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Pakistan Affairs A 100 marks paper divided into mainly two zones: Pre-Partition and Post-Partition

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Old Wednesday, June 21, 2006
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Default National Education Policy 1998-2010

Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010

Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education
Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur'an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. Nazira Qur'an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur'an will be offered.

Literacy and Non-Formal Education

Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.

Elementary Education

About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system.

Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education.

Secondary Education


One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.

Teacher Education


To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher educators shall be created.

Technical and Vocational Education

To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for accommodating the new developments. Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.

Higher Education

Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. and Ph.D programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split Ph.D programs shall be launched in collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.

Information Technology

Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc
Library and Documentation Services
School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced.

Private Sector in Education

Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided (a) plots in residential schemes on reserve prices, and (b) rebate on income tax, like industry. Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.

Innovative Programes

The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.

Implementation Monitoring And Evaluation

A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System (NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for collecting data from all over the country.

The total expenditure of the government on education will be raised from its present level of 2.2% to 4% of GNP by the year 2002-03 (p.132).

Last edited by Argus; Wednesday, June 21, 2006 at 10:55 PM.
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