistan and to ensure people that Pakistan was going to last and not become a part of India again.

After the massacre of Muslims in East Punjab and Delhi, those remaining alive were forced to migrate to Pakistan. The objective was to create problems for Pakistan so that it would collapse. However, the Muslims showed patience and perseverance. They did not lose heart even in most adverse circumstances.

The atrocities committed against the Muslims of the East Punjab were not tolerable by the Afridi’s of the Khyber Agency. The Quaid received many messages from Frontier tribesmen and his advice was restraint in accordance with the dictates of the Islamic teachings.

For participation in the field of sports at world level, All-Pakistan Olympic Association was formed in August 1947. He laid the foundation of the Federal court at Lahore which later on became the Supreme Court of Pakistan. The armed forces were built on new lines. Air Vice-Marshal A.L.A. Pessy-Keene was appointed in early September 1947 to command the Air Forces of Pakistan.

He realized that the morale of the public was at their lowest. He therefore decided to rehabilitate and restore the confidence and morale of the people. He delivered inspiring speeches which filled people with enthusiasm. His words made a profound impression on the public and mitigated the existing despair and tension.

From the very beginning the Quaid-e-Azam was of the view that Urdu should be the national language of Pakistan, “Let me make it very clear to you that the of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language. Without one state language, no nation can remain tied up solidly together and function.’’

The basic principle on which Quaid-i-Azam wanted Pakistan to build up its relations with the foreign countries was to pursue the goal of peace, both within and outside the country. The Congress leaders were initially opposed to the division but they had to concede under pressure from the united political demand of the Muslims, skillfully guided by Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Although they agreed to the establishment of Pakistan, yet they had a hope that the partition would soon be undone.

Jinnah was a staunch believer of Muslim unity. The corner-stone of his foreign policy was solidarity among the Muslim Ummah. He sent delegations to different Islamic countries. Pakistan promised to establish an economic order which would ensure equal economic opportunities to all human beings irrespective of considerations of creed, caste and religion.
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